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THE 



QUAETEKLY EEVIEW 



VOL. 185. 



PUfiusasD IS 



JANUARY ^- APRIL, 1897. 



LONDON: 



JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 



1897. 



1004 5 3 



LONDON I 

trtolBd br Wiuxui Clowh ud Son, LlmlUd, 

BtimfHd Bnet ud Cuil&c Cmt. 



OONTKNTS 

OF 

No. 370. 



fr-^Tlio New Bel^ TIk* Dittifti <tt Qoeeo Yickirin; n 

By Ibo Rot. Sydney Snalb. London, 1587 - - 206 

Jt. — I. T1ioPiiJi>[iComni6iilir^- : FcalrnK. Etpoiitioii1>j Oiu 
lUiT. Uouoft tU^vliceoTj ; Iltuiiiuttott Lj tho Ikv. Dr. 
ConJcTi Uoiaiiivift bj Yuriuua Autljutts Tbieo 

Amiliary Matkr br tlio lUglit Uoti, W- Ji!. Olad- 

Bftlliol CollrjiC Osf»r J. ju T«u Vulumts. Vol. 1. 
\iy LenU Cnmplicll; Vol. IL hy RToljn AbhniL 
Loodou, 18^7 • - S31 

-1, Tbc TliiNtciry c>f ATcidvni Pniutiiig. By Ricbtird 

of ItrcpJati. lb Three Vl^Iiiiikii. ixtndr;-!!, JB^G, 

3. La Vi« ArtUtiquc. Tar GubIoto <to:Iroy. P&n«, 

& !<«lM fl»r I'AtI Morlcnie. Fur Amjr6 ^cbol 
Pkrii^ 18011. 

4. LcH AniKlc« ritkii^uLh Fur Tli^^^pljilo SUvciUV- 
iVtU, lfi7«, 

.■». li'AH >Io<l4>mD. Par J. K, nuysmAiis. Paring 

C Fdntrcfl Fruj<^'&ts Coxiii:inp4 nund. Var CluirI«H 
BiipA. iVi-s lrt88 300 

Niilw, l>y E^vrlijii Cwili, M.A- F.AA. With Por- 



tS^^I£51.T2 gjOQ^^^^Qt^^^^N 






IV 



OOHTKHTS. 



VL— I. Grimttml SUti^itiiM, lti<J3, 18U1. IHdB. LoiiJOQ» 

nn. l8flG. 1H97. 

3. JtoporU of the Sooiot^ for tho I'roYcjition of Oraollj' 

4. Tbe I^uiihIujojiL uud Proruutiou of CniuV- Bjr Sir 

6. Wot with Orimo. IW T. Bikrwink Itnkor. LoitJiou, 
1889 JOS 

VH-— ThnlVtrjofSpon. TlidBudminton Litrar^\ S«Toctoit 

ntvd QdiUd b; H«<ctJ«y I'twk. London, l?fif6 - - 133 

Vin. — 1. Tho AMh" do LnnicMinbii;, nnd tho Liln'rnl Tnlholio 
Movi.'tTiti»t in frubcv. l3jtIiuiIou. ^MLi^u GiIjbou. 
L»udruj, 189li, 

2. ConvAiJubduut^ do T*. Ljioiounftii. Par E. D. 

3. (Enrrti Ju F. LmnccmoU. Plirii, 181S-185d - UT 
And i>tb«r Wvrke, 

IX. — !• AriEmal LifiHad firti^lU^wicff. By OlLlojd Morgmi, 
T.G.S, l-ondon, 1B^'U-9L 
SL Ad JctniJiKtion tci Comparative Pnfoholof(y. Bj 
B, Uoid fllorgno, F.^B. Limdoa. Ifiyi. 

3. Htbit hud ItidLiiKil. By Q. Liuyd Mtirtjuu, F.0.& 
LoqJoq, l»9i> 177 

X- — 1. Kriegibilrlnr quk dot Zrh dcr n<ifi>r[nbtiiiii. Von H. 
«oc ZwiorliTnvfk-Siid<?nhc]nt- Stuttgart, 161^3, 
:L ]Jio DouL«otiU(i LiLELdeknQohlo. Van Dr. FhuJrioli 

d. Qoiu-g voD FfiiUiUUT[(, <id«r dan DE^uUohe EriegM- 
Tjundnvrk tni Zoit dvr It«for-matioii. Voa F, W. 
Borttold. Uiujborg, 18^^ _ _ _ . .505 
Aad othvi Wotko, 

3CI.'— 1. Thi> nmi^nn Tfttil : Stntchoa of PrtJri^ an^ Hoeky 
UnunUiu Lifu. By FraOQiE rarktnuo, Loudon, 

2. The CunHpintuy of Puutiwi- By tho SaiULS 

5. I^ioneers of Kraii<r« in ilio N«v ^orld. By tho 
Sfifflo, 

4. Tb« Jcinil^ in NnrtTi Amoricn. By the Siunc. 

6. hn 8r1Iu ftud this Diftccivcry uf IIjo (iiuot Went. By 
tho Soino - ..-•••- 
Aeu) olhtir WorkiL. 



C30 



XIL— rarlinnentiT7 Popcni, 1896-07 



- S6d 



z!y 



/■ 



CONTENTS 

or 

No. 369. 



I. Thu Aatobldgnphi«M i>r K>I«url Ribbon. Edftoil 

br Johtt M^irraT^ LoDiioc, md6, 
£L Ibv Com^pcii^tMiou lit Edward (SiblKJO. Edited bj 

3. Tbe Girlboof) ct Mjtrifi .Tdscpiha Holroyil, in Jjoittfn 
traa 17?6 to 1796. By J. H. Adetmo. Loodoa, 
1896 --•---.-- 

-I. It«port from the Sel^nf Pf>mmittee of the Kohbq of 
Lordtt ■ iL tbo Lrtrd'fi Day Act; 1<ig(itbor with the 
Pn>O0iduigi of the Oonuniltec, Mmutm I'f CviiloucOt 

Uld AppaadU- ^hhuh l^Dfl, OnW^d to ba pHntod 

3L Stfwnd Alport from tbo Sol«ot OomiaittfO of Ibo 
Bou»e of Lords op tbo Lon^'e Da; Act (21 Gw. IIL 
0.40); tof^thrrr irtth tb« ProowJinjzn at tlie Com- 
vittM, tna VI AppBiuliiu S«^oii 1996. Orii«rad 
to be prinlod 14tb July. 1«96. 

3. OooitticaLiciii uf CautorbtiTT : Eotrort of Joint C«ib.-> 
Tuiiteoou the Stiuitny Ojiuriitij^ uf Mn^tmiiiH, vt«, 1^93. 

t. ^JiDDtOfl cif tbfi Inl^roatioiuil Coiifurcuce «d Suiiditj 
Oott, bold at Varit^ ^opt^mbor 21 to 27, 1^86. i>«- 
pooltd to tho IIouK of Clocuiioav by oommmad ct 
Her 3T»JMtjr, Jujuatjt leOl - - - . - 

L — 1. Sullctio do CoTTORpondaQCo boU^niqne, AtboiUt 

3. Bmkuroitcbo Si^hnften airf Stein. By B. UtOBtf. 
(■BboiniHcboH Mtisumu/ iSd2,) 

3. fipikunrUch^ 3pmc]i*<iiamluJig cntdcidtt iwd mil- 
Mlbaill ron I>r. K. WotVe Id Hoiu, ('Wleoer 
Sia41oD,' 188d.) 

4. EploOTttA. fi; U. Ueocor, 16S7< 

£, Ij^cratioB. Bditod bj H. A. J, Huiro* FcmHli 
EdiliotL 1886 • - -...-. 

■ b 



fDC» 



36 



HB 



OOETrSNTS. 



Idduatrial $oV 




VI— 1, Orimioal Sintintloa, 1803. 18D4, l&'JS. Uii 

iftS»G, 1«96, IhflT. 

3. Ifopcirts ^if tUe S^^iiiolj for tVio Pretention <if (^ 
to CbiWjtB, Liiiiil-u. 1S83-1692. 

1, The ruEiishjii^nt nnt] TrevcfLtioQ of Crio& 
K. l>u C'bDtf. X^oudon, LttS5. 

5. W»r witL 0^imt^ By T. Barwick BaW. ' 
1889 

VIL— The P^ffitry of Sport, The BadmiclMi Libron- 
aurl edittd bj- Huiloy l*cok. London, li^ 

Tin. — 1. Tbe AhW de LftmaTmaii*, and tbfi LlVri 

Movomflnt in Franco. Uj tha lion. WUli 

London. IbGf^. 
3. Cgnvajjuuduucv ilu F. LltlliDiliiUB- 

Forgiiu*. I'ftrid, ISt'i.'l. 
3> UCuvnw iJtt J'\ LikuiODUAifl. P^ri*, JAIa 

And <jtlicr W<^rlw. 

TX.' — L AiiiTn[il Lifi< tail Tiito11iguTii?p. ISyPI 
F.G.S. Lonrlya. 18!»[U\H, 

2, An luiriHliictit^ii lo Ooinparvtivo J^«i 
B. MujJ M i-rK'wit F G.a, Loudo*, ? 

3, Hfliiit nnd ;nfltinrt. By C. LItiyil 
Loudon^ 180G - * ^ 

X — !. Ktmi^bilduTHUfc duiISoit dur IGo£i>r 
Ton Zwirdfnwk-SudeahorBL Sittti- 
2. DiQ DoulBoboQ Laadekii<3ohte. V- 
Blau. U6rlit£. 18g;j, 

hftiidwurk eriF ZeiL diT Refiv 
Bitrtbold, lUnilmr^, L333 . 
AiL<l otbd' W4:irkeL 

XL— L Tbti Or»t'Liti Triiil: Skiitcbi?> ct 
Koimtiin Lifia, By KruicU ^ 

2. The CoQHptrorY of Pnntiaa 
S. riuucx^n uf Fnioua: in thtt 

■1. Tbo JuiEuite m Nurtb Ataori^^ 
£. La Sollo And tbo lH«cov< 

tbu d^iLJii 

And lilbor Worhs- 






THE 



QUARTERLY REVIEW 



Anr I, — 1. 'fkc AmiUioffTt^Mfi <^ Edtofmt Gilbcn. C<liW 
bv Jobn MuTTsj', LothIoii, 1896. i 

i. A*- V^rtAf-cr^ffn^f of E<t\t<\rd OMon. titled 1>y K. £, 
Pffilbrrn. Twrt Vntomrs. I^imloii, IHllfi. 

I J%t Girihcod ijf Jlaria Joncpfia Httlrotftl^ in L^U«t^ fr^tn 
]Ti6 to li9tt. Dy J. II. Ad«AJH>. Uadoii, 1893. 

h^DWAUD GIHHON, who, «f(rr * ImndW yonri, «till 

Ij mgnn mptpmr nmon^ Kn^lUh nud |>rrlinp« Fnropran 

hutunuiv, diL't) in Lond^^n, January 16llu L7UJ- He ir&f in 

lit middle- iif Ikift fif()-w^'i-nth v<^flr. A few day«* illnvst, — 

tkepenkU) cf tone nrf^lcct la contult phyiiciam, -tontc h<iur4 

vf r&Uicfr liiAip sLiHVrtiig. but iieit1jL*r aiifjulBti uf nijnd nor 

rvnom nf eonicienco, and the end wa* <x>mr. Ho pju«id awity 

in tbc bfiKbt uf fatiir* but wbilt? tUt? UevrdtitioQ whicli he bod 

tmvittingly forwnniod, thriiigh 11 w»« rv^r his nbhorrenc*, flunu 

t deep abode orcr FrftDCi^ and the world, IHs ntmr wai la be 

linkrd benc^orih In ih« shining rhnlii of ihv Hum(*a, (be 

V'otuirrv, thr Affm!caqiii«u> whn, by tljcJr fmfi and fertile 

a«lbodft oi wnLing hiftrwy n% a criiic-itni of b^lu^fi ami a tnt 

tor pbiiottopfaic Iboirio*, had Irooi lh«rir tnn<^uil cEiambcn 

toil nDl lhe«P ^.inH-blniU of rdianjjrn and ronhiftion. Hiii tint 

luUcrie* wbticb otbera haw l«ft ub irom that «i£bto«nlh ceatiary 

slerp uudiftl«rU>l ujHin 'lUi febc)iv». \Vr lunu over V«ha3rL-'s 

tian of the (iermjin titnpirc; wc jfloncc admlHrtgly \t ibc 5n<i 

«i)kf-D tistyc of llum«> but lum ffnin hu paK^i ^vhcn we hai'c 

pniMd thtit liu*rary piiN^lTfnri^ ; nnd thp ' Taroatn^tt and IV- 

iliac of dir RoDiAti*,' by M- le PtfUidcnl dc Montnquiru. tends 

M ba^lc lo tb« vUti^ly moving picture oi efi? ^ Dpi-1int- nud Fat)/ 

vbich w<- look into iriib cvrr*rmcwcd ddigbtt and on astoaub- 

Vfil. 165.— Aff. M«. B raent 




t E^Kard Gibbon, 

irent at it« ri<^bre«c of coLoar and miutpriT hstmlling, luc^h ft« 
no rnodcrri aitiftt in iyur<U pectus likely lo call lortti, 

Itiif Oitilion viii% nDmmhing Tiii>n^ ilinrt lh^ hitti>rLftn of Haiq#, 
He wa» CI inan ol' Irtl^t on « great ■calc, who. tbou^h he bad 
iieV4'r publiabei] a Itftf^ ^oulrl imvp bei^n wuilhji »f rVEDPin* 
hmntrr for hii cnthuiinttic il«votion Kj Wiring, Tftr hi* wU<^ lo 
ft]>eak PhiCcmir.i])), cif thr itu(* tdmUr, anil for Ebe lifr whkh 
Ik« lod in HCCtJrdnnrv with jl German inilu»tT^ liaa pasMHl, 
ftlnrc hi* <\a\, iiiLi> a piijvrrb, Ic it ihlu^n'iiiliitit, witluiiit ii>)ubl ; 
often, wp lool, it ii no lt'« ■lupid ; on univirklj' Simion grtDil- 
lag St tbcuiill, Ijcr^ft of (r\cs Aiitl llgliL Gibbon, who ilct^ouiv<l 
whole librnrift, bad the nn of digesting tticm ; he made hie 
meal 4 banquri, uid bis «tuditioo wn« &n catcrtBinmeot to 
which th» Mii«r« c»m(^. V'olinjr* hirnflfklf hnd not a qnirker 
li^bt^ A livelier pc^n ; io the bticfbit of ni^tci a* in lh(? iminciue 
ftt^ld rif liii tix ^iiirtot, thuE i|inrkljnj{ y^\ rlMhomTf ironjr ripr«r 
ilcserfod him \ and jo lAking wn^ it and im^titithlc, thnl it 
provt-d UiH much even foi liii npp»nriiu- Alwaji nleri and 
jLtteoiive, Gil>bi>n wu not lo be luhdtivd, whvtbor he dived 
into x\w mud of tlie Arian cmalrtivenj, tmtellcd i:>n ihu hippo* 
grKTwhith bore biiD tafc, walking or Q^tof^, over the? nolbbM 
lituda aud wild boalEij pInLTs ni uii; Ojinatine butunatis, *ut 
down with dull Saracenic ehronicUr*, or sliownil himnnlf to bo 
led captive hy Roman j uriipradcnce and the Acadcmjr of 
1n«cription(, A more perfect inttance of }e*rmng without 
pcdaatrv* and of Tfut Inbour directed lo an iiauo which jdttifiei 
while iwwiirdijif^it, we ihall not perhajn find an^whi^rv in literm- 
turr;- And il i» oar cxcerdinj^ ^nod fortuncr chot thit tplendid 
iirhnUr did not Ica^c the siajfe bc/oir br had akcrrhi.'il :in Auuv 
hiogTApliv <Hul has nflorded, e>Tr since \\t publientiun, a loftr 
iTiftitJple- io itudrutt, um) has caught in iu cbnnn men of tfa« 
worlds 

In whtti M^nie, bi>werer» wh« tbu ' Auloblu^iaphy * prejiartid ? 
When It came out, in March \1%^ Lord ^bcfJicl'd ptafixed to 
the ^MitctrlUneuua Work*,' of which it fi>rnifil thr moil impor- 
tant pan, anfni> word* indicating with how murh ' •oliciEude and 
attention' it had brm projected^ Gibbon bad left, indeed, no 
lewer Chun %\\ difTereM aketrbea In blf own hAndwriiin)^. One 
of thi^<? draris, obaervps Lord Shrflicid, ' the mott difTusc itnd 
ctrrnmttJintinl, to far as it pioeredi, endt at thr time whrn he 
(juittod Oxford/ I'Le second bre&ks otf in iTtrl, when he tra- 
vrllffd [o lutl^' : the third at hU father's death, In 1770, To the 
Jourth he bad icireii ibe ebamcter ot annal* and brought them 
down to ITlU, whctv bv CImIs wilh aome ^vnrial leflcL-lioUs ajuL 
a brief retrofpcct. BtU iIm annals are iinperfect; and ikotchoa 



Ed^tirtl GiALcn. 



ftT« uid lit a4<3 f^mpATiUTpI^ fvw tlvitdU. From all tlutit^ piece*, 
concJodc* hii frirnd And executor, * the following " Mrmoin *" 
hftve Iwen orefully telecled nnd put tofp*lh4^^/ 

ThU Jncripliuii, wlitch ii rniircJv nccuratr ao far &• Jt gor*, 

wwld not Itfld (It to n]«|Mrci tlmt any pnungr worthy of publi- 

itfioii bihd brcD otnittf^. Soinc fil'ty yt^nrtlntcri in inct. Dc«n 

Uilinao, whn wa« bringing niii n BUmlArH fdiiirn of ilio 

'Jitdini? «i>d Fal),' bad accc&« to iht; Gibbon manutenpu, utd, 

•htle bearing teMitronr to the * g-rral jud^m'^nt' wilL wlilch 

Latd S\>vttir\d hnti r^«cDTrd hit tA&kf hr Addi, ^ Much hiu been 

n^ectcd in which the public wnuld ruK linvt.* fplt tli4.' ilijfUlui 

ioflmilt and I found not alh>vu Iwa ijt three ftenlencet which 

I ^locdd bair wikhctl to rcsruc fii~im oblivion/ Morcoi cr, ai 

rUKHH tjiiie«, Lonl Sheffield bad f^iven out I'roiti the sam^ 

kcktd-up imuurjr. & Large number of tt;o hUcoriaira Ictlrrs \ and 

iWctf migbi be tnken a* cuEnpMing ibr pEjrirait orbich in Qib< 

kn'f ' Aultibto^rapbj ' had been drawn frith 90 accurate a 

pMictl. WhaE Tnarr did ihr world mrjiiire? 1( wiu prnTirird 

10 Lord Shclfi^ld's ofrn will tbat no luiibcr publiratjon ibould 

Uke plnce. Hit diTertloiii wctv fi'ijtrrlf'tl : llir* Life' beirauie 

m EnglUh clawic; &nd, ifany one cava n momc^nt'a thr>tf(Ebe ti> 

Vx * sii dilTrrvni Kkrlrhrt ' lyinf^ m tbr iiroiTtr r<H)in At Shnllicld 

PiKiCr ibere ieeined d^ reoaon 1o Irtiuble their re|io«e, for trc 

hirl ittrrLr a\\, or aa ^(mhI aa all, th^tE Gibbi>ii nould hjuri told 

dt aboat bimsell and bii period, 

\o, wc bad itu siH:b thing; and the centenary of Uts death. 
oeJrbratcHl nilh A ccrtAjn pomji And recognition nrhich would 
have liitcatlj plcued Ui« man. — airrcr inacocauble tnprALSp, and 
ofien drterrlDg Ic, — that fe«tlvAlt)p«'n«d ihedoora hc*hii^d wl^icb 
lay tbrar Mt aax>IU, and let in upon them a surprising light. 
Tbe rpialt vaa eminently (-urioui. to the first place, a inoKaic 
|st ttJ^lM^r with ino»e nrlFul dovcidilin^ oi plc>oc imo pi&oo, 

1! n*marklib|p for its ninixailoni ami jadiriou* Ti^lirron^A, 
out a* »Cten diatioct Imf^meiili. whcivin much was 
and^Uean MilfMan notwithtiAndJng;— rerv little 
'ed to bo forgotten. It wiu, in n diflercm prorinco-, the 
of Pa>ca]*v ' iVuht^'t' oTer a^in. Not that uny bunb nr 
onjtutiruble proccvdinga bad bMn lued with Gibbon, «t leaat 
19 tlir 'Autobiography': hb 'Letter** were hindleil with 
ffTeater freedom, and ou a principk which for our part we 
ilvjuld 110I cftre to defend. For the ' 0>TTeapondc;icv* now 
priniKl Uu Wrt only filled up lar^e ipucei which n fr-w &lars, or 
Oitoc mt al)» pointed out in tlifi cArly edition, but hns jometjutr* 
■liutdred a retiUi, ur eompmiie opiitlrj to which Aeiltcnces 
6«4a ftcrcnbl i|(iarter> bad cxintributed. Bat, in ibc 




l^m 




EdwATil Gibbon. 



pbtrr, Wf' Vat*" gjiinnl t* ihinl mori* of ih*» ' JJfp " ; »rn! tl»R 
* LdlrrV winch inciudt* mnny oi Lord ShcfJicM'* own, — 
aJiiiiiublt^ OB iileialuiL' and as lliB(lJl^.— iji>w am^juiil Lu apwaiJ» 
of a\ji hoTidnNl. At last^ lhcrfl<>r<'. Gibbon rntor* the public 
pir>cticc> not 05 iiii fricfuU huil amn|;pd tlic famuUB Uttlc mpn\ 
toilvie4>, biit Lo hi> Itnbii :t« Ii«< liv<^d, withoiit vxpui|rAiitin of Uia 
too rrhcmcQl phra&ci, or ihc luppreuion of £ real nnmrs, or a,uy 
otlt«<r IrrAtnx'ni^ litentrv, polhucil. or r<*l]|{irjus,ttint Tbe jvnr 1 Tflt^ 
nppr^rrd li* licniAnib 'J'iir l>iu'llir]il ijioaaIc is poof: ; }H ilic*c 
cttTioon«, uofiniihpJ but iiiH moic Jinpmiive, nml lh«i" rpi»tl<'«, 
A * licb nuil copious tlrain/ will, to tUv* curio<i» in LitrrAtorr, 
innk«^ itmpnHn for n ronntmclion whirh, iinooib nml p(kli(hi*d Km 
It wiu> %^yo evidence tn 4h;i;b<ft«^ocoi tbiit cigblc^ciiib-cc-ntarj 
«lev[c« wfiich t«rrifii!iN) \\w iriqifrfrot Wxx of gfiniitft to t^ir 
judj^nMfnl of tbc commcatFitor, ani In ibe ripcdbncj of tlu 

SVhitc, then, wtt ^rknowlwilgo ch# r&ro «kill, nnd no Ion 
ungulftr deliCACjf* with whicb [^rd StirRicKi bu dUnbtir^ed 
hu dutv toivinit Gibb4>ti, w^ cnniiDt btit leJMO^ in tb« cirouin- 
«tttnc« tbttt now cnablra u> to view ibat iaimoital bio|-ittpby ■» 
U Uvutfd from ibe^ writ^r'ft humU. h it a irue rc«tomiioD, 
HDtoocbcd \ij lime, fmh and JjfcHk«, thj; rr&fiii<-nts ihcmMlircs 
^JoQii^rii vriib a Kiudlrd^ yt*i bv no iDcnns unbvooming m.ifl* 
ncnam, tu^^b a.% in bis most primic and discug^^cd convene 
lb« hiii'irinn ikev«-i Ixid itaidr. Olb^jon, liht.* Hul>e(i«, trrote in 
full dro^»> ; it wiu tbo nnluT'ikl clothing of bia (nimlt chit bi^bLy 
finiBbn), p|n^rutiimau<:stjk, aaU wept well wilb the velret ^ail 
niJ)!«c. ib^ <ilk stof^kin^ tb«» swr>rd at hit >uW» nnd ib« ^toTDol 
gold AnulT-boK, wbicb made of hint so uccompl isbcti a pactrnit 
UI-fa^oiir«d und iottgniflcADl tbc>u^li h« wat bv ncilure, af the 
musi artificiftl socictjr lb»t London or Paria <xiuld bout id 
hi« dM)v 

Vet wc Btud^ Glbbon^tt * Memoirs * from a poiat of atjfht 
in ihr nrighbocrbood of whirb he did but juat arriTP. Wo 
cftnnol cTxpect bim locinau'erourcmjuiricSiOT solve ibc ptoblcmm 
thai kiH>p u» from 4lprpiii|^, Mr it iitir a iviZd Hituiif^uu, driven 
out from lUnonK men by the insanity TrhervwiEh he ihaLI ftftc^ 
vntrdi iiifcct whole ^neriiUotJi, iMir a Goethi! Wf-ighing in 
ftu««t buifincft* ^\iiiy thrill of flvniimcnt V> which bii bcnrt 
|.bu vauIe^v impondv 11 he ran ' smile wiilioul roineEnjit aI t| 
llonif puktioiit "i rti^nrviLULo Ci'llini^ and the ^ay lollies 
Collrip ClbW/ it is not bccftiuc be hfts iiitiuird eltbvr of ibt 
Rftther he rr«eiiibU« MonLu^ne* could we lancy the in6a^ 
curious seekio; of tbc Gaicoo unttrmjiered wttb the tiic, 
M>irb«rip inicnsificrd by ih« gloom, vrhich gii-« ic him the 



Edicard Gihlnrn. h 

■n cvcrlfttlini; eni^Riii. In che doubt, \)\a cvnicUm* the 
rvrlfHlcjr, lli« lor« of r^jir>i»'^ the- toTrrvitioTi or imo^'iaftre, Uif' 

apDii ihp iixiti:|UP, ibr lively rpuJing of cIpbcI AUtbun, Glbbmi 
uid Mi>nUi;;uP tt^^pas Iik« twin-brottiiTtH Both arc bHdd, lifMLf, 
■Qii dumb in ibif rcj^iuii wliii^li wr liiiitir ni tlir iLi|]rinAlurnl ; 
In thtm tbif Dii-in*^, revealed or Mpcricnoni, x% lic^rnll)' t\ kiixl 
of Bwlatras ; itbrn Lbrj rcHtl of it in tiiitoij , It M-aijii&ii.er» iim) 
ihock« tbctn ; it hu on tb«ir mind* pror:i*olr tbo »am« ^iTpiTt 
vLjdi lAcir nrjuil uf (lecvucy biv tipuD uur>. Tbi^j' <lo Ufit, 
fWMOi, drfkTn of Ascribing ihe-c* rimuTEUoUi ji't wnrM-wtiii- 
jAmomcnj^ lf> a c-ttue behind ihc vpH ; rclifEion, in tUr^ir juilff- 
iMnr, i« on n Uiol «itb littt^na ; fanBiicitm — t\\\i i« t4> w^j, 
fulfacirMlion — -wrt^ught upon bv icH-intrrciit »r drrp SbUe' 
pLjlicv, niLttt nc'cv»uni for it aII ; but ihf^ wt«r- m^in wLd «■!*• 
limtt^-b tUia vrrb of doc^Ic And cbiUliahtiOM «vill keep bit 
ifauvfUu lu himvrir. Ai nit c-Trnu, h? will but inuTiuntP, not 
boJdU «x|)r>^B tb«iEi ; aad tbut^ wilb th««e Epicureans u with 
•t«Uo« and ilir >rhool of PJ^ri^ iMnj bec»iKir« ibr- inalrutnent 
Of teaching or tbe w««p»n oS defence. 
Such ttjuOitlitin, nnl one turmctilcd nitU tbe thirst ufdivinir 

thai *uiu hitn ndmir-tbtv* — but bainan, far fruin diub'^lii'* nod 
Willi muiy <i«)i^b<f j1 i^uiiilifMt : alTroEJnnuref 1oi>, and jEirUvrciu t, 
%md c*piiblc of A lifelong fricndtbip when onci^ br linil foun^l, m 
in Loru StitJBrld, i man to hii tikni^. Nny mon-^ Alihougb, 
vbellirr yoaa^ or old, not ' intlnmcd witb onjr lively aeoK <d 
il«Yocion or rTithn*in*m/ yrt :* ■inftl'^ trligious **pi*»>iU provi-il 
Ut be the turning' p>>inL in Gibbon s cirerr. Had he not, on the 
l&thrdJuni', i?.'^^, ' i-ilrnin] v, ihi>L>?b pi tv Airly. Hbjun<4) Eli'- etu>tt 
ol b«tMv,' At the feet of ^ JeniiU, Hvbo in rrconcilinfl^ him cvilh 
ibe Komati CLurcb bia»txl llit jH^ijaltiL-s of kii^b tnmaon, the 
VoattkTal rMK^gAiIfl would n^vcr hAvo bti^n affnt lo Laus-inn*. 
llii t^enlfl rou»t Iijitc woo bim a (etlowihip ;tinon^ tUv iiiunki 
of MAf^Alen; :uid, inicribfid in ilm lr»nuuil hienrt'liy ni the 
fods, be inipbc h^va lunk into n leoElrn ilcrp from w^ilIi nol 
jftra (be trump of AIatic r^^tLjId liivi.* awnkoiiod him. But 
MidOlrtun, B<>«>uct| anJ ibr orLbiKloi indiirerence itbich hr 
durgw Dpon him Oxfurd Alma >fqirr, romhinpi) (a i«( him 
thiniiJOK fof bita9c1f,And nciint; as bo thought; and vrhen forri|»n 
exile Anit M. rAvillArtI, the CAlrlpitt cnlniilei^ bail jtrr^iiAclpd 
bim xa confi*nii (thoufih i»ol precisely lo brlievel, he took 
pHtirm hi Bajkle and CbiUi^b^'worLli, and Inj tlowr ro revl on 
the cfuy pill^:»w» o\ ficepticitm. In tueh i mood be beheld the 
Rofeua tmpin? hastening lo couveiiiou under CoiutAniint^. 

What 



6 EdtDord Gitibotu 

VVbat v\w irojiil ihni c-hftttgA !)• cxcopi a decline xn^L foJJ ? Si 
jHu-oi'ji cOBtportfrs mcgna, — bod not the like ihlag bappennl, cr 
aH but bAppi*n(»H, in UU <^ttn mw? Hni hp wnt rrirai^rl in 
lime ; tbc nncicnt tvoild. In* fortanatc^ law Julian die and 
JjbtinlhTk uiuDipli. Sci mutl ihf- bittEoriAD tiittr' rtMi-trac-il ; ami 
bii iubmubion 1i> iKtr Prkjial Chinrch led ia Jt« ci>naoqiicnc«B U* 
t1i« (je» which hf- hni rxpAndfd thmugli m mnny titlfal aaO 
«ibbilteriiiJ )>ac«>f t>i the oauAc* that h»t wi^«aod snd finAUjr 
OTcrcaini! the Impriial Power. 

And now ttiat ve bftve drawn lU chief outttnvt, w« wUI 
foUiiw il:i« evt-r-«iilt-rtiiinitig biiTgtapljjr Liitu auuir of iEi delAiU. 
A ftbort but Cfflfhr&Tcd descant on |)rid« of ancpttr^', which 
in nuw pimtcd Inal ot iLke frT^mcnta, wna fitlinj^lj' aBM^nnl 
by Lnrd Sh(>fTi<>l<l lU » pr^lmU 10 the nhole, Gibbr>n, who 
fer moAj jeatt did not know whether hii xmndlnthcr Edir&rd, 
the Suuib Sf^A direrfor And aoarce of hit own frtTluiie, vstt 
not a JUiu^ terrx, or win of nobody, di*covered bj accideat, 
uiucli til hii ^*rAtiririiiir3nf ihai the fntnily u^iTre micii-Ea »()ijin!S 
4>r Kenl^ fioJDi; back bc\(>nd ISifG. Tbi.'y oould cliom • 
r.iigx of AnoB, * ihf- most uat^ltst i>f aII (xmtC sa^s ihnr tir«crP* 
dant : but h<^ i« rnTcful roi in p»i it hv LindotcribnJ. Joba 
GibUjii vioi ' Marmoriua,' or urdiitei:!, to Kiu^ Edward IIL» 
And dsAigncdi t>r buill, the ttrttng castU of Queenliorou^. 
Their greatest glory, howei'er, nni Junei Flent, Bnrun bftj 
And Svnle. Lord Hif*h Trcafturcr in th^ reign of Henry VI., 
^ frojn nhom,' »»>» Gibbon. 'I nnt linrjill) drricendcd in the 
«|4*vontb degree/ And with jnit pndr be ijuol<<« ibe icene in 
ShH^cii^rAre wliifh brings on tbe stage Jncli Cade, who ch«r^» 
thai iil-fAfed Lord wich hit d<^voiiou ro Erntnin^ and hii «kiU 
ID the Krentb Un^uatC^, 'J'he ap|>licAtion To our auto btograipher 
iielose and HHitvrin^. Hut be htkd nliendy exhorted the boute 
ol K>pen»er ' to consider the '* F*itv Queen " m ihc moftt precioiis 
jenri in tliHf ninnirt.' To the I-it;ldingV| kiuaiiied i»f ibe 
CoanU 0/ llftpjibtir^, bo bad pfopbetied in n ioUy «cnEcncO| 
'tlte romantie i$i **Tnfji Jone«/' ibai, ei<{Lii4iie pKlare of bumoA 
mAnn#r«, will ontlive tbe pnUee of Itte [^veuriil^ and the 
LmpETiiul cAgli- ijf the bouAC of Au>iiia/ And be knew, «* 
diiliiiclly at Horace or Thucvdidet, thai hi* own aebievemejil 
Would Burvire brait and niftrhile, nor needed the emblffeonin; of 
}iendi!« to preftrrre hit rvnnwn- 

^^ull il -Miu pIcAtAni lEk l>e of i^entle birth; and yet more 
plpJUftiit (toi)Id It Unvf bi-rn. d(*«p[tM rh<* Istjt^f inio trade of hU 
ftnccaton ai the beginninj; of llic tcvcntecnib century, could old 
iCditanl Gilibijn tia\e keiii ibe nine(jr*atx Lhnuvhnd pouiidi 
which were avqnoilrated by resolution ot tbo IJOD«e ot Coui> 



EAt^xrd GiUcn, 



BWQt wlun tbc South Sim bnhblc bunL Tlic hUlorinn U 
lebuneol — iboll wc «iuji«:| thnl lie «miil not lit* itrpirtml ? — 
oa ih* ini<|ui(jr i>f tbii Jitf^h-hnn^ed priJt<«<ci<lm^'. H» ruinvil 
ffUiilTalLeT mwle ■ immd f<jrtuni?, »\n\ left InmU in Suui-t, 
l4ocktaphu&iliir», an<l Hairp<hir«, n< koII i< a ipocioui hoj^Q 
4i I'uiucj' and m »li«n? ta tic Nrvh Uivcr (.*oiri|iMi]j', Ilt liii oiilv 
Ml [^fr«rd, AQtl tulutatiti&l portion* tn hU dnrj^btpra^ lloinr 
tJbl Cat!i«rin«. He w&B & «tcni Jacubilr, who piavcd f^r 
ite Kin^^ but tint \>y nntno \-^i^vi*rf, 4U0, 'm dieting dovrn hit 
laa't inbtntmicF. tthcn thai inn married AjtnJaM hi* wilJ 
UiH Judiih Pf>TCpn, a d«nftw1 r»iL«r charming than weoltJiy. 
Sbe died »hcD her <»Ae tarvivinf child, dcttincd to auch 
Dolahtf* thing* in the norld of lelti-r*, wat hjt H^ven vi*JtM 
M, Ho coafenoA Uial no vvry clear itns^P or h«r p«rvon or 
ooiTftnttliciD bnd rein&Lii«d with him; hnt in the? iVplliming 
piHOfre, E>ov priatcd for th<9 first time, he has akclehrKl •oinc^ 
thing of bii pareaU* cljMratti.'r and their rmrivd lortuntrj : — 

'My xnothnr** porlrsitii ccmrcj tnano iilcti L>f brr heaulj; th» 
«l«^iiO« ■>f b«r mkaocrH hu Ix^n iLtteaiAl bj tnmTing fnei)<l«; »iiij 

y' Audi Portcoi ooaJd dcnujit for boun on the tidc^atct kud rirtiio* 
ber aiuiablo Mfikr. A diuiii.-ittie lift wuLild ImvD buiu the cLc^ice 
and Ihp ffdicJIy nf rmj niollifr^ but klit rniiilT atu^mptod En eliAoU 
vith B fvlkett ruUi th« puuioftH <\t tm mdouond^nt husband. Thn 
■^bcld WAA «peQ boToro him; bin spirit vju Lively, hin appcorotu.'JT 
HHfanJid, hu Ufcct Dh«»rf iJ, hh aJJiuM indite; ht gmcvfitll j moFed 
"n th« hi^lmt eUvt]«« of friaifTl^, and I haT« bnuti bmi ticiuiit (Imt !iu 
*a« tho eoIjRMnbor of 0]>po4itiou udiDttt4d inte ILu cl^J Olub at 
Urhtif'ii, vhcro th^ firvt ft4DDC« of tbc eonatr? vp'oro ofloo rojovtc:-d. 
YaI iiach WM the pleading flexibility of liia Idikper, that he i^^ixthl 
oeeDianodAte himself with evan and almoitt with inditf^rcnee te crrory 
to a tbiHling of Lordit oir fiirmun. *>1 CtlinuiiK ur Foibuct^vi ; 
vjlhottt bein^ ndmired u a vrtt. Mr. GjbUjQ i,ta« OTOt^where 
M ft cotBpuiivu bud tiBteemed li^ Ji iimu. Bai lu the jvumLJI 
vi plpAflOret hifl happiineMi, nloAT ortd bin fnrtne^ wnr^ frmileally 
itijvMd. (Ece&oimy was anpenndud hy fubioa ; hitkcoiiiD proTod 
Mieqmte to hi* expenee; hi* Loiuo at ];^ltaoy, iu Ihe noiglibour- 
hml of JjUD^tm. oequired Ibt^ daugcruUB fume uf limpilublc eiili:^ 
laiimwit; o^tnM ihi mum ■likngiirrxw tAmnutii^n of play l>e woa 
«tt iBTBtfi«ntbU, and large ^iuda v«re mUntlj ptveipitnt^ij into that 
fccUonlei* pit.' 

H'hAt Kit iniinorul thtOf; ii fttvic! Who exeepl Gibbon 
could hare wrilUrn thus oindidly, nith such uncuiii<|urnible 
pDli(«a«u, ftnd to exact a moiiflura of feeliaa, when biA father 
Vox in qaeatioit? So need lo *jfn or «eal thc*r Deiv-fuund 
micnce* : from one niind and ono pen nl>n<> er^uild they b^ 
drtirctt. ' Hod he continued to wilIKg in tlic path of incrcAoiilc 



8 hjliivrd Oi/ffmJi. 

tfuJustr^/ — tbiu tliia ifdftt*^ ii^imj^rnpli PtiU*, — ' my latb^r 
tnighl baro bcvn sv liappl^r, ^ml bU ton n ricliar, mnru' But 
ihe son (celt no !ii<1i gun lion, ni>lhin^ bul nn nnikivnl irtiiiic4ii 
MtlM of Ih^ pi'ic^ wtiicli A<> taking a [wr»on niLivt hivp pcUr) for 
b» Q<]vftnt'i^»- He is Fhitua, the wcnibrrrL^r>c^, dcsciibrd in 
Urmi tom&wlmt iharji by bit old tuitir^ iVillbiin L»ir, non- 
jUTvri m^frtlc, aikI man (»l frnius, nbo captir&tcii Min Hc«Ccr 
Gibbon — thr Snini, her nepht^w rail* bnr plnyfully ; but in 
Frcncb it would be ia dt^^cotr^ or perhaps ta heira^uir — And irbo 
(3ic<^ in ihe bou«v ' nf hii bi^Uuirti MimiiiU* (if ahi-Mrm MimndA, 
whicb bns been donblj^d) nl nn fuJvnnoi^l m^c i&bout tbc ye^r 
170L Tbc Sniiil livi-d lorijt afn^r, ' mintrp« of ber own acllons 
and (I tplfmtlid forluow*; in vulunt&ry uitcl, u tkut bcliorcd, 
mmti>riiJUi prnnnor, vayi ebe incniri^ble tccndc; but ilie 
would not b^ n-cTOTictlc^d with her brotbor^i worldly WAr*. an<l 
nolbin^ could titi jicrauonlr- tbc gotjd ivrxnAn to itay l;cn(!atb 
b^r ni?pbew'ft roof. Chic*, to bifl amoacment, ib* proprif*«d to 
borrow a Huia of onooey from bxia; bul au utirr a vit^latLon of 
tb«* Uvta of nature tbork^^d onn ivho put no failb in mirarlpa, 
and be declined Ukfi a pbiloiopW, but in tbe aolt worda ot 
An ex|i«ctart or prr*iuinpttV(« bpir. 8h(» Irit bini, at laat^ * 
comfortable estate ; bul Inc tbouMind pounds nbicb ai an early 
«*niiin wiN^:? drtLiuc-d for bim, iibe rur down, i>r, na he ripivast-** 
It Buinewtial curiously, ihe ' dociuiafcd/ bj mlucio^ tt Co a 
ain^lir hiimlml. Wlirn Gihl>i>ii aibiirMrn an ppi^llc to bcr 
*ima]l babiTalicti at CJilTf/ lie in alwnti on Ui« beic b^haviooTt 
Find as dcinuiL' at u LjiKH-iitr who would li\kv to be Euipcuttrd ut 
an}in^ hii prayer*. Kt'^d, for example, and admire — but it is 
ijnpoauble not to smile at — tbr ejEicedicigly proper and edifyiog 
ACGonm whicb hf render* to lbi» Sairil of bia faihor** Uiit 
momenta. Voltaire would have written nith more unction and 
overdone bia aotiii^ ; liui Gihbon iv ftrn^vi?, t4mdi>r, and lyrnpo' 
thclic— could we liiiiik bim quite »ineero, ihe lone would be 
unimpAtclmble. Bui, in view of th« reduolion of her It^garrv, 
wbo tdiall aaj Uiat tbe Saint was Itr^t k<Hin-wiltod than Iwr 
nttplii^w ? 

tkc cbildbcM^d ol a man of f^oniua ia acldom bappj. 
Gibbou'a utii^ouiil of bib irarly ^caib, ibougb bo sbiiiia ibtr 
pathciic, lenrei an ijnprf?»ioii not unlike tbal of Lcopardi, or 
some oibcr itcpion of fortune, wIjoic ipUIl, uwiikr mid cag«r, 
muti contiMid wjiU a frrblp frnmc nnd all the mal^kjlir-i which it 
takcft ur i« gU'irdcd against. * \ wai succesiircly atHictcd, we 
leum from him, 'by It-thargii** and f*»av«rR ; by oppnUtv 
Ecnilencie* to a consumptive and a dri^paical habit; by a con- 
rranirtn of mr nerrcv, a fiatnla in my «\e, and ibe bile of a dog 

mo9l 



FtticoTtl Gifihov, 



ft 



moftl vdittnrrily «iji|iRi-fi-i1 of runrlnifM/ Hin nliiol]i>n wtu 

•VlfWcled or LrulirD; t^nd oiilv il Sf<:fFl but iniionicabic panion 

ktr Vu^tvWt)**^. 'A nbirb tbi- bi^jr biuibilf wab hatilK huorr, 

ptTtcmLcd biin Iroiri ifmvrinfr up, as t)o rcmju-ka biltcrl^^f *aii 

lllilcreu; ctippW Mocb bf^ vt^ iiid«bl(.-il tu bU maideii aonf, 

BIfi. Caihorluo ForiDn, tbo * Kiltv ' <if lilt ninlurs corrvtpon- 

ilciitv, vibo Eicjttcd liim lu .1 fiicnd, Nnd nboia be cbemh<^ ta 

Uodly aft it «r»> In hU nnfur^ t» oare ff>T Anjiin^. She oppr^ 

bii Ddiod to bmorj And romftitcc; '«d^ to bcr kipd li^uoni/ be 

itti in A m^morkblr i^nr^rn'r, which ih/iLild W rarvrd jiboTn 

btnrjc9, ' 1 ttsCTilM: uiv cArlv niwl inrincibli.' 1oT« of rc-Attin^^ 

nhkh I fronM not i ithangr for ihr iTrnfliirm at ImlU/ U'lurn, 

is 1?S6, abc p*c«vii awoiy paitiJpMly, Gibbon recalled witb ifDlo- 

1100 «U ilwt tbf* bad O'idr for biin : ' I n a« a punv rbild, 

ocaltctod b)r my icotb«r, ttnrTt^d bv my nurao, mid t>\' nbtue 

Ikui^ T^rj \ixt\e care ur pipcclaLLirn itai rmertainrd ; Wilboat 

bor mil4YrRKl vij^ilanc* I should «ilb(iT h«v« }>rcn in my grave, 

<ir ifDpcrfcoJjir livtO, * tmokcd Tjcktllj mnniCcr, a burlbea t4» 

mjaeli and otb^n/ A<jnt Klitv. tb<jj^b thv iMtghi bim nciibpr 

I«ii$:uB^ DOT acicDcc, ira« ccrlAiaLjr ' tbc inuvt libcIuI preceptor ' 

ba crcr bad. 

Udu1« iiid«e<L Gibbon wna trAruf^rrcd I0 Lausanne, sbr wft> 

tb^ only mil iMu:hnr of bi« mindn T/i HrbooU hn iiirpif, nf»E 

An iocmsc of kttowUdgc, but an incrctijc ol sorrait. At 

bocnr, \a xhv library trhiHi bit b^triknipr f^rmidl'iilfii*i\ Porten, 

Ikftd Ml bc-hi[xl on flying from Knj^Inj^fi Itin Ifui of twelve 

rrrelled ia (alio%^ wiuidrrpd iJjmui:h the mirkU iif biittiryt 

uavel, aiul fiction, ttumbted iati> X^nophvii And tbe cU*«ict 

otrv tbe thre^Qld iif iinperfrcl inu^ilnlionSf bifcnn to <:ull|« 

tM« a amcL' ol da]«« and plat^F* whiub mnrkcd x\iv fftaulatt 

■iadcni, and fa» krpl awakr at ntgbta by tbr- diicrcpjinciCT 

teliri>rfi ibe Htbfi»* ftml the SL^ptuiigint fhroaologj. Bat 

■ee blvi at Wc»tiuinBl«r Scbool. "t Kiiif^tun-on-TliMiirit an<l 

ibv cbmnge ia grifrirou>. * Mj timid TP«rrTe vRt aimnUbrd 

b? ih« cri/ird and tomjU; tbc want oi strcajftb and activity 

divfualS^pd mo lor tl^ ■|M>ri» of ibv p1ay-rii*ld ; nor haw 1 

/ort^it Iktrtroftca, in thejcarforty-ftix, I woi rcvilf:d And buffcttc*! 

kx tbr ftiiu ai mj Tuvj niM^frstiirx.' At thi- njieiiuT uf tnAny 

t&^n Add tviDe blood, b« purcbnvoil a knowltnlf^c tii ibo Latia 

>yi;(Ai. Bui bit (mntul rliiiihinj; Itntb^d htm Duly i[i thr tliird 

l^iio ; and he wat Mot tci l^itiL-r, in IT^lf^ tbat be mi^bt Uira 

ibp bea^tiea of L«tiu ffixn tbi- ll<;v. l^jllp FntuciN ivLo 'bad 

«X«cstnl witb «ttcceit And appUoso/ a complete trnnabl'mn of 

Btmce into Eo^tivh loelrr. wliilc kia itxt mote fumoua Min flras 

dfMiticd, prrliApt to be ihr AUibor of ■ Juniu*/ And c«rtaiiily tr> 



10 E/hritrti Gihhon. 

Kpiril too \\yA'\y U>t bU prof^tioD ; " anJ wl)il<* ho indulgod him- 
mM io the pIcAAUKCi^ K*i Li>u(]»iit liU ffupiU wcic left 'ii C*her, 
in Th^ cutlmtv of ii Dutch Uidrr* *>i low mnrin^rB >od fx>a- 
l^mpliblc Iciuniiig.* VVbcii this nns iliicuirrTc^U Mi. Gibbon** 
perplexitv, mhcr thjin his prudcACPf dmr« hxm opon ft «Q<l<l«n 
molmioD, which h^ul iitfinii^ copwqucncet. Without pTcp»rm- 
tion or drlny hp mrrEf^il lh<* hi^y, who wa» noi y*^ fiflrm, trt 
Oxford, Add had him mblriculnlf^d as a ^mlcinnn'Coiiiicunrr <kf 

Or. »)ohn«oii, whose powcn of mntftpti^Airtil «niilT«is «rere* 
iitfVRr i-x<|uiittr',hntdpTii<H] innntc titijnmtiiiuf, nn itmdi llit ume 
prickcipld which pcnuftdpd Loi-ke io^«ny innia^trisa^- Bui tbn 
argutnttnt U b^ no menus pnrallrt ; nnd Gihbim stands furwAral 
as sn infttance not cuy to fhnllmfi^of tbt* pT«d»ttned hiitortjui. 
Bfr«>i¥ paBAitig iLf gAlc of Mn]i:dnlcn Towv.-r, thi« |>uny crcACiJfr 
with the Inr^ brsin had ihrowa him«'lf on thi* ' Unirrrul 
Hialor^/ M it Appeared ixi ocUvo volumes ^ from thvr snctrnl 
had lrftpf<d to ilie modern wi>rld ; hiui di^^'numl, iiLr ui maov 
Dovds, 'prude hmpsof Spfrcd, Khiph, Mwtiirsy, Dsvilft, Mociu- 
ftv«1, Fstbcr Psni ' ; snd ' bad swntloHW wilh tS^ sftini* 
romcioua appoiite thr doirrjptiona of Indin And Cltinn, Mriico 
tmd tVru-' lUt* rnnunufninn of Krhsnl, mi uncnmmiin hmJk, 
iiDDi^ret^d biiti in the pa»AEc oi the Goihs ovor tin.* Danubo ; 
HowHI rxbibjli'd \ha ]\y^nt]Uitf priiiM) on a Urgci «i^^ilfi ; 
.^fnhomet nrtd h:i Snrannii *oim fixr<j the boj'a aU^ntjon : nnd 
XMiit^ iiiiLttiL-l of tjiLitiiiiii (hiiw mil' nt tbirteeu !) Jiivttrd blot 
to consult Ihr ^i^nuinn Kourtwi. H« had lon^ been mchsnicd 
wiih GnlUnd's * Arabian Nitt'its.' — a pmduclion infiriic«lir mnrv 
Vftlunhle ill xht ^ytei of E^iTikp* tbsn ib* Komn ii«»lft and a 
1rea«ur(^- house ofmtdifrvAt an<i K^uErrn rusEoins. Now, Simon 
Orklry, ibe original, uu^hr tiiin a crrsngv 1^ew hliTury : rottnd 
the cb»rtiuM3 €irc!p ht' ranifid ; and. he concbftfa, * Jw^t.trx* I iraa 
siitef^n I hati nthnuiTrd all ihai eoTiliI lie |pnrn( in Kn^Hih oi 
tho Arab* and Pvraiana, the Tartars and Turks; and tht* iiiawr 
aiduur nrgrii itii* ta ^ni-sa at thr Frenoli fif d'Hcrludnr^ aiut to 
OLintlfuc tbc hncbnrou* Latin of Pococh's Albupbnmjriux/ 

Suth a LtmiiH.' irf iL-ndJn^ will jtiatify ibe wrU-kuonii airii- 
tmcc, *] arrived at Oxford with a aTock of i^rudilion tbat 
miicht have puzxl«l a Doctor, and n tirgtrc ui lirnor^iiL-e of 
vbicb s achotd'boy would har^ been A*hatn^b' ' Hitt thou, 
Oxford, — not stu^t^ but Univrrsitv !'— we may osclaini, paro* 
dyini; ihat fine rhetoric ot De ^ainc.'ej't, 'how didst thou, 
•tonjr-hrarird slcpmother, mx-iw thi» orphan, this child wim 
was on« of a thonaarid?' Hi? hcu tobi u« in wnrds wbich 

win 



Fdioartl Oihf/on. 11 

vill evcff TriDain inM.T)bpd in ibe tncfmor/ af Cfigluliircn. 
Twlc« ia tbc«« fragmonu without the nlt^ri^cinrt r>r a t))la(>t«, 
htt tbe liistorUn ilclivcred bia <l;imniR£ icsumonr n^iatl 
AOiirMS ihat ti#vff >iadi«<1, teacher* that had f*«r^ttj*n lo triwb, 
DtOrtixi tbal irin<l« no rnquirirA Tvhrthrr vi>Lin£ im^ri wnre tafc 
m CDll«>gr or hirarini^ thr midni^flit rhitnt'i in O)v4<oi (■.inl<?[|,^ 
abor«ftll.An<j i1ie» wilh an accchi of unwoiit<:d poaaion, — frtraiaat 
liviatvvbo wcTP (irtboilox but tupinp, clogmiiir but iriflitFcCL'iit ; 
vba in»ineO on tb«ir voun^ men aign^p^ nriLcI<*s wbicb iho^ 
U not rcwl ; and m\iu ftuHVii^U \)\v\ti \t\ JtppriAcli the \\o\j 
ttUt, ibooKb ij^ontnt of the ChrUiinit tnjstcrii**. Fronn 
Aohicribiiii^ UwT arlldrx Gibbuo wAt tMcuvrU by rtfiujn of hi* 
tfOilcr ve«ra. 

'Vy Collm^' b* flays. *lVirg»i l>i inatnict, 1 fiv^at to rnttirn, 
aa»i WB« iftja«dff forgattoD Lj ttiir fiint maj^ii-treto of t)io Uttivurtity, 
VilWtt k mftg1« Joctvrc, dtbcr public or privtht^, either Chriatiftn ur 
IViteabaui, ait^uui any AoudeiDiaBl hU^HiTrijilii'ii. nithuui uiy trpi- 
MAjioI nonfiTmttliiTj, I mji* Iffl, by tliw <!ira light of my Ccit^vbUm, to 
pV]>* iny way *^ ikt> cihiipiiul axui ti«iiiiuLiaiau*tabL>v «b«ro 1 vu 
aittUttcU irilLoal a qiicatjOD. 

lit thvOKiiiid of GtM>4irt JMihoTi'i Hrnii anri sallow fthsiinnncc' 
Idond aoiAlI f-kvour witliin the common-iooxn ; as hr mny jud|;^ 
vlio will cuimulet thvr ilimblp-diinnrtl piirimiu it^iA atiuitiitig tb« 
■t&loly ball ol ChrUt Chtircb, wbunT LockcN rclinoii and dolicare 
fiffltutn iccm itraD^cly i>ut of p1ac4*, Tbc convctsntiati ol' 
ib» F#n:vura *iiagaat«<d in & round of CoH«>|;;e bDiinetf, T<>ty 
poliUci, prrarui^iF aton«^, aad jiriiulir BLHiidjiJ/ I'tmj Urank 
Innlr alrpt Irjng^ wero itrll vi^bfrncnt Jacobiicc: nisd ^ from lb*" 
toil of mulinft or thinkings or writing, tht^y had ab»olvol thotr 

<otttrut betvPcn the monki ol Maffiklcti and tbc Bcncdic^tiava 
itf dc Maur to which lhi*«o virr>rd« ar« a prvlilcti*. And ntiw, 
■bcQ be w&i arKuini: himiclf into b form oi' rclJKioD iffbich 

tW atflliil<-« uf Oifoid itbliotred, \\v wnt Irft (o hit own dr*irio?a 
ai colnpU:U^]y aa wWn ho bjul HniHiJ from bia tomnolcot 
liaanli^u*, \a tDjoy thr plraaurca nf a I>tndLin holidai. Hr fell, 
bowvfi^, tiv bi* oairfl buid, and tv»« notther aediAcedf nor eT^n 
(#skptcd, lu ibr moncittsry lapse. 

'Tba Uni»«TUiy of Onford,' we reatl in lh« sc^cr>n(l fraKin«nt 
in* |HibIi»h«<d, ' vrhlcb ba* mffereJ soiii* rrprtmcb from my 
ibort tnoiiafyt wtu infriili^d bv ihn fnlao iLippotirion that torn* 
J^vniia, aoDM; Hooiiah VVolvo moKi have beren prrmittcd to 
jUal into ibp foM an<l To dtrt^our llii- larnbB wblU th^ «h<*phrrd 
«M aat«ep,' But D'lI such Ihiof ; thr abcphrrd, indi^il, migbt 
iltvp ; Bot. ft W'llf waA n?ur. Ffi(»in anoibi-r irudj^nf, one 

Moles wort b, 



IS 



Ii<i<i'ard Gtl6oKt 




Mvloswi^rtlii GibtoQ borroircd ihr? look* thtxi m^e & ooQijuvve 
of hiin. F^hi^r l^AntonV mcf Afiri trf^n4'hRni ttvlr, trhti'J] rcaa 
in Swift** juJ|:incnC like the bcil Kn^lUb pro*c «r«r trnttinij 
Buraurrs 'fepf<:Lni]ti Ajhi1»|(V<^ anil ' bfiM niiii wrrll-Himcil AUftfk* 
— enforced aa Lhrir |;<in[>rA] urguuK'nl Ai^nmfrd to b« (or M 
Gitilwn imagined) b\ tbc lUlnikinii vihitU MiUdktvn buck ikcd 
ibrust LJpon Ui4) ri^lucl^vcit Lnpiiab tninil, 'EtlhtT no mirAclc* ni 
ooj period, or inifuclr* ntv pr^^MbltT id r^crj- period/ — all tticM 
coDverf^iiif^ infljfrDccv explain, writliout a Jesuit frt>ni behfn^ 
the AiTA«, i>ur vouii;^ lijgjciairs BjUcigtiiti, ami lltf 4tcp to vhiel 
it drovty him on, tlo was rrcondLcd lo Komc* utmoM m% c')t>n a 
be hod firiiabcd bis tr^unnh^jE : and ' An elaborate cooiTorcniilk 
Kpiillr, j*ppTin'(*d by my cUrectJir ar\<\ Addrr«[*d tn wiy I'alber 
announced and ^i^itilicd ib« sEcp which I had takcti/ tl 
VM, fVfn in ibv tlOhIkhI %i»te nf ibe Prual L^wii a^Ainal 
Roman Ca[tiri[i<^ii, ^ v(<rl<H]B onr. Mr< (vibtian, eoo ■^njp',' 
lu be jnudeni, divulginl ihe tfcrt-i : xomc cmjuineB wcrr uide 
by thai nugutl body, tb« Privy Council ; and MAfidalcn Collc^ 
abut her gai<-a on Ihfr npit^tMlir fi^i rvi-r^ llti coiutit. Sir OUbfrt* 
Klio% tv;ik <.-alled iu to advise. U Oxford bad pn>veJ inafcnrt, 
M'bnt Acljuul, public or jnivntr, loiild br rrlieO ujhm to L^cp oai 
tbetc ftolvcnV Sir (rjlb«tt bni>w Lauknrina; h«- recoinfn«iMl«4 
IV1. I'ArilZatU ; and on Juiki^ VJih, ^^^^^f vitbin eleven dft)« 
from hi* nlijnmtLon, rhe boy «f »li:t*»i>D left Kng;Und, for i 
bftniihmeot which liMtrd antil he cani<- of n^c. 

lEere begin* hit long nnd drlightfitl Corri**pontl«^[nMr. Ae firti 
he wriic« in a timid, carclully modulated tone; And afU4 
«iffhlec-n tnitnthi ofrxile nnd «-«rrjingr*mr'nr, hr rnuit ititl eiilred 
lor a rviurn of bit ialLrr'a tetidernesF^ Ve( ln^ buL brroin« *U 
good PriJifJtLknl ' hy iSUritUnm l)ny 17^4, «vhm \\v retvivrd tbc 
Cumnianiuo Irom bii luini'* hcvndt in the diurch al Liuw^nnvi 
' It MjL* Zjeje,' tmjs Gibbon wilb im]M?rTuihablr gra>itj, *tbat | 
■utpended my Knligi<^ut i^iiqiririi^*. noqui«acing with irvpltcil 
bcJwf in the lenets and ni^fiiericH nbicb ore adopted by ibl 
ffenpfftl i:nn>i»nE of (^atbolte* niid Prolvitani*.* The ' ihin litlU 
figure with the lar^e bead.' upon vtbich dull M. I'artUAni 
gaxecl with niton isbnit^nt, bad tbut been reeov^rvd in nniwnnj 
(Oltrormiiy ; but n hnbit oJ~ cniici^m do» not eiuily aulfei 
itaeir lu be fjietcomr^ and nrirhrr ihe SwiH ttLntiner of living 
nor Hic Cftlfiniai tbeologv was capable of winiiin^ a tcnikcioui 
spirit, nt of making thf* young Oxftml man foj^et bii luKttrj 
and independcnee, both now denied him by a caroloM tBtboi 
tbaa an uuklnd Jalht^r 

During IbU long nay :itnottc a Fronch'tpoaking peop!« 
Gibbon io»t bL« English c<iinpL«t<rly. lie atud'tedt tbougbt 

wroi4 




K'tttard Gihtton. 



13 



vmte^ aplkct ftiul Jrcamt la Fimcb. IIU leArlier wsLt not 

i^TflianJt but bicMeir, for ht* «A_ys o^DolE<»nLlj', * in tbe lile of 

tverjtnui of IcU^rrt, tWr« U tn irrk, a Irvvl, ftom wbrncc hf? 

loart i*Ub hit ovrn winj^v to Lili nmjior hi^t;;^]!.' Tht ijitem 

ijECrtuBAx c>pcon) bis luuid io logic snti conitrcutivc Tcnatjuiiig ; 

Erft rptd, imntlntAl, ftml imilAtrU Ck^rv; Imc hi? ««« nlrcAdjr 

planning, nnd in ibr coune of some twMitY-irvfrn uionttn 

rvripil rtnii n rrri'*w of thn vrhnli* I.itiin lit^ntniv 4r> farnail 

uul acairnltf!, so fall nnd rrl ek> prc^cUe, th%t even flc^iolun 

a pmrvt-riuf; ai tb4* Intf? M^rk pHtriifim hitvi* ii^iki^D of 

It with An AUmirniion not frtr rnnovod from (t<f«pfiir, Attd 

atAen\, wbrrr rlut ih.-ill wc* find 'the miiiulp hUtory of 4 «rlf* 

«da(^tii>n on to rapcrb b >cnlV vbiob, b(<for« Gibbon wik 

^nmtd ivrrRlj*onc, inrludnl in tt» rnnj>^ the bkHtorUnn, pwit, 

"tKt<^ and phiioto|>fi«r«t 1ak«n in ■ rbronulojflcn&l lerir^f, * tram 

i^r (JfttB '^f l'i«miii luul Snllait, to tUc lU-clhic r>f llir Uii{;u»[£r 

tpd bmpin? of Rome'? Nor wai lbi« tpviowj ndda tbc- 

^BiC^frtpaT/ Lowrv^r r^piil, ritbtr baaty <>r stiprrfitiab ^1 

■oJuli^ myself in « i^rnmJ, nr ov<*n ihiid jwnmil nf 'IVrpnr^, 

^'iijCil, l^l'>rAc?e, TacttUE^ and atudjoii to imbtbc the? sense And 

■prit iDoii ctiDgeniAl lu my own.* In ihtMi* aburrbin}^, bi*fTALi«(* 

^%htful orcupAliunv, \\c eiijorctl ibc ci>[np4ntfjnahip of bi» 

't/filung /riend, iliv Arnuble Drjrverdan- But wr hATc nn 

■**ion (o iin^in? that Aoy oib«r IimI imcrd lc»r Gibbon tht* 

P^th nbicb b<^ folbiwnl ; W\% InrHnnlion to bigturicAt if[)f]uir>, 

^(* S'^'P "^ ' pc^nuinv mr^ttKwl, bif frMslom from rvliAncc upon 

iQCood-hAnd ttulburiitrs. And ibc Adcun&ntiac induurr ivllb 

*l>ldi, At to rotUua «n t^'?, fae pi^rftifttiHi in a tntk ao cxtentivo, 

"^tT^all due to tbe peculiar inborn t*o<lcncjr wbicb we arr w<*ni 

^ 13II ^niuft, bni nf vbirh ihn inurcos And iti« condition* 

'•ttiun unri;p]oTcd. 

Grtrk b»* U:u\ nt'\ft pT^n ili^'bTlj li^^irnr, nnd i^vuld not now 

^o more thnn Attempt il4 mdimpnu, fur I'jkvilUrd wnt b<ttrr 

**3C|]iaint«l wilb ojotnittrsv iljan will H<im*"r. GroliLift And 

" ulf«ndi>rf luu|:bl hint lav; imd L^ckc Jiittructt^d bilin in Wtiiji; 

l^tmcipUv wbie-b !ic nt^vo iboritu>!b1^ dt^v'-stcd ; but bif delist 

*^iii "in tbe frequent pernvnl of MunU)iqui«u, ivboo? encTf^ of 

*tj|r mid boldiirs* vf b>pirlbr*i» wcii; jiowriful lo AWnkmi und 

^timnUtc thv Gpoiut of lite A;r^.' Hut he U}* ttr^ia upon 

Mitoe ttulbori L'ftpcciAlly wbo, in hit jud|;ment, cuntribuled to 

Wm tbn Rnmnn bUlorUn, * From (ho proTindul Lvtiert of 

PucaI, which almcdt every yeor I peruse with ntrvr plcAinrc, I 

Wneii 10 mAHAg^k th«> wi^pon of |^rA¥e And lempt^mte irony, 

tren 00 AgbJcdA of LCcclcsiAiticnl Aotcmniir/ Hy M. TAbbe 

de bi Bletierte, be wai inEmducMl lo Jultui and hii (Tmc». 

And 



14 £i/miri/ GibhuK. 

And in the ' Civil Historj^' of Nfipica, bv OiaaiMHnr, GiKboo 
' obfttrvM ivjih a cHtJcal i*ye tlie proffre** and abu»« of Sump- 
dotal powfr, and ibc H^voluuona of luW in the darker 

Of tbt^t- deeper cuirrntv* wo could not expect »ny clear ftijciu 
wben W lA wiitirrg 1ii»me. \\v had l^amt tTitf ari <rj diigviitci;. 
or ol Icoaiof ditjirmblinj;, hii scntimonU lo a ^ar and rrcn boy tab 
Ktyk*, wliidi isiiftFJi si> t-uriuuily Ficia-h iW il would Ii'ntl uk to 
imu^ino bim »oni4^ v^afa morif juvonilo than the caliradar would 
warnnC. He is poHtc tuid plajful, and cvrr aanifiut Ut MUtfy 
bii ratli^T^i enquiii«K, — tbouj^li not quit? ready to let bim know 
of ibt- guitkblin^ acirtpr into viliicb, oiui'r by aividvnl (ban 
de«tgD, bo hui oticp fajjpi), and tvhL-b cuvu bim a hanidrcd and 
tifii ^JKiraa. Aiiutliri topic ou wltjch bo m^i unduly reuccot 
wi;h Mr, (iibUin wni Mndr-moiiclli* Su^nnop f'«rrhi>d. ' I bnU 
tatc from ibcr apprrbcnsion *ii ridicuto,' sayi our pbilovipbtf, 
' ivben 1 approaHi ihft ctplimid* HLibjr^rl of iny^nfly lov«^.' But be 
ha« ifiven hift reodcn a somewhat vamijhed picturr; of it «ll, 
nutbing IfJ bU oxvn rlisadvaiiTai;!-, if nUo itiun? idyllic m its 
doacription of the mnidf-n's Mrnnquillicy and choerfalnoi*/ on 
bein^ Mx t» yttw ibr nillovh^ than l)U ^ Dinn * nnd aome 
rcmnfinu ol oorfctpondcnci* will b*ar out. His uttarbment was 
iljiap]>-niil4*d of sueccss. * I sjf brd A8 a lo^ti> 1 ubf >rd aa a aoa/ 
writes ibo old diplomcttist : but (be ' pure and «-xa]t«d scntimool * 
in whicb be takes pfidc, was no little comptKntn] nitb jcalQtisy» 
and divor4ifiA<d bv l^(« of ooldn^^ss, aniit il brcamn a killing frort. 
In 1757, durinjE the &tsi attack. Gibbon bad proposed \o Mile. 
Soianne tbftT sbf* thokild m«rry htm out of bnnd, wirboul con- 
fulctb^ the Hrilisb nareai, though tbc intcndinf btidt^room was 
under ftj£r. The Indy refuMil ; wbicb w^t nt Least x proof tbftt th? 
Curcbodi did not ixim ut rsutangtinf; lA ricb younf; l^nplisUmAn, 
or upeciilair on the ithancrs cif bis latbrr's Jbrgivrnrsii- Wbi>n 
he wna Allowed to come bomp, Siizann<^ wrote lo bim, and be 
appeon to \\M\^ auHwn^d. In ITtil. br- «rot li^r bin fmi ^laay 
ID lit«taiare; but In tbu AujluiC of nest year be broke ofi tbo 
eagftgeraeni, allri-iiig liii father's oppo>itioa, ami tbni, wiiboui 
bi« consent, be sbould himtelf be ' belplest and desttfuto/ 8till 
ibt Udy did not give him uj>. Tbt' year Nij^' saw bim ■ 
tocoD^l liice »t I.iuoann^ \ she wmrj* oner more, And Ptoitor 
Moultoo endeavoured to jfnin Koussc[ia's eloquence for so 
Amiable & cause. But Je:in Jnctjuea rliougbt Gibbftn oolcl- 
beartcd. t^nd diipflrse^cil tbo style of his literary atlempl as 
'd*foriii«i by jMT|!f'tual afieL-iAtinn ami the pursuit of bril- 
Liancv*; to wbicb bi> aiMod, wiib prophotic uivig;bt« 'Mr. 
Gibbon is noi tbc man fuf idc.' \eitbin nas be tbc iDan i<ir 

Ml 




Jiv. 



Ethaard Gihban. 



15 






the jming nmn wrjr*'*^ — wi* 



'1 Jut9 ivotriTed A U'lIm- uliioh WAA did ]ji«t I «xpdot«i1. It oain« 
iMa BUlo. C.t ft <lftu^or\>aH hikI :irLfuI girl ] Sbe nutkM Lor 
>"T'rr* fii.«u tfao fint luoh^citl tl:At Hhc knov mo,— }ior iODriMicj 

nsr iti vbicb I told Lur Umt tliert* t^ii^ nu mr>]v hopo. ilor t£onr 

ifnuto La«4Kiuii>i tbe Ajluivrft »b? lb«'rr^ fouml, and tko fsTCinr widi 

vIiUi ftht lietened lo llinni, vitm llir tmnUi^t of tLkr^u L> i«])kiiL 

Sil ncdt^r DojTcfijtiiL Hhc mys. nor any idbor couM foy a «iiigU 

iookDt offitco lay una;;;o fr^iru hor bcnrt. Sbo araou^d horaoU aI 

Timpnr , *bc did ni>t core for nuybodjr- It may bo >o (,/c? f^ cyiik 

biny Tkit Udell '~uiiiuauuit<:itfi'' ULiuvitit bcr l'{ Lbt? mufit Wlofnl lIj#- 

liaiilAtluD; >fi<l if lu U> urjfLkbfnl jq «i>]iiulfmj>£ o w«&kiivtt, Uilt« 

Ji>abl«^fftM>d ie alwajn a fiiall. l'bi>i biwa^Au, I'oiaorkBbJo in n\\ it« 

dr<l«{b« bM dono iiie icood Mrrit^ ; it ba« ODtfCttled mj oyo« to ibo 

cbftmclBfT i>f wnmeik, mud will kccip mu loDg on nij gURird iiguovt ibir 

■cdocHovM ot lovtf/ 

Hrtr wrr inaj' coRtofn|^lHtr- wbni ft Trench idiom calb ' the 
i«r«n# of ih' rni'dnl/ vrhlrh nthlviii bat iiruck to hia own 
LoflOfu and glory. BuEtbrdftm»cL made one Init attempt. She 
mrrixed aC Laaianri<t in F^hruAij 1704, anf) irn^t b^r old fliiD^, 
vbo wfti now fta cool oi i>bilo*oiiby could make tiiin, and whon> 
the mtliril on bii damltfird nin ; 'but Ah*- inuit hnvi* tf??n n 
bundrcd timr*,* irntot M. lo poiit-tuftilro, ^tbftt oil wrs^ nt an 
em! WtHn-n ua/ Me Jrt bcr knirir hii (ipirriiiii ni be-i cocgurlrjr ; 
and «!:ii* took leave i>l biin, da tbo drvamt, for ever, in an 
iodif^TianL e}Hbilr. Sbc hfld ncTrr aoooptcd llir 'i^itrniUjEt* uf 
M, Dctrcrdan, *Tbe ininiitcr of Cnuy »oon aftet died ; his 
ttiprnd dit^d tvitb Iiiin/ rcoiajks GibljoD, and 'bU daU|-blcr 
rvQTtd to Gp-nrvn, vhi*r», by tmrhing youno: lodiM, «bn i*arntfd 
ft bard »ubtiMcnc« for hcTseU and bcr motWr' Tbe Oui^bcit 
of Grafton told bim ftiib«.pnLif-(ii!v ibctt Hhr had nil bin i>n^nged 
Mllr. Curcbod lu a jtovcmcai ; buC tiuKafinc drclincil ; and the 
ricb bankpT nnd GriifVetif citi^i^ii. M. NVcker^ * tiad ibe gix^d 
fortvni? and ^otid lonHfr to il]«4v>vcr ihU incalimablp timixir^i * ; 
tboi>|:b Mr. Hdnard fiibljofi, wbo vra* doe a bafiki^r /iml tipvnr 
bccane rich, lonnd biniaell' mMi«»r tb«» necenity uf rvfoniit* ie. 
She iDHiiinl liiward* tbi; rod nf ITtH; and wbtn bri fuiltdr«i 
eaTaJicr wa* inlrodtJC*^i to P.^ritian ttocicty, tbc Nctkrr* eotirr- 
taioal biiii with a ■inL'iiie jjchhI will ulilcb bii cun<luoi bardly 

Thi* itory of true lore? on tbr Udy'a ndc, an<t of prudeiice or 
want of courage od ibe g(-nUpmio*>, haacarriiKl ub beyond tbe 

day« 



16 



Eiftrard Gihhcfn- 



ilnyi nf hift rnfon-rd e?«U(?. OI<l Mr. GiMinn linil mnrrirvl n 
fcconU time, io tbe year 1755; and hU c^o It^mcHl the di>- 
fjuitrliij^ ikuwB * b)' tlic Cttnjtl of a crrtniu Mr. Iltijfuulii/ a 
Hrimpthire neiglilMur. Wv wm ver^- une^sv ; for hi* nwp 
]i]{>9|ti^ct» a|i|wnic<l Lo be in Jaiiijor. I3ut lliv iic!irM^, Oiltbon, 
ui 'imjigmnry mnntlrT,' wns :tn * Jiminlilo nnil Ji>M*ri'iEi); 
fToroan ' : anci when tbpy met. aftrr >»>mc little tcjcttc on tlir 
y»u[i^ iiiA]i*s unrt, ihey bi^ruiru' tlie in^KF Mttnrhtd of fntiKU cmd 
fti«r>ci(iCc*, i'htkt incctinif did not lake place one inomciat 
bcfciri* it wa» aetvHnry lu ntrk'^itf* Mr. Gilibfin trim tii* 
«mbarm«»nri(*niji, by ruicmg olfthi* t<iiu\il ^f bi« hiDdt'd property. 

'Tiio tiTot: <nf my recall hoA been »> picoly compatwJ/ AAy«» n 
poasngo diEcreet^y iiUAM^l mt^T iiutiil niw, ■Hint 1 iLrrivui] in T^otidoi] 
thrrw (iavH WityviA I voa <>f ng^ ; tli^ ]>rio«ita atid lli^ ult4Lr bod Umi 
propftTat, aijd tliu Tictim wi^a iincoTiHcmus fif llio tiJtfcodujg Htrokiy 
Acuurditig to llio fonntt luid fictioDB t^f oqf law, I UmU u Hue whI 
fttiffort^d II rei^Vftry; tlm uiduil wun rTiit uff; ii *iiro of trrii ihmiwiTxT 
poucdA VM niM-d ou ii^orrf^fl^e f<^r my futbor'H use, ntid hf^ ivpftjd 
th« obli^atiou, Liy Hi^ttliug t>i\ Juo kLu Aijjiuity for life oi throo hanar^ 
pounds a juiu"/ 

Ilia submi<Ht(vn al tFir tiuif, lio a^aurcs uf, wu bUqd and 
almoiL invdLuntnTy- Hut Oibhon pr»vr^l hirnii'll' an anMriannlie 
»ODi bia fnthrr tpr^cdUy di>oovi>Tpd that ho Uru) an niUchahlc 
hcRfl. itnd ulciils fiir beyond \hv toiumoo. They led a h^ppy 
life at 0^rilf>n, where the lifx^ritl irkainimnncn wtiic-b b« could 
rpckon upon relraH^d the sTudimt Jmni amiefy, and a |iumioo 
forrrftdinjT fnmUhmi him wi(h iniinirf<i ple^iiurfi, H«? bc'gan, 
aUo, ti) know and to likc^ Londijn society; and at Lady 
Htrv^'i »?i*ntng^ b» recordi ift\\\\ i^tniHhiny akin lo futonktli- 
tnent itiat 'tlic-r^ \^ f>o f'ard-plavini;, hut vfrry puod company 
and vi^ry goijd ci>nvemti<m.^ IliiweixT, Deritnn wa« ni^w bin 
liiinie. 

' Tbi^ »ijH>t wa» iL(<t tojrpily chnnork. nt the cniil i^f iL* tiLla(;u luid 
thn hi^tom of the IiiU ; but IIju rid]iL-ut of tliri adjuennt ^mntidn viWI 
vahoad oDd olififltftil : th«' di:mnR I'aTninarvW a noble proiipuut, and 
Iha loug liangiDf^ ^<Lx>dH in Higbt of ih^ buuao ct-uid not porbaiiit bam 
bcon uu|'tt]V«ii ly ut or cxpcner-^' 

Willi a feeling of ea^ulritinn, uicaiiwliiU, Gibbon waa 
reading «uch bUifiriM ai Hribt^rticm't ; or lumlng orer the paA« 
ol Hume 'with a mixed eL<n«alion ot drlifhl itn<l deapur-* 
Prnrttiipd in nncient litrtaluTPt nnd f^icprt'tiin^ himtelf ia 
French more easily thnn in hia native l*mj^uc, bc had been 
ftiiiml up by D'Ali^itibi'i l'a nhdiauh ou ihc enu/iti, the Mirc^saort 
ot Liptiu* and Cntaubfln, To n ddfi^nce of Jearninff, na not 

inootnpatible 



tacomp^tible irilb the iiiiwt original facullloi of Ihe roiDdi 
Al Lausanoc be comnnrnciN] bU finE exerciuiioD an writing-; 
hit KtuT vriu finithM m lWiu>n, BuhmittPil in thf not in* 

Clicioas rcmnfkt of Dr. Maty, Jobnion'i Mittli? bkck *iog^' 
I s p.^rt\ rriitr «n<I frtii)lur ; nnJ in 17l31 ic wiu publiaExHl at 
{be elder CMbt>on's dviiro. A French pitinpiitct oa a FrciK^b 
t^pic oi diii-auiua wu out Jikcly lo aUrotJt any ividc nuticc iii 
^D^Und, Dfli Gibbon w«« on tb« ev« of making hit bow 10 
Ptntiui locicty, kbi] & more excellent inirofluciioii he c<nild not 
hftve ■I'nt before him. Vet we obwrv^ with amumneni tbA( 
Or- Maij, vh<} bclongrt! u> the •chool of Fontrrncllr, in com- 
■eoding Glbbon'ft fluicrinciiin, <Hil nut npprovp ai 't'»triiil« 
wU&Dt| CV9 fif^urvs bardini, cc ancrilice dcr I& ri-^le &u scntiotvnli 
«| dr Ia mlrnt^ ^ Ia forcif,^ wbicb Aocourkcn! a new And 
aUottrioiu luihor, 

Mr. Gibbon longed to ic« bit too in Parliunent. EdwArd 
VTOt* bim a frmnk «nd coartcoui cpistlc, in which he depn-cated 
like ntclfTM boponr, and aakcd Jeavc lo moke tbe g^rond biur 
•bfoul. iie did not wani a itri in bj* piirf-hnied fnr him with 
iitem hundred pounds; & lesser turn would enable bim lo 
tnrtii lik^ H grmlemun ; and iE wat time thtiX \w €iOftG«ii the 
Alpa ftad taw Italy. First, howorer, be muit, aa ho tays with 
a laiilpc, *cmbnicc ibc miUtorj profcujon/ Hia fatbcr hod 
btcooi* MtjoT nJ" ihA South Htnapthire Militit; th« son, 
^oitlinje hia bcJoTcd booka, wai incidc Capuin ; and from I 75iJ 
tniil 1T63 not » litl!e of hh Atl'-ntion waa demanded for the 
«tBip and lb? march, in society whictt be found the rcTcr*c of 
om^iviial. *N» mruineri, n» (-imveisaiicin/ he wrilei in hit 
^Oiaty,' 'thry vn<rr only a SftE of fellows whoae behaviour wvl* 
igw, an<l moit of whu«c cliAr^Lctcra wrrc dctpirable/ Vet they 
t»oc*cd«d in maluDg an Enf-liahmui of bim: *Th« babitt of a 
tnl^ntary life wetc usefully broken bv the duties of an active 
profctaioo. ... I buat«l with a biitalion InslcMd of a pack, 
Mid at tbat lime I waa rrady, at any bour of the day or nigbt, lo 
fr from qnarti^s lo l»ndnn, from l»ndon tn qiunors, im the 
V^btcnt odi of private or re^imenUl bjtine»s,' Sir l^homot 
Wucaley, tbe Odoi^t-I. ' waa an 4*hbj gowl-tiumnuied inniu fond 
of lb< tabic and of hit bod.' *Tbe same drum/ aays Gibbon, 
' wbicb invil^ bim to icil bu« uftcn aummuited me Eo the 
parade ' : and * his riamplt* eacouriLjed th^ daily pracitto of 
bard and even cxccaaivc drinking which has so«rn in uij 
«otuiiluii'>n ihe aeevli of ibe gimC To Thai lutX muUgnidvi^ 
vitilor (tibbon, after aomc ycnrt of indul^nc;r. p«td aa ^innual 
iributr ; her wu no;, Ut/wewi, when muter of hia own mlilr, nn 
Jknbitual oAWnder m<E:diitt «obriety; and tbou^'b we I'JUtw wiib 
Vol IS^.^Ac. ZSa. amuaetl 



J 



18 



Edteard Gitbm* 



Atntucil uiterost ihe viCMiiadict wtiich befell hi* plpec of 
Mnilcim uij ibclr ji>uni<-v from ihe mrrcliAitt lo ^wil/crfliiod, wt 
may acquit \nm of n vice which sat rather unpmoefullv upon 
A(I<liion, and whith did nolliing tr> bcigljlrn the foiLdiitttioni of 

But he wifc»*lUI dI bcorl a itiKlciiL He open**l Ckvto n^^xn 
with ji liuri{^r| appetiii^; nh<-n hh vifu-iie^ bad been learnt, 
Horace woa jilwoy« m hi« pocket And often id his hand \ Ihe 
hut trview ijf Ills fortbcuuuu^ Lltua^ piuruptetl liim la invfttti* 
gnie t))« *nMtir« of iho Gods/ nn which Tally jirhj^ do ire 
iprak nn longci of TuUj ?) bad borrowr;! copious wisdom from 
the Grwk*: and au thi* purh ht* Brrive*! nr HeAUsohre *nd the 
Mftnictieniks. ' I'Vom this rich trcASDrv of Iftcts and opinion*/ 
be obiprvei with market! einphosEi, * 1 deduced mr own conw- 
qacnceB bcj'ond the holf circle of the Autbor.' Afier encb n 
ircovcry, hv nerrr lelapied lalo indolence , but frr m;iv fAirljT 
cuppokc thai he did not now in hii own inind pfeton<l lo be 
oilbodoi or ei«:n Cbristjaii. 

The Mililia was dUbandeJ in Deeember 176!; nnO thirtjr* 
six da^* after. Gibb^in found bintscir in Fomb, wlirrc he Kta.^'ed 
nearlv fo"r niontha 'Oar opinions, our faihiona, rt'pn our 
gAincs,' bad been odoplcd by the PVench ; at ibat period, ^ a raj 
(if nnlionnl glor^ illuminated each individuAl : Hml everj 
l^f)|;liahman wai auppoird to bet n bom pfiirlot and philosopbCT.' 
In wrilin^ lo Mm. QibUfu, her alepaon lias thrown In manj 
piquani d**t!iiis which the 'Biography' omiia, ll<* wAa pre> 
acDinI to every one worth knowinjf ; to Mndwnr f*c:nJTrin, wbom 
he ba» repaid for her ho^piraHty by qrif>ring u rli«r>jurteou« 
(ircck iipoiihthe^tn, ^ Unbidden go the ^ood to xbe fcn^U of the 
bate '—to HeUeiitis, D'H<^lbai'b, and Suanl, ilir* laic of whom 
boa sketched bis monner uid converanlioQ TiYidly. Deapitc 
hie long residence at Lauaanne, Gibbon had a strong aoreiit am) 
certttiii *harp tunet of voice which mfirrcd the pleatarc of 
littmine to him, ia>s Sunnl. The eipkiiatton iimj be, aa we 
le^m from Gibbnn^t ackno^v1ed^tpcnt, thai he had no cjur for 
mutic, and probably oa little for the more refined inlonationa of 
speech. VVr bnirr Mid that he waa present al thft stpitpynia of 
the philoBopbera ; hut ho could not Approve iheir iniolcnuii 
real ; ' ibey laughed al the aceptieiim ol Hnme, prencb^ tlw 
ienet« of Aiheiiin with the bigotry of dop^mattsltt, and damnod 
all brlletrrs witli ridicule and c-ont^inpc ' Ifnw edifying an 
obieTvuiioo on Gjbbon'a part, who never, we iinnj;int\ poureil 
ridicole and coDlempt 0:1 belii^veia! But fourievu neeks bad 
loon stolen away in tbp pnjoymer^t of a plae<» where, had bn 
been rlcb and independent, "be would perhaps havti fiied bis 

ftbod^. 




SAsmd Gihbtm. 19 

*Mr. In Mnf he IrnvcIlM rtbctftnlly to hii old friendi al 

■ftitf, sDil did not otom Moat Coais until ApiiL ITtH. Hit 

ieiirrf, doTin^ ihU inlcrTiit of qiiir( roAJ.tiii^ and btictul iiklcr* 

<iJunv, dvr«lL on hii fcith^* pmbarriL«iincnu, uid ^iv^ ttt i 

Ijvely iMiricnl Account nf VoItAirc'inctirig. \n lhc'Diu;-rap1]jr 

m^ rtad, *HU decUmuion wa« rbshJonAd lo iIlo pomp nnd 

C«draca of the old •taftr,' but now, ' he ftppv-aral to mc it vctj 

rknung nnnAlurftl prrfnrmrr': pnrhAp«, nUo ]«Hd« iht* young 

critic, *l w&a too mucU iirurrk wit^ the ridiculoui %Drc ol' 

Valuing at >evpm^, :i4:lint' « Tartar Con(|af*ror with n holK»vr 

Itroken voice, and making lore to a vcrj u£^lv nt^cc' of About 

fiflj,* Still, it «!$ a wciiidc^iful liifbl : ' S!id« mp in bi«Uiry or 

fmbK 41 funovfl poot of Mrv#>nty, wbo hiu acted hi« ova playi* 

«ad baa dowd the acroc with a auppcr and ball for n hunHmcl 

p«ofi|e. [ think the laat it the more eitraordinary oi tb« two/ 

Now bcglaa ibc lifelonf: fnTmUUip of Gibbon tvitli Hijiroyd, 

whow cuxfuaintancv Ut* mad** thit year at Lautanne, — a much- 

traTcUfd* n<ctivf>mindrd, and aoiurwiiat ficrr pCTVon* to whom 

Ciibboa w** in drbt for the tuccrttrtil tnann^ffmnm *if afbirt 

viih which he could aoirctly bare ^mppkd in the dayi before 

hiiQ. Th^ir rriTTetjyindence tak»t on at oacv ita liahitu^l 

tionr; they wriie liko the liveliest of younp men, withoai 

crFemonr or pamde; and thry aicirv m wdl tbnt thf^ hardR»c 

IctBclu do n<it leuen thtlr henrty |>cod-wUI t^ each othor. And 

4^ are tincxri^ and i>prnf [lotwllhuiaitdin^ Dr. Johnion'a belifTf 

^ * there i% no Iruiaaction whkh oHirn ilrun^t^r templationi lo 

biftc/ aud BuphUtkntlon thjin epitloluiy iiUt-rc:ourM-/ ThcMf 

'Uitn, which commenr^e at Uola Bella in May LTti4, though 

*«iii«liui(!T ' calm and deliberate perforuiAncea in the cool of 

Toinrn,' hare tipon thrm the teal of Truth fulneaa. In the firti 

*cetn Ctibbona nuaint and f^anhic »c If- portraiture when 

talking with the ' King'« daoghtrira nr 'E'lirin, whom h«> nllowt 

>«bc*Kidablc women/ It it claaiie, but we may quote the 

votdit * I chatlrnl for about a f|iLaT(fr of an hour with thi*mt 

Bi^ltd abi>Ml I.auiannr-, and ffTcw ao verr frco and t^iiiv, th&l ] 

^vnv tnud-boXr rapped it, took snuff twice (a crime neiet 

inora before in lh« pTMenc«-chftinl>er), and conlLnitCHl my dic- 

COBTM in lay ukUAl altitude of my IxkIv heat foTWArd», and my 

(msficq^ itretcbed out/ Mile. Curchod, had the been lookioff 

vm, wontd have cAll(>d htm u coxcomb ; he woa certainly not 

wanting in eonfidencc; and Horai^e VValpole, George Colmnn, 

«od Johnton (who was more amiable at hrart than eUber) hare 

mavkM upon hii eitrem^ uglineas, whirh htf vanity and hJ> 

InrvordrtM did not tend to conceiJ. 

c 2 Majora 



M<(fin-a<Mnariitii. Dunii|;1iiA fituitccD week* ftt P^ris, Gibbun 
bmd tTAoIivd ujxia a pljtn of tmdy for ib^ nst* of hit Tnat- 
alpin« expedition* — ' ihe lopojfrapbj' of olii KookCi ibc ftncicai 
(rro^rikphv of \m\y, ami chp ftcirnre nt innUtft/ He fiDfl) m 
folio comnifin-ptACc bitot, irnd, »etected, and wrotu upon 1h« 
wliok ttubjcri; ni](l, tills rqulpjict], a^M-til »<>ui«-wbai num^ than 
A ycAr in prcpKrin^ Ihc eAnvoi on which be «viu aflenriLKlft to 
p^uiit, bj cipl^Jtliig |[al> .■« fit »oiJlb aa Napin *aJ to Ui< 
logooiiB ot Venice. Th« <l^inoii of monf^v^lToubtofi itill ptmoMl 
him I 1]j» journcj was sboricncd by 1eitcn,or the vrftot of Uicva, 
from nprifon ; btit h<> *nw Rom**, and n^i-er »aw aoj? pJcLnr nhic 
roaKd his imajifinnlion inore cHccUvety* 

'I »iTu ^diiiOMt [ii a (Itrikuj/ Le wri1i?a Vj Lis fuUier; 'wltatevor 
itft«Aa l)o<ihfl iiifty bbTs gJvoD ua of the gii!alu*^H <ir tbdt jtoi^plr, ibcif 
ftooouiiU of tbo nuwt flouriebiug stato of ICi>mL> full iutiuittdr abort of 
tbo piotnre of iU rmQ4> I ata aonvincod tLer« novcj ciistod iiuob b 
uutimi. uiil I lupv fvr Uie liOippiiiuBa ^^f luuikiiiil there never vlll 

Comparr vriUi tbcte •cnteitce* ibo * Auiobiograpbjr/ trbldi 
•till iJiotr rJoi|Lient: — 

* At tb(i diiluico of l^cinty-fiTo jctm 1 rau noitbor Ibrgei ENf 
«Xproit» tho iitrong omotjonB nbich agilnte^ tuy idid-I m I fint 
ap]ir>tiL:iiciI nxid uul^ibd tbc rffrrtuf {7ify. AiUsr & idoupli^ii ^t^^bt, I 
trod witb n lufly hCc^ji iLe niiim of Lho Fonttn '. f^wb tnemombtn Hpot 
wbctrij iCoiiicJui atci^tQT- Tully e[iol;o, 'rr CA:e&r folJ, m-ua nt o&oo 
pTDsvut bo tiiy Oy<> i J^^^ ncTcroJ ilayn uf iiitoiiiAtioa trorc loat or 
um'ujod bofon^ I oonld dcvcottd to h cool aud miuulu iuvuftUipitiou * 






^ 



Witb lo inn^riificciDl t Uuni|M^t-cidl ^lui'ii ibc- biiioTian nwaken 
UB to the gTcaiiicsi that he ba> been licuincd lo Joftcribr, and 
In iluin^ «o to aurpiU9 the DccaJe» of Livy, lo charrn a widrr 
audicncu than Tacitua with hii tUfin And »*vere philo»ophy 
mulil have hoped lo ^ain, nndf in a lan^uaeo ;infon.-area t^ 
Cmro, locmibluon the proud tropbiv* nhiob Home had plantod 
fimii the Kupbraii* to tbe Wralcrn Ocean. The orcrtcre ii 
wonhv of th<» »iabj**rt Add the nrtiiL 

Tbia iri*pi»ti<>n, lon^ await<>d, CMXio to bim, at we koow^ M 
B |fl*rii liine ami hour, when i*n the l.^th <if OccoW, 170-4, he 
•at 'niiumit amidiC the ruiat of the CapitoL, white the bare^ 
fiKitinl ftjaia were ting'ms reapen iii the temple of Jupiter/ 
Ii UFhi not, an:l(|Qariana uy, ibe temple of Jopiier, — tb^ 
chureh called Aru Cvli, — auJ, if it bad bren, upon a lalad 
nunr «uuvpii|j|f of religintii intlurncvt ii n^eii itoc have 
wrtu^hE n «ad imprM*ion. That ibo (J^pitoIiQ? Jovo Uad 
yielded before the GchI of luael ; that the tmoke of victims no 

lonfcr 



« 



Rtieard Gibtwu 



n 



^Bulifd, an<l ihr H)>ojt» iif cbr diL-nu at Iviigtlj furguU«*ii. migbl 
hue fumfiluy] mattrr far rrjoidng, rttb^r than for Inmrnuium. 
Ihf old Koui.tii tcli;;lf>ii iiAt nut to AUK^»t, nur tbr inLtoipk* 
Kbidi Mn^mtrd ihr Vin Sacr* nn-l ricHic-ilprl ro ih«*ir ^m1 the 
tpe^ Bpima s^ bumanc, o» io caU forth electa from the 
ri^ftcernth rrnnirv, hii*1 that rvntury known th(* relation of lu 
Jvn ould principle* to St. Frnoaa of AuiBi fir the irrv^Urt 
Name which Othbon b» not <l[Lrt?J la wl down. But he 
WUU A «liJ|iondo(U chftn^ ; xhv conimtt bciwoon old and ti^v 
pCROJ la bjB Trrj innin^w ; nnd him dulj whi AiuriH, hU life 
vMlirtlod. Tir«nty-five }Vau rnuct clapcc vro tht hiatorjr 
vaoii] be ^rcn tn circuUtioji, ihc' \m^c dim ouilint^ uf which 
^ htd tern it in tli« tivinklinfi of an «re: to widi* ia the 
lUefVkl bcCiTC«a co«i<^pUurt a:id puf furiuaiicr I Vet the work 
«W)Ie] he* done, at but, tuid woubi maka him an ixnperiihnbls 
Qvauinr. 

The chi^r hindniixv, indAPfT, co bit atlj^mnting Any oon- 
tuiilf/CB taftb nrns bU fnihrr, lodoltMit* snmrtimc* provokhu^, 
.*Tt viih<riii mntirv, he cuilailed llit? \niiTi^ miiTrt fTeedoriif did 
Do]lufi|r to clc%v ihtt e*tate of its mori^M^'e, t<il<i the houte at 
pQUMy wUb ftir^r fuiil Umrnuiticin, nnd, until bii denilh in 
I'iCV tftat«>d Ediviutl to the oArTon aJJow&ncQ which w&» all 
ibrt (lie cnrumhrTRr) prnprrly would yMd. ' It !• B luciUncIioljr 
nvih,' fin read without nttonUhmcnt in one of Iho lupprcued 
F««>4^v«> Mhal mr Ucher's dmib. not unhappy for ItiniBelf, 
n4 ih« onljr ijTcnt that could tnvn mc from obtcurity and 
u4i|;cuc«/ 

Bv thai vTiint^ ibfi h'lat** nml MUto of Rciiion wt^o fiihbon*t 
'•n. Hia pride nni Rfirtereil b_v the importance of n coiintrjf 
BnthrtnHrk : *\{y rutiir miniKteri solirif^d ihr commands and 
vnlcd nl the ifnnmxior of their nn«k*tcT/ He did not wUh to 
pri frovi Mr«- (■ihbun ; but ' il wu noon nppnrvnt thvL a wommi 
iDd a pliilocirphcr could not dirtcl with any pr>s|>eot of rkdvnn< 
t>p ttch a romplrx Aiu) ri»«d^ m^tcbinr-' The inort^a^ naa 
ttTVCi«Mi ihoDKtnd poundi : 'it coatd oaly be dtccbarifed by a 
Uncltd M^rilictT'; and Lc projxjseil to tvW Lcnhorough and 
rvt^em Beritan. Lord 5haili«]d did hii utmost; but he t^innot 
^n rcmaikin^ that, io all hti commercial transactioit** 
Gibbon'i ill-luck w» mirAruloufl^ An nfii^eement, ruhtv 
liCDed with a certain Lovcj^rove^ ' half koavc and half 
■nufmaii,* en^umbt^rs iheir CTimrcpondence iinril th*» render ia 
aimosl ma an^ry and dts^uftcil ^t thrv were thenuclvca ; it na> 
biukm off, i»cx wiiboo: a worUl of irouhle; but we are hardlj 
with Lcnborovgh when the bialoriaa bimadf waa to qait 

tbe 



Edmard Gt^iw, 




•tifft. VV'hcn hu mti>mc nrfiucil tn expand, vthiic tbc 

l» upcin it vtould util fllintaLi Lr IiiuIle* up b» t-iLibUtlj* 

in tieDtlaok Slfi>oC ; n^ad^r n cmnpAiCt initti Liii hitrad 

fmnifrrivni in tbc nf!rt:tim^3 uf Mlli.'. Cuichnd ; nad rrtiird 
Sfrittrrlnnd ibat tie mfgUi k^p up, of i-v^n mM lo, * xji* 
'irliifli in hondwi he ci>ulit no longer ntlV>T<i. Ht loved ittdc- 
priid«Mi(N«; mnd, liki* a uiait of lb<r world, b? combined widi it 
Ac plraJUttTA of n tocicxy in wliich bo it&« now aM^rod of 
Atlfnlion and applnui^. 

Tlif fifteen feara bt'twecn hii furiral in Bcotinck Str«rl &nd 
his lliffbt to I,HiitAfinf>, juiM bi^fotp nt in a g^y ^nil rapid |>r<i- 
CCision, os we rend tbc»c letters; but xvc tnuAt I^K^^^ Ehem up, - 
lh«> EdiiiVa aiile:! aiding Us,'— nitb miuif kuuwUge uf thr* tea 
tbouaand names and tbc Qnc« nioroentciu* incidrnti ajcainM 
wkiicb tbej- ligUtly bru«b tbcir win^ Thauks tu ^Cuuiin 
Kltot,' who ««ein« to havr boon hii d^tu or ffieman rt vniithtryd^ 
Gibbiiiti tvbf^n hii atcpmotbrr w«a settled «t Batb, — tbc fit 
rafugo of * inbfft Rin^l^nes*/ nntved '>r widowed, — fuund himself 
10 FnrliiiEneDt at Member for LiikeArJ, — aboroiigb,bcrfinaiL«tn 
iui«4idf, * lh(- eln-ttinnf whicti are |{eneratly of the* lamrnpinion 
■« Mr. Eliot.' Hl' WAS a inuie, iL'duinb dcr^/ in tbcHijuBc; 
* It U n^oT<> trpmrnd(]»i timn I imjiginod/ be wrii«-a ; 'the grvat 
apcftkcr« fill me witb df?»p[ur, and the bad ones witb terror/ 
Tbongh a pliiliiRE>pb<-T And » Whi^, be fulloweil Lf>rd North; 
anw \t%% deeply than did li|{hl-niinded Homre Wnlpol^t or *y^tk 
tbf facetious llotirrll, into Amf^riui lleuI all ii si^fnified ; was lott 
10 odinir^tiion of Burke, ' a qaior'iiniU *>i \f^t*\% and tina|>t>s/ but 
reiuaiEicd Ice to bia entbutiaun ; and offendcil CbArlea Fox 
monall^ bjr ncc^piing a pUo^ on ibv Board of TradoL Thnt 
Acceptance, we read, * provoked aL>inc of ttic k-^dcn uf uppo- 
attion wiib wbom I bad )ivf-d to babici of inTimnrir ; and I 
wntf mo*t unjuitly accuacd of dc«crtiag a |iuty in which I bad 
nevrr mliKtri].' He did tiot knnw thai thn nccntntinn oott 
bim, in 1*53, \\iv plftco which be acuKbt in »oin ol Sccrrlary 
to llir Frenrh Fmluihiii- \'\\x cii^ld Iihv^t put bim into tt ; 
but pox would ncwT fori^ivc hu vehenkent talk in ibo clnb- 
roumn which hii vutri coutraiIict«nl, aJtbougli U may widl bi» 
that bi« deliberate opinion! bud tnnro con*iatAncy In tAi«iD. 
So far bni^h> indenl, at 1780, when Mr. HIint depiive^ bim of 
Li«keard, (liblmn wroU», ■ 1 bav<> uniformly a««erted both in 
priiate and public the jujiicc of the Amcriciui W*r. . . . 1 liar« 
4iftfo and tevF*re1y rentured the faults of odminittrfttion, but I 
have fliwnva conileinned the tyMetn oS oppoaitton.* He was 
nvwc a (lEuiii pairioi : wlirn Ijiuannne bnd f£iven bim a ntlug^. 
bcun tbcpolilJCJhlK^ihgctbrou^ ' a cold mid diatant cloud *; mud 



EdiC^ard Gihhcn. 



» 



b* bficune, like hU bn-lhtvn ibe philiucphen, niid evtft cbe 
ttinAthro|>c Koumcao, n citLcen of tb<T trarm whom p»rtie» nitd 
tlxirlKiltmir vocift^miflai coulil na W^r iroublr. 

Bat wlin, lit tLU timo of flaji miatU wliicli Loiulvr Gibbon 

folbiml in thr ^(mu PAnileinoniarii, — bja nnmn for th(^ * nnito 

laij DOQMfiM? ' of B&rUaiD^iil, — or who wUl ijiv* an eye lo any 

Bie die piciunmjutf iiici<lHaU,>— th«j wertf nul mnlitur llat 

Imi nmc qa«mt form or bigb colour lo dnbnlci now tllonctd 

Uriwi on echo? WhM we linger upoo ii ihc lively autbmtic 

lUtcb, dnivrn by hi* titre tbou^b iwjfc-inov^jag poncll, of 

Uadua BS he SAW U from bis 'Ttllii in Denti nek Street,' the 

^ramam, ci ope*, iirepitiiniqiiv Roinw/ Wf> like ro bejir of 

RMftJigh with iu innutrtcmbic Jatjnp>B *tfce bctt nifLrkct wo 

bitp,' — (or courtship, — 'in Englnnil ; of Vitinbal). ami th« 

PuUieon, (un<l tb{> ^Triumpb of DoudleV "^ ^ maaquerado 

■liii'h cinl two ihoutJLnil guincUf— 'a tijTii ihnt mi^hi htvc 

JmiliipJ n province ' ; of yelret and nilHea, and Gibbon iLininj? 

UtfieBfilisli Cuflee-buuK viiih G^urick, Guldamilh,MaL|^ibi'ib(ju, 

lod Ibe author of * i>ou^bu.' Wc ate slmoil equally ioiprpsted 

in ibe Btory at tbe d\i^\ between LoiU Town»hend aoil Lord 

BHIamnnt, and tbo hi>torian'a Dot« thereto, ' I am m un* 

liahiaaable a» not to have fougbt a duel yd.* Our laatc ii 

r>ilifi4-d, or ff^ndalized, on learning That, in Glbbon'i new 

libaiy, ^ The |i«prr of the Koom will br a fine sbaf Hock paper, 

Tj^l blue wiih n ^old border, the Book^rmes piintrd wbiu*, 

eatcd with a light friie, neither Dorit por Dentulatud*; 

tbat ibr upboliteref *qiiiti> agnvi in the proftertption of 

lOf^onr-' There U a toaoh not imwoithy ol Jane Auaten in 

ihe ily rciJiirk about Uia L'OLiBtiiii» * The ELiuLa say all that ift 

inp«T on every oAciuion' ; and n world o| pAst !ind gone maliiy 

U Ihe *eTen wordi, ^ Couj^oitablo »niok?, lojij dinurra, nod 

matorr JtiniueV with wbjc)^ h^ iriumpha ov^r the tront 

waters oc ^beflleli) Place. AuieTitiAn ncWK, roLling over 

Ae idkf cbitHr-hat of the day like ditrant thiind«r, I* often to 

iMrecrlain tbat ^people' — he meana 'politiciaiu — Mo not eves 

koov nbai lyt^ to inrent/ a irantcendent eDnceptioii, aiiMW 

iaa«^ improircd upon at iho Stock Eichan^. The Necken 

•re in town : * 1 Uvr with her juai an I ii«rd tr> cl<i twenty yean 

■1^ Jaujrh at ber Pana Tarnish, and obli|^ her to become a 

nmpJe tv^uonaM^]- SMii^esse/ Mrs. C«ibbi.in*« 'i^vquJaite senat- 

biHty of fricndahip ' takes the aLxrni ; but ho writef, ' 1 do 

aHOre yi>u ibat ttme haa cummiiled very great ravagea upon 

ths Lady,' although * aa a woman of tal«nta and fortune abo ii 

al the bead of the litcratarc of Pnria,' 1 lis atepmother la otavinf 

m B«tttinck Stwei ; and * I am pietty much a pruoafti *»t.™\^ 



14 



Edtoard Gibbtm. 



I 
I 

I 



About oai> hour in th? ercninf* : but ai thtt Oin^ 1< 
witLi Mn. Atlibvt ] uk<- iLr uj^porioutij of citing lurtle vil 
Gurick at Hmnplnn/ Tbe Gordon Rioti breik out ; Colon 
Hulro^il Icitda the NorlLumbf^rUuiI Militia intu tbr tluck of tl 
MmulE, TfljwU fhf iiuy of thp mob whirh w*v lir$ii(*K'"g ^^^'^ Baiilr 
of Enjctancl, and, lajs his friend,^ irna all l:ut ni|;bl m Holbom 
nmong the flntne*.* But for hlmtelf, 'I Am not Apt, wjtboni 
duly or of nccruity, to ihruU myttclf tnto a Mot>,nn<l our fiortod 
Ibc tonrn U ai quiet ns n rountry Villtfj^e.' He ranitot ri>rbear 
bia lubitual Ji^At, 'my known nttacbiDcnt to the Prolqatail 
fUilif Jon has ini*Lt pmlmlilj uivrd me.* ^ 

Whether at home or abro^kil^ in tb« *ile&d calm and JeUfrioiflt 
toliludc* «f lAiiidoji out uf tbtr htaBun, at ' Drl^btLcln»«tooc/ 
Bitb, Hompton Court, or Pnru, the mnn of lh« world U ni^rer 
wftnttQg to UtJiucIf; and UU gay though not heroic teaipcrr 
allont or prranodtfi him to i>»im all thin^ exc«pt thfr T»iaiioat 
3f LcnborQUgb, in a cheerful li^bt. (Ic is about to cruas frofo 
IVvet; ■ unri liat night * small Pnvsieer, fitted ont « I>ni*» 
kirk, irith n commiision from Dr. FTimklin, ['^ as Poor Kichan] 
Vkyn "!1 ii»ark«l, ui«k, and lias rjrrW inui Dunkirk roid ibe 
Harwicli FftcquPt, . - • Adieu. I ahnU write by tbo fir»t opptn- 
inniiy, ^iihcT from CaIbIs or Pbiladnlphin.' Unit *p^ ntUUla 
Ittab^u* ? a plcoaant puaagc, ati excetlcnc house, a i^oocl dinner 
with Lord C<)leniiR«'; and he writ***, fivi- i^ieel^t aft^r, froo 
l^rJi, a set of opistin which Homce mi^ht have signed- Tba 
Ncckers hnte surpassed at) !us expectations: * I do not indeed 
lod^ in their h<iuMr (a« It mi^ht <*Kciut tbe j«a]ou«y- of tb« 
buiimndt and procure mr a Irttic de cachet), but i Jive very 
much with rht-m^ fic. Mr Wdj>ole gave m» an intfoduccion 
to Matiantc du Deffand, an ftgrecablc youtif lady of eighty •fwu 
yein of aofe, who hni riMistnnt nippers and the beci oitnpnny in 
Parii, VVhcn you sec the D, of Kichmond at Lcwea . . . aak 
him about MadnniR de Camhis/ Of her, thr* ' ngrmihlr yriung 
lady ' told WaJpolc, that 'Le Gibbon etoit aussi un pen dpria^ 
aithfiu^li^or hriTaime, ' aa rrmjuetferle ewJ s^che, fr>jii!c,(-t piqaantn; 
c'eit ua nouveau ^enrv (]u*a sa seduction/ Gibbon was nlwaya 
alFetitinir to be sedutvd ; and his admiring but aharp-tdu^fuml 
frispd, Maria Holroyd, haa given an aln^oM buile«quf> dvscrip* 
liOD of the worship which Ite bestowed nt Lauaanne upon MatUine 
df' SiEra, whom sh^ p^rstits in translating as Mra, Wood, 
how nmusinf tc i* Co hear the pliilosophcr sayiu^, — 






* Tou may add ta tiie pLc^a»1]^e8 or Sootety tho»} vf tb(» apdcl 
and promaaadM, ud you will liiid that 1 Itisd a very agritoabU 
Jot tue JD0t condMcoud to obtorre that it ia not psbravagatiti Afbtf 
decking mynctf out with eilkfl nnd uh«T» tl^o oMbary Mtftblialuilcnt 



I 



Edxtard GiHct. 



U 



of CoAcli, t^gdn^ Snrvtnu, oftting init prK^lutt ntpoarroii diMit not 
HM litQn«« b«tu&<t IDT coAck na<l mj bpftrlmoat ia hong widi 

Ilv tddt, ' nf> imt 1j«< fwul i»f ftbowing mj lKl«r : ih^ playful 
tAjiioa uf fricndihip would bo ronstruf^d by vtmngcn m ^ri>t* 
laij^j.' Willi bt« stepmothrr h« in rnorr »pnou»: * I pnia »njr 
tun* in iht> «i:>rii>tj of men of It^tters, peopJ^ *A fixtlii^ii, Ibe 
bifbernnkt of rAr r^ryy.* [hIk^ h»id ripre^unl *itmr! npnirbcn* 
■ioaabout thfrir wflcomr of bim,] 'and tht^ forcif^ti Miniikr*, 
uhI ncvpt wtcD I with to stral a feiv momciiL*' pfh&cj', U 
hMddi bappca* to mc it* dine or lup a1 my hotel/ 

Jfoonr tbni bA> cnj^iycU tbc reading of * FriUc and Prejudice* 
vtll rnrgci Mr, Colllna, and his letter of arknowtrdgnieni Afwr 
•iuEinr <^t ^1>'- Bennct'i, Here ia a perfect Mr. L'ollinia Inter, 
fllibcMfd lo Daib : — 

*l lAohud LundoLi Kfler au ttasy and plraannl juuruty, uiLd aut 
iDa sal^d in my Ifhrury lixftrni a ^^i>i1 An*, aimI ATiii>iig 1^NU> or fbnr 
IkiOMod of my old acLjnaTntoEiot'. Tb^ |iro«p«ot of roy fiitnro Itfn jfl 
MflffMiy; yet I ahonlfl cfitcfun rayHolf a ▼cry bappy nuu^ imked^ 
iffftiy fortnif^t cnnld lje of aa nuro n whik j4fi tljn bt>4t \iluoh I 
bn^sl at Bntb in the looicty of tbo tiic«l amccns a« vaU at tbe 
ttMl ainiablu vf my fnandUh' 

Hjid T^<]uinml Hurkr ni*|. b^<-n trilitiiijua fiir t^Ciinoniic reform, 

tad had tbe defeat which Rodney inflicted on the French ia Ibe 

Km Indira uktfti piscc t4^<i munlbs earlier, it is probable cbat 

Gibbon would baVA kvpi bia a#Tan or eight bundrvd a yomr at 

ibe Board of Trade, and not ipent tbe last nine years of hU life 

Si daduerUttd, Bi^rt;**, hovrr-xt^rn cntried bf« motion to have 

^<n0! with ' tbr? perpetual virival adjoummeni^ and the unhrokea 

■iain^ vacation of a BiMrd wblrh wmt mthrr an * Arndeiny of 

Lctura*; nor did he p»aa by without n ftnrrr *tbe lii*- 

\ Ubnuni, the wise nnd laluffiry TPKiilta nf rlcep rv^itgioui 

n«nrcbf».' Lord North went out on March 20^ il^'H ; and m 

Maj Gibbon tend* word Co Bnih, 'Tbr thnndtrlHdt baa fallen, 

■a4 1 bave receired one of the circular letter* from Lord Sbel- 

bttrne • , . the board uf imdc will bv auppresM^d, Aiid Llb 

Ifuftty baa no iurlher o<x^nsion for my flervicca/ He continue! 

Duly, * Yog have beard of my Gouts, they are ranishcd, and 1 

M rayvelf fiTe-and-Cwenty years old. C«n yon aay a« inti<<h ? 

I hope yoB can/ And in a poatacript, * Next Wednesday 1 con- 

Hade my fony*fiflb year, and in ipile of the rhanf^ oi Kiiijft 

vad .Ministers, 1 am very glad that 1 was born/ A pbilotophy 

' ■ Hut hU orrupaiion was goiw^ On 

>bon replied to Lord tsfadburoe't circnlar 



F«fcnft>ry 10, IT^;^ 



by 



S6 



Edward Gihb^. 



hy voting irith Vox, Nortli, und ttc Rockingbam pftrtj in « 
mnjoxity of ]iiKifv*ii igainai him, * Vuii would havr hlsmnl mr/ 
-tiii*lo hit fltixioua »tepmoih«T, — *foT goings or ralhor b(»ijij; 
mnlcil, ilown with n;i]iupls anJ ciutclips, Hrd silting aH Ut^bl 
uli jm4t ci^hl in tbo momiiig; but 1 have thv plcdtctire of 
Mvnriug juli that llic beat and tbc Cati|fue hare dooe IM 
Qi> harm, that 1 hiv^ already changed my tiro crutchffa iiuo ' 
a ain^lo stick, which 1 bopc to ibiow airay in thicc or fo«r 
divf.' The fit>(gu<-l irnjr h^ io\d in Gibbon'i oi»n Ungtiafcci, 
'Tb<T iw*re Wft* certiurr-ii i Lorti Shclburftc rcr»jgncci. Mid the 
two fiirndfi [North and Fni] kni*lt on the sump ruihinn t« take 
tb» o^iTti ol ^rcrt'tary cJ ^tnti\' For tJic hiBli>nan ibu}' had no 
farouiv; Nonb#h<* wrilrs to IVj*rnliiii, * * la dfmflrche lenle 
M le pc»nr Lnud '; Pox ^ro the post ai the Pariuon Embatsy to 
AntUuEijr Siorei ; then wa» nut ti ■Inecure lu be bopetl ior, oot 
a pr-nsion but wat forr«lalIf^; and on JuW 1 Gibbon «i*nt ofT 
ui bii Swim friend the dcciaivc Trords«'Je ptirs.' Hi* life ia 
thr HoLinr itfComrnunft wat «ndftl, lxi> career in Kngland bftd 
rcachml iu tfrrm. 

All tiu* wbili-, thr- itnmetiKT, ihn nnmndleled c-Dirrpritc 

which Uo wa« enf^f^ lo, bad bm-n noTtug oq from atAgc to 

tugr, — at oitDc A cionquotl of litpnture in all iu prorinoc*, and 

a fraod alliance hinduip loftoibcr humna tbooghi, old and bvw, 

Latiap Greek, niid mWom, aa Alrxandcr Lad drcAjni of uoitinc 

nPiiliilil liiilnm Wilb Hellenic pri)^T<-«a and dcvctopment^ The 

nUottt hlMd on the Capicol, opened out iirth pcrvpe<cUTrH 

fatynad AUHe and Aii^tihTuhii, bejrond J^aiinUn, Nfabom«l, 

Chftrleaiajf i»e ; all ihc MuMlc Afca r-amc crowding togrjthert 

thfl Bjrtiaiktiike Mmulrp led up to the Cruiadea; And the 

revolntiona of the Caliphate inth>duor<l a lovif and fi>rTn]dable 

■un:h ai p(H>plc« imm the Caspian HaAtca, Ctom regions nrhicb 

th^ R«akaii C4>niul nr\^r tot f(H>t upon, and wh«re ib« ea«le« otf 

fau *oMivi,« bul never hci^n tern. Itot atiU, tbc tdca held, the 

batiUtT vas kept in eiew ; bj what hai uDCe bc«D t^med tha 

llBgic <ti e^xBta, bjr thr oJut«e oi the oamiiee, «Bd the wcAYii^ ! 

M the wrb^ il waa made eirfti- that Rome U thc> mivciiig-pljMV 

M HuMiwy and th« world'* metropnliav A fniitfu] lhetn>e, and a 

lpiBd|il» bj YiitMof wbiHi lliiuicjr takea to itirUnot a litilcoj' 

wm Tigrni* f*nn, the otOet, and stabilitr which science ha* 

J w» yi dnunod ! What matter^ now, if Gibbuiw perccit Ini; thU 

hftlBDov >B tbm worid M facu whioh f^nwp^oAa to Xewtoa'* Uw 

oC Kiariutiott in the world of na|iin% weighted the pre-Chrutun 

waSm Mwbf««Uy, awd mw in the latrr eefitnrie* a lapv and 

dMfiaef ThKt ttt^ couhl ihh fait, <m ■ marc cnci coDtidcts- . 

•o be M?t ri^hl [ in the tum it u plain ibai ChriatUnitj. 




Edicard Gibhffn- 



S7 



fiatUiu diuipW jamng amtiitlon* anti uqUoIt strife, vxtx\% 
fSfuism (u the itto m hii ttrcngth ibines out alxiTc (ho 
Imnbus d&im in wbtch ih<f stars are fftdmif. But to bftrc 
cnck rhi« mjui^r-linf^ through •■>n]l.ir prrio^t, To haTC thi>v« 
bov the loomlaiioEis Uy^ and vrbcrc the i^cat city tbimld be 
ciicc«tl, wlib lift teiiiplp and lu Invrt of Iifv, — all thu, which 
uAnftutine, irrilinff whcQ the Romtui wnlU hnd jKld«l, v«a 
uiubltfcu Bkcti:!) nvc in abstmci tirnpla-cy. Gibbon, the M^-fixc^ 
t^irnaicAl, ch« dainty moji of fochioa, Eh? Eii}-ltth V'>It3ir«t 
lu cviutnuiml, u il undri » burtli^n of ilutv> to ntU'iiipl ; nnd 
tfc^Poitei' thai Imlpdcl :ixiA smiled al biin would nova \*ft him 
(Oh uitil tl'^ twtk w&a ttccuiiipliblivd, the <^utli»i» iiJlvd up, sb«]» 
40 ibe Tery erv; o/ a nevr G-ri^ when Revotutioc vnu at the 
(ban, lacn might turn thrir «j«-) to tUt? past, and learn from 
ill ootttidcration how far thny had nrnvnd on choir jouni^J 
iMvard) the (tilorc 

Xo W* wai ihif v^jpi* of th* ' IVclin? and Fall,' t( inuj b* 
nrtiscd, coTT<M:tcdB dravn in more minute detail; the plnn 
muiiusi fur it U a part ai Natuir atid Friwideiicr- Gibhoiit 
dntitutff of Uihtical and other taaurm lorr, did not be^n far 
Uck enough in tUc n;trn«|ir(^tt tth hr falird iLki^Kiw in di«- 
evmin^ cbc conciuuoa of the itbolc matttrr Hod he taUrn 
tfine't licw, Lr wuuU bate iuuk- oraicj lUif marL ; bui he 

fittt Tacilua and thon Julian; by and by, when Inlam 

i»tpt like a hunicanc u*er half the CUmtion wjtld. ht f;(juld 
o^. >r^ for t(M> tadd'n d%rl4n<*«s; and c'v^n the achlev^jm^nt* of 
hil awa day, thr Kn^lish conquest of India, the eiploita of 
Rmia upitn the Danabe, gav^ him no duf* rj> that atsuml 
(timnph irhicb biu more and more lifted the Cross aborc tbc 
CmpenI, and ii now rmindin^ off a mysterious tragedy which 
bu laalttl tn^lve haudml and siaily yeara. Hat in tho 
^brrin^ and TiTri5raii<fn of l^rgf^ [nas&rt at truth, ihimgh br 
voriLMl B««minf;ly :dQnie| he cnjuycd i;r«at and indif]>riuiibte 
iMJitaacc. Hum, during suuic M'len ^frma, he was prepaiiiig 
hiifToiHid, is told ut in the followinj^ passage :^ 

*Pr<iiD llie Au^iutati a^if to iXxa tall of th^i* WttU^rn emptrv, I 
Hndiad, oluKkft nlurajn urlth is.v jkjh iu my bauil, tli^ original r^eordo, 
ktdi Grook ai^d I^attOf both rloaloaiajiLical aud pro^ac. I hava 
Wvn denied *>i dia«cmhl»l my obligations to modern glaaecs, looro 
ie|noially Vf thn iiii.viri]j>«mi]o iniermuu^ie uf Tillfiniciut; bfit ua it 
tty privilega to tbiJib with my own rvHM>u, «o it vvtM cay duly 
iM with mj own oy<tt> Jn thu JULmu hijjtory of tbo luidilLo 
~ ^ixrat4<ri snd Vx^, diiiijnjuh ai^l AtaJTin, vrorv lay failbfiil aud 
oaguidf*. and 1 ^tw^jhmX thnmmi;af Roma in Uiii f fortncfttb 
, withoDi Rvpootjag Lbat tbe didtaut olJMt moiiU 0y b«CL>n 
ttA of a itixtii qnaHo/ 

Hi* 



CVI1UI 

m 



38 



Edwanl Gihftan, 



HU Dpf^iiin^ T€)1iimrA ront Iiim mom iroulilr ttijtn all the resl. 
tboufEb not » ihirtl (tI the wbok. * The «ljl« of an author aIioiiIiI 
be lliv luia^ uf [jit» uiiiid * ; auJ if nre ivud OiLboa'i CofTC* 
sporid«-ncc w<^ «hn1t fcrrmc thnt no man ever <*-xprcMr(1 hi» own 
n]ui«* nccuinli-l). Out be cuuld ni>l, al llic br;^]ai))npt ' hU tbc 
iriiddlr- rone boiw«»n a dull Chmniclk^ anil a Khftorittil ilrda* 
QiAlion ' : ihrcc Iimo did he compote ihe (irst cbaptrr. and 
twice tW i^cyifidand thiril ; h«rrT*viu-d ant] rwlace'l ib* rifirvoch 
and siilcrnth, wbtch cnntMn^cl hj» nnlurAl hittorr of Che 
CbriaTian Churrb, iiniil ihi^yhad thrjnk frf>m a roluue Xt\ th^lr 
p>ra»cnt iuET. Ho subjoina inc^aiatiouvh-, and bit «ii«Riici woald 
a§:rnr, thnt ^ ihry mtghr *mII hn nnmprPMnd vttbiiUE nnr low of 
facta OT sentifnfrDto,* Hr did m>t nntitipato tb(* ichool ei 
Tfkbiiigrn, *bidi Jifii r bis riimr r*nFH flourUlii^il, anil dpcitjnd, 
ItnTin^ us in pcuftcBAion cf a tcm:or7 ijlusuntod by itubbord 
cu[iilict>, but no«, un ibt wliole, wtm from a jaiirri vorpticivm, 
and «iicure» a^ainit encmiea in the day* to tvimo. NnT, Mr. 
Lcilic Stephen, whose judgment of Ciibbon ai t man doc« nol 
err on t!ji> Hide of rem!*fnes5. Adinii* that Mhi* :ru<* ranan*' of 
ihc Cbriitifin triumph ' Juv in a region ftltogctbcr inKTctablc 
by hii mrtbod* of enqtiiry/ and hr itnndi an)aju*d ar 'tbfr 
wcakncBB (if tilt* altAck ^ in tltcip mucb'criUcUcd vbsptcrt* 
* From hit pjiget little can belenmi.' thna Mr.Stephrn mnclndrt, 
^a,% to the trac vijfQiticcincc of the ^rcatcft rdiftout c»iivui«i(JO 
tbnt ba* tiftrtflfoTnie;! th& world's hiftnij.' 

lliB 6r(t volume tame oat ^n hVbruarv ITtb, 17T6. Five 
Vk'tcks lattr bf *ifrite» lo BiUb, ' Mj^ Uiwik h*i been very well 
i>*caivp4^l bv men of l^ttor^, mo[i of tbo worbl, and rvon bj^ fine 
feathered ladies, in sboit hy cvrij Hd of people eirept perh*p* 
by th» Cl^tfry, tvho «e^m (I knr>vr not wb^) \o thcw tfaetv 1««tfa 
OCi the occailon.' t^Iartvbrrc he baa »atd, 'My book wa* on 
•very table^ and almo« on ercrv toilette: the hittortan »ii 
croirncd b> tbc taitc or Faibloti oi lh« day ; tior «vai the general 
vnioe disturlwd by the barking of any fircfcnff cHtio-' Th«r» 
vrns YilXh force or pMtincnc<> in lacb hnaty criiicL»m na a work 
of ihh fftr-rf!Aching »cop- And intisive t-tuiJilidii usi4 likely to 
encounter at »o ihort a. notice, l^hc Aliack was licffun by < nn 
ttDunymtm-E ri|^*blee]i-pi-niiy pamphlet,' «Biy> Gtbboa nctirnfuUyr 
adding, *Thr Hoavj Iroopii Watson and mrti>IhAr, am on ibftlT 
vrar/ But even VVutson^ — n good rhcmiti, and a fluent tbotiyb 
Bap^'iftrinl JipologiBt^ — spent no more than a month of the Long 
Vacation — be wa> ProfcRior of Dtvlulty at CHmbridfC— in 
confuting Gibbon. When bis »econd and third ToltiniM 
AppeaE-ru in I77U, xitc auault Wlis more v^bcmrat and pro 
lodged, ' Taylor the Arian «nd Milnfrr the Melbodiit ' j<jinnd 

titBII 



-i 



Edward Gibbon. 



t» 



ibarrotcMi *tb«> \\%i *>( mv ft(iv<mari<« wu ^^cfd with ctw 
oii>re rr ajHTL [ Able doidci of Dr. IVicatlej, Sir Dbviti Datr^mplr, 
tail Dr. VVliirc; and evvrj |x>1eiiiir of ^ilti^r Univ^r«ilv ilU* 
cWfrU iiii MtiAOfl or pnmphkt ftg^inat ihc im|)cai«ir»bLe 
liltacf oi ihr Rcimao hiitun&n/ Thnt b« wcu - lunled fti tbe 
fast ri>]|i«« or ibis Kcclc«U«ltCftl ordnance,' ho fraokly owiu ; it 
tu nne, h»wi'V4Tr, tliA nri^Ut of mrul, no much ai tin? doia* 
icid imoke that aJarmed him} am), tbou^h we may hcmiuie 
bffiire gmillng hit ' iiiuuctuur and nccuracj ,'^^4 pUiulive 
tapfmion I — without <cnic qiiftlifjing daiuc, it It impttAtMQ 
ui lo n^rrcc irUti MncAulii^ wbf^u br crtc* uut, * Huw utLcitjf 
lU 4^ ttttu^lcfl ^n bit llUtorv ani forgottitn ! * 

Matt Imc^ bat cvm iqqec inaj^ be afKrmnl. Not onlv tloo 
ft« boob, 'with ill ii> faults of «ubiUnc« lod ityU/ at 
U«ruiU^ ob*crvc«i r«uin its pl«cc in our litemture, tbougb 
'dTcntire to ibi> reli^iou* reeling of ibt country, and rcalljr 
aixl imfAir irlicn.* icligioii Is cooccinod/ but tbc clerirj' lbcm< 
■ehft hftrn alwAy*, in tbrlr hejirii, chpri«hpil r n^^nrfl for 
Cdvard Gibboo. He, At alJ «voiiU, ba» oot committed the 
DDpuduiiiiblp till of bi-[ng iniiinVrc-iit, to lti<-ir ilniiuK and ih« 
pri ibey bavc plnycd id the cvorld'a aronn. He hiu laiiruod, 
iGiiifn], sniTred At them; br bos done LU utiiioit to eip[jkin 
Umi avtav ; l>Dt who <»]«iF, Among ibeir oppoii«nl<t hoM dcecncd 
itmotb Uu while to learn wh/it tlic CoanciU b«vr dix^irjud, tbe 
Ftther* writteCr tbe ib«»Joifiiiii wroug^lit out into their libnriei 
<{^^ftUC dtft<:ua*ioa? VijUitlfc hud n fine, i:LiriujB, x.-(iicLing 
»nttrit ; nnd ypt Voltmirr would hnvr flrd from ihn aighi of 
KfUrias, nor did br v«i Huriui: U'alpole by nccdlcu knoir- 
tod^ nf thA luinmninna and Spmi-Ariana. A< the frivolous 
tmoc mid of bimMlt ibat b« vftft * un romantiqac dcfroqod/ ao 
Gibbon amy bo d»cnbr(l aa a theulogian ' mnlgre lui. HU 
Und, ibou^Eb nol Lij mind, wu subdued to what it worked in ; 
kul Cardiual Nc-wmau Uu> wiiueu witb a ugh, thai ^ ili^ chief, 
prrttkpe tbe only EngU»b wni^^r who hat any uUim to be 
lunaiilrred an e<;clcuaaLical bulonan ia the unbeliever Gibbon.* 

Tbe tait act of Gibbon's trant^viii Mory itai pnisec) at 

Uluanbe* I'or nearly nine ynftn he dwelt — a reclute lu tbe 

Miming, tbe wry king of Swi» cociety when he laid down hit 

pen — in tbe bouac t« whicb Dt^yverdun had invited bim, and 

ekicbf when thu atfrclionaTe companinn wae aiiminonMl away, 

became his own duiin;; ibc tctm ol bii natural life, il coov- 

ViAdrdr ai Ciilhoii fttifiiriuly hojiau, ' n boumik'Sft |]roipecr of 

nJc, mountain^ and waler'; it bad more room* iban be (.-oulil 

Udsipj ; ami bti Ubiaij, bis friend*, his dinnen^ ibi- irrrace 

vbcre bo took hia walka with Fiioc* Henry of PrusftjA, the 



30 



Edtcarti Gibbon, 




Mhn* in which )i« talked B«n(&ntioiMly, no man or vottua 
ctftHn^ to inUrmi^t liint, tbc »iimirm ibftt cwlqc diboul Lin^ «ikd 
th^ not unnttnt^ivt^ .Swi« clftrnfleU, tome LOC«*rUin one of wban 
he thought now And then hr migLf do n-rll to m&rrr, — all these 
d^liiUt i>f «tUI life- Of ftnimntnl nniurr hi? ptiinu with swift ftod 
Cftivlew tuuclt until wc scr them di*l)ncUy. und uk curs^lvet 
wbtih<^r »ny unr nvpr wrnti* moiw sufmirfthTe ltit*T(? Noi 
many, it u corlain ; for tbcv bnvc Iru nITrctattoD Uian Horace 
Wiiljirilr'A ; Xlvy art^ ikv polisbed m CuvnA ; and l^<ly Mnty 
is no( moTR cntcrEftining or more obaorvwit* PoHiApt Voltwro 
etcvlv ihcm lu iiuickneu ot tutn and drptL of uiBJicc, — wc 
rocnn ihp French mattce^ not th« Engliih. At dixy h^ IWU 
hirotcir n >i>ung tumi; bn i* ^IalI to bftvo ocnpcd from the 
*|)rovokln^ liutirj' tyf London dinnL^rt,* but not luh&iacil to 
Icni! *A gnv und di»i|)At<Hl iifc among tbci Alp«.* Tboir biu/ 
Enf^liEb HrnM arc nr>w fur from him, ' lik^ thr rMnrmbmrf* of 
s noia^ and TroublpBomc dream ' ; and ^ <xjald 1 unite in a sinfle 
Womnn (hr virltim ntiA nrrompliahmnnifl of hnlf-a^lojwn of my 

attftiotancc^ L would instantly pny mj addrcMct lo the Coo- 
laiioii.' Alwayi a llltl^ JnfHtLiaced wilb himself! fiat 
MiuIt wna ibc firat ol bii j>liTA>urci; tho Roman Hmpirir atlH 
vonunurd ia der-linr fnr hii onupalion ind nmirtrtnpm ; he 
wa« fauioui ; and thouj^b hu bnd not built a (ortunV' on the 
mina ol ibc Cii|f]to1, aa in Tli«-ar diij^H br i^itninl^ wmld hare 
doae, yet he liv«d in a bnndtomc «tyle, camo in for a toiall 
«tttale from hU Aunt Heater, and wai al Ji^n{>tb enabltxl to 
convert the land which bod be&n hit torment into stocka and 
mortgagee tbai for him meant independence. 

Hi* bfi« rj~imini»mor!irrNi tb^ momenc whnn hit UhoQrof I went r 
yean came to a close :■ — - 

' It wofloa tlio (lay, or rathot tho night, cf Juno 27th. 1787, hctvoaa 
thn honrs of iiUirim and Iwelvt. tbul I wrut** tbu laat litieo uf thn Iiut 
page in ft vuioiiivr'boufte [n my gHTvk'rL Aft^r laying d>>ati nij pea 
1 took ttyroraJ ti^me io n heiv^ttn, orcorer^d walk cf ioadaB, whieh 
wnnmauilA » provpoct of tho countvy, tbn Uko, and Ihe iMfvanlainAi 
Tho lir wnfi t«nij»ei«to, the fkj wat tt^rooa tUc hilvor tirh of Uje mooQ 
VIA tofleoted from the nat€Ts, Rud all Natitn» vvAt ailonL I will not 
disMintio tbo fiml eniutioua of joy en llu i^oovory of my frtodoon, 
and perbapH tho eatabliiibci'3Ut of my fik&u/ 

His fame was beyond th« fthuftt of Fortune; not eo^ the cidin 
retreat wblth hebnd chotcnforhitolda^e. Until May J$th, 1788, 
hi* 5fty'fir«t birthday, be was occupied in reeiiinjr the manq- 
acript of his last volumes In London and seeing tbem tbrouyb 
the pr»M. On thai iUy ibpy apppaml : their rerrptirm was 
favouiahlc, in spite of some well-founded animadveniona '^•* 

Gibh 



Edward Otbh^ru 



81 



Gibbon't freedom in <iiiocinc witttt bmd better have bt^cji Mt 
tihnit^mttd t1»*» <*fltJci»ri*vnk«d by hi^p'^Mtai**!!! anri-Ctiriitirtr 
Mht, Ttkc hhl<^ WA* mj>i<l ; tbj^ iciualionf — il ii our auibor'i 

pud a gracclul coiDpLiiiioiit, whilu avoiding: the forin I'll di'djcm- 
lldti, Id Ijotd Norih ; uii) he ADnouiiced hii n^toLvc (o bid Eii^- 
bod a acw f&rcirf^tl, that li« iFiight rirtaro to AolituJi* and «tudy. 
He«f(ki bA<.:lir A LHjtpy uitui ; ]>ut, Ailluii u fvn iUy« of h(* 
iniTil, apoplexy hud itriurk down hU frieod Duvvcriiura, wUn 
lioicred Jcuu^ OctdLri uDtU Julv 4tb, 173[Ih IIib Jr<u(b, ivLtcK 
fiibthon Annmtncfd ta ShnffiHd Plm:**, *m JeiIv I4tl», mjghi u-oll 
Ut^Mvmicd a picw^e of ibc KcrnlutioQ beginning ibat Uaj at 
Vrtnlllet, whkli wAt tn rirnUh «^ man^ pitiful, atkI lom^ 
dniudc, tccDct At bii own doar. 

It II ttrmngt^ bow littl*^ any lucti breakiag nul rri>[a tb« n«l1i«r 
JlBrpiVftABaticJpaU^d by n mnu wLo«<t tbouebl* Ltid Ions* Ix^ifO 
(oonnatit ivitb biiliiry anil all iu * teaching by rippHniiv/ 
OibnVf |««« Itemed but more nttudtivc, Lad l\>lt tb^- wamitij- 
t^jftontb «>f ciiiUjCjuAr ; baE Gibbuii, n]M jf-btrd with Lunl 
56eAeld oa ' th<! airy labric of tbc Fondt/ and wa« <jatic villni;; 
l*ie«k muFF profilablr invf^tiarais, b«l >utik a poitiifD uf bU 
opilRl )n tb<» Frrncb oight pet cent, Annuiti(*t nt f&r bnck At 
tiM. He then wrote. ' At ihe hc^innxtig of a ]>«Ar«, mid pro- 
fcahU a 1u<)g pt^aci-^ 1 tbink (tnii tb^ WorM «i^'ini ro ttiiiik) th» 
FlCficil fUDdt n« solid A» our ovrn/ lie livcil Irr icc tVoikce 
fcvdbvpt and to know lh«? menninj^ <it ies anst^tiU, On 
StpMnWr 9th in Ibat fatal '89, bo >■ compdliKi to eadaioi,^ — 
afivf A taoimi ovrr hU ' pcMir nnduity/ — ' WbAl a ktuc » 
Ftibcel Wbila tb^ A««i-inblj ia rotini; abctravt piopoiiiioni^ 
PftHi is an independotit Kf public ; thr prorincfri hnvn neither 
vnhanty mot frwdoniT and poor Neckcr dcfdares that eredii it 
kt-Hwie, antl that ibrr ^Kirplr refuac to p^ty tairs/ Nrcker bad 
W*> diuniatcd wilb ignominy, And told lo quit thi^ kingdoao; 
fcf «u now in Gibboti'i nripfdjourboijd, dcatinrd to a seoood 
ngn in Farii and m t^nnd ^xil^ lu SwicR<»r]anil- Ffance wu^ 
nl^, ' in A ttatc of diitotution^' In IJcccciibcr wc read of 

'lis hcGCctovt cf tbo Awfoinblj. il nut of wiM ViFir)EiiLrioc (liko otit 
l^t Price) who grarel J ilcbniL-i an4 i^ri^am about tlic cptkblidLmcat 
rf> poro auii purfml ilviiiijcnxuy) lliu virluutt at IIjl' ^'ulilun u^ftt ujjJ 
lbi|fu&itiva rigttU ami r>qTiAlkT of mankind, ivLioli mnjltj loadi lU 
iia itiABPtDng, to on o^ool pcrtilion of landii and ini^uoy-' 

Bai had the [utLOTtan nril Itjokcd into Jr-an JacqueVs 'SociaJ 
C«fitract' onlil now? HU forccait of tbt* fuiurt ia ungoUrly 
bliikl ; ■ How man> year* mutt clapte before France caev n^c^vtvr 



mtiy vigour, cr r^vumc lior Btatioii ojiiuiig lU« power* of Eurufic! 
A> yetf ttiere is no symptcm of a grr^iki ninn, s KtchpliAD or z 
Cromwell, amiog, cither lo rcaturc tbc Mginaich/ or to IcmJ thf 
Common wen 1th/ T^ ibU h^ nHda rhe i(it«]Jlgt-n<^, ■ Vou vrad 
mc to Chjiubcrry to tsc a princx? adiI on ArcbbUhop, AUat 
w« have exilet enough Lere, with t\w ManLal tie CAstri«i Aad 
tbo Dukv Utf Uuigno« at tbcjr hfr:ul.' 

So lm[kriiilc»tu n «:nta«tr[i[»Lc might hare Dnolr<l frvrn * 
rrlonnvri xf-&l ; il lant Gibbon into tbe armi ot Edtnaod 
Duiki; ; ' ] fti.liiiirc bu c-loqurncr, I upitiut't; his p>li(ics, I tuion 
his ohivmlry, and [ cxn forgive even bis «upontition.' That ii 
the Ungua(;c uf an awakcoinf: codkicdcc. Not vet aatiafied, 
our prniirnr will apoIogiKe^ * The primitive Chnvrh, vklch I 
hnve treated with tome freedom, [wbal n nroke of oomedy 7J vtf 
ilst*ir at thai lliDi> an tnnitvatiDj), Jtnd I v/a* atiai^bed to tiie oM 
PagaD ostablithmeni/ Rej^nard the fox aevci bad an\ strong 
liking for Iseugriui the wolf; and to Gibbon these nrn Fri^ncb 
arfl * GaJlic wolve*,' wb<»n thvty aro not * hynAa^,* ' cacnibal*,* or 
dog^ that have their d»y of ^ most iniolent prosperity.' lie bad 
thougbt o^ writing a 'dialogue of the dead, in which Lodan, 
EraamiUi mttd V^oltairc abould mutuallj acknowledge the danger 
of expDung an n^ lutwntiiion to ilie ominnpt uT ih<f blind and 
fsknatic multitude/ tven hia fauinnnity, which was real thoaj^h 
not pasaional<v t<Mk the aloim. Wjlberlnrcc bail |>f optjkCE 1 , Aail 
Lord ?*htftfie|d bad luccFulully mUtcd, in X71U, the nbotitiaa 
of the slate trade , in 17i>2, \\i\ accepted the piiaciplc a( doiog 
awav with it by dpgrccs ; and Gibbon writes to his friood, * In 
the slave question you triumphed laat mmIioo ; in this you bare 
be>en iVli^nted. What is ttw rauaef . . . But in ibis rage 
againit slavery, in thecc numerous petitions s^cainst tbc aUvc 
traiilr, nas llieir no Wven of new di^nvicraiioil piincipies? nu 
wUd idask* ol tho rij^hts aud unlut^ equality ol man? It is 
tbcftc 1 feftr.' Aud again the i:i-</^i£iU Whig ezpostulate% * If 
you admil tlw amalleat and oum aporioaa change in our parlia- 
tiienijuy ayale», vou are }oit , . > KcoMmbcr the proad fabric 
of the Freikch Monarchy.' To hiu atepmocbev he writes with 
«qual wunntb ; — 

* What a i>tTaag« wil4 worU do wo lie* ia T ToD will aUow ma 
fa W a toUmUo hialenutt, yrt. ou a tiur reri«T oi taamti and 
liniaa, 1 CMi tad aofte that bcsii may affini^ with tlM 
. , . Thia loUl tuhvotuiou of all rmak, ar^, and govsn- 
oiiaU W wodDoii«» tm\y nf a wtp«lu monaur, whiM afisr 
iwvauii^ ^rnojlliia^ ob< tmui Oually io^^xr tlaelt' 

TW SbclGdila, with a U-ildonsa pecuUat to BcULsli tiarei 
had >aada tbair waj^ to Lausanne by Paria and So«ih 



France. 1 



Bdv}ard Gtbttotu 



38 



niQD>,UtuiQf; tbetlormj d&yc that followed the Kin^'a liiffht 
lo Vucunc* aDiJ iiik frtuiii a* u prittuiiti uf ihv luiliinu It h'ili 
ibelm time Gibbon caw LuJy Shcflic]d» io n'h'>m bo hnd alwu^t 
teto dfToled* WlicQ tbcY ]ctt Jutn, hU thnughu turncicl loivArda 
EflgUntl ; llic Swiflfl vallPTi w<*«» hnginning to rec*iv*' an over* 
fin* oi ibc inuiKlaUon vrhirb bnd >ubxncr|'ctl I'rAQCi^ ; «D(1 no 
«uil«Dl would CAte lo «e« hU fnvourit^ auilion torn up to mtik^i 
<annd^t9. Lord Shnffirfd, irhoftc letter* «t lh;a pirriod now 
nnt r(]j<iv lliF tijC^it,-- lliry hnvp an pxtraorilinnry frrthnpts an^l 
t^Tbdtjr — ftVKLi kim rrpf*Mcd iv&rnm|;« and uivitntion* itt put 
limirir l>ej^>nd i\\ti ivflrh of nilafurtiin^, ItiiL li« lingered on ; 
ud toffrardi tbe end of S^ptcinbcr, ll^^t, tlic S>iui>euE»ltr» brnke 
ifiEoSavoy, uiidti cuuuuiuid uf ' M'. dc* Mutitn(|uiou/ Gibbnn 
*Ttia wiih hi< uiual luetdily on th(? rvcnl ^ but * I deipiso the 
fiTDdi much l«s,* br ailU», ' tbun 1 did Eitu months ngi>/ Till 
0«i*T» thoiiM bave fftlt^n, b** wmild not r^tri^iti ; itill, be wm 
iTOTlded wilb two «lrong htirsei, and •% bundrr<l Joula i» guU ; 
lad be could join th*^ NVcIet-ri at Zurich. The ronin^a of 
Vdmj bftd kcatifrcd (be ConlitJon ; Ciutine w&« adr^nciEig 
tbmg the Khtnt*; Bruntwiek, brilx^d or ouEtriiird bj the akiU 
ofDviroijrirjtr 'ft Heavrnboro geocnii/ wta iollin^ brick; and 
Gmfvu rjim«> fi> t^rmc with tb^ rabh1f> Ti>iit nieh at misht bnve 
Alttmcd (jibbon a lon^^cT ita^ amciD£ bii vn]aine«« Tbcr vrer^ 
[LdC buKerrr, nitif[«l b; ibe Prt-Tidi Mitiiiity - Mumrflqnic^u 
fttdirvBi hii troopt oitd U>ok relbga with lhi> Noekora; Gcncf& 
*ii nrorutiuiiiMiil ; and Savay br^oimc thr Depnitinmt a( 
Urmi BUnc, In April, 17i>3, the* pontic and aeecmpUahcd 
Wi SUfflirld died ; and GibWn At outc wl uut for Ku^'lniid, 
■nvflbn^r by tbe Gcnnan route *now dcarcd of cncmiot and 
•llici.' But, dntjn;;^ tfym Fionkiorl, lit lays. ' 1 hrar, la I am 
triltog^ ib^ cannon of ibr liege of Mnyrnop, nt lb* ciiitAnce of 
dmtj miles: and tanjf, very lc>n^» will it be beard/ 

Te fluch an a«coTnpaniin'«nt wai hU Jnti junm^y from the 

AJp« fitcntcd. He bnd only ci^bt montha more t» live. The 

■ttj of that ftuirmrr al Slielliidd Plarp mav bt* rvad in tbc 

hif^'Bpirilvd, miicbi^vi>tu, nnd nlmoit manly le-tt^ra ol Maria 

Enlmyd. Shr ndrnim nnd Uiii^bi nt him by tiiTnii. Hnr farhAr, 

A< itys, ' made him stay a lorti^i^bt lon^ur Ihun he intended. 

I ju ^Quw \iv it Clivckwotk. uiid (■> kerji biui a day aflcn h*s bid 

iJetcrmined to ffo u to derange one of the Springs or Vl'he^l*, 

Howefer, Mr. Di^utfliu with bi> Greek ana Lj^ita, «nd I'led 

Koflh with hu hlimdi of Ithaca And Corfo, h^iVftpjt him quile 

a good lliUOQitt, and ibcy nre much more entertaining^ baviii|f 

n lo draw tb«m 0«:/ LoM ^befKeid, with an eye on th» 

Vol. IS&^AV, 369, t> publitv 




tV'lU* f .n*rf «tW«a4 OMe, W n- ^CM ; fe taOcii of foil* 

MMfffuM? Mft JviT'l Hhf^M, 'uod JcATVcd tUt mv frimd i:^^ 
MVlf^il ■ r|li«ff*f U<nti> <Mf frVlrick ibal d^j/ Mti end ^^* 

tMlln lfiH<i»lJ I hill MJm HtTf.-n.» Hr>lro3'iJ, who'weoi op wilh t** 
M^iH ltt\A'Ml,tt, IwlU M«rU llint' Ue miiffrrrtln^nndi^nl i<r^ 
ttM4H *ti|t(i AMil «ii4 ifiKKflUuM, mailing VEfinpU tu ipcoJc wbf- ^ 
fth^ftt^tl U¥ i«i»4 M<H lrii#ii«jl>lr*. , , . A< nine jrsl«rda7 hiwq ' 
Hltd iiHl, 'Mit in^ftmlT" ivrnml timM In gniil pftio, ft^^ 

nH<h» Htt iliiirv, Uil IUihI UII « rju«ri«r beforf one at Noo^ 
nl kittdwi MM 4I111I hii Mit nunli, u1(li\^>isl to bis faTonr^S 
t»iiiiM|L t»»4«, ■IWiifKi^l i>4i «4i i]U0 VKiit mcquiit»?* He di^^ 
At III* Itt'tti* "I »iU tii-iia I imiti^i iW I^H-kwIlpT, in St Jamp^ 
*»! "^' i^«t liiiH tmiil hVbruarT, I7W. 



Edioard Gibbon^ 



86 



omiiimi<irftt«s bU Icarnift^, ^tjli*-, ootiTrruititfci, And pbilnvopbit 

^CBpttr; but it would t^rve «H|ualIj wdl for a vmaoui bvatu<»B, 

vmI 11 ipcoJi* nrithor of ChrittiAn r«iib nor of the bopn of 

Immorulit^, Such Saiih and hope Gibbon diO odi, iiitl«>e<l, 

po«aa«: YCt lh« fault vviu nut wboll^r liis owu. If lii» Ap[M>iiitc(L 

leKrhfTt, — And I'nrr wu nuft of a clcus, nit singuUr in hia 

^Hibm1« fcT^tfulani of tbtass ctcrnni, — bad n^Jt tbo tuioo 

\aA ihn ftnihj flivtn^ whirh nppri^hf^mU h wrrrM lM>v»nit ibn 

HUM*, hijfbtr and dceprrr tban tonvrntion, And ritAblubcd 

ooifftlitip* ci>inp»TiMl wilb wtiich our vtctnY fonnuUi uie bui 

pniag dr««ni« ami cbildren'i makn-Miorc, it ii not von- 

^Ui ibu ttu.' inultituili? of whiiin Gkbbiia wa« » biilUHut 

uiit>ac#, tb^ wiitv invu, iho cult iva tod wutn^n, stiouM iinkgin^ 

liut alt ibr TLflnr* wrri' tUTumeil up in grArn of Jii^nncr*, and 

>tl viBdom in frr^Hlom of mind. That luperb Poi^nn f*pilmph 

ttikc* cold upon lb(? b^art like an «icbo of the <x>nlcinpoT«rj 

FiNeb intcriptioB, ■Death i* ah PtcroAl «t«i>p/ 

HmI Gibbon'* owo wonlt been «>{^rtfd upon hit tomb, thty 
D]f!ht f#«in ttill mon nprvtvivp, iboii^h not mnrr crnnfortAbt*?. 
'la old *ft/ be >A^s, OD tbc la»t page of hi> Hif>Krapbr. 
'ikt ooniolation of hope ii rficrvM for iFif- Irnilt-rnni of 
ptrrnti, wbu conuncnce a new life in their cbiblrcn ; Uic faith 
ofcinthatiuU vhf> ting Hallfflujnbi ahovp thr ditwli i and the 
^tjr of autbon wbo premnnc the immortAlitj of tbcir aamt 
«»d fifing*.' 



D 8 



Abt. 



( 36 ) 



AfiT, H.- — 1. Ittrpart fro^n Ihx Selftt CvmrrttOeit i^ tJtff Houm^ 
JjOTkU on tha T^rffs Da\f Act ; tct^her mih the Froct^dinyt 
^thc Coptmit£ee, Minutr.t of EinJeuct, atul Afptittdit. ScuioQ 
1^95. OrJ^red to b* piinced S7th Jujw, 15V5- 

S. Sf^^Jtul ih^ft from the iktcct Ct/mmittiv of tAf SloUM f^ Ia^i 
tm iht LiiTfTt ha\j Acti^iX Gwj. III. v.. 49); U^^Hher ta'th 
J^vc^iuifs of the C^'inmiitcf^itTtdan Apfumifijr. S»»on 1896. 
Onf1*rwl %n Ijp printH Mih Julj-, 183*1. 

B- V&a^Of^UfJi vf Cdriisrbary : Report t^^ Joint CQmTfVitUe cn tht] 
Sutulit^ Oprjiintj <f Miiivn/rtJit etc, ld^3. 

4. MinuUt of the Jntemaiional Conference on Sunday HtM^ 
ai Parti^ Stptcmber 24 ti/ 27, 1S6S, IVpitatwl to'lhe Uoui 
of CommoriB by mmmJiinl of Hrr Maj*'«tj', jAniiikry 1^91, 

QURSTIONS L'onni^cUKl ivith r«<ciirnji^ iJayii nf worihip aiul. 
of rest tufcT*" o(?^upipd hiiinciit ibougtit In isytfty ptTi<>d of 
numnn lifr. Our owu ug*? haa provwl \x%iM U\ he nci eio'ptioii 
to Ibia rule, iu)d, a« ib^ K<*poitB plactnt al tiic li«ail ol Ihii 
ari-kiv wlil ilii^w, tbcK? quntionji <>ccu|>>' ttir AtlrjiiJuu uol ouljr 
of tbc tbcoUijinn aad the mornltiT, but ulto ibat of tb« «CaW«- 
maa anil Ibr uian of nfTnirs, 'V\\f.y ii«k for volutjoo nut only in 
Commitlrrt af Ciinvoi'JitEon, but n\%a in Commiilp-Pt of I'^rliA- 
mcnt, Th^y furnub tbiimn b>r preochcrn from piitj>iti» lukt 
Are iliaciuswl b^ di^putij^B in liiU-mAliunAl Ci.mfervric«-Sv Like 
■II historif^ <]a«tjon», thry ouj^ht to receive— bui too seldom 
hatr r*?L'i-ivetI— 'blsturlv tr<;aiu[t-ul ; eieiiI the iJinirultlri of ttw 
prevent ougbt to bo at leut id ooeik? d^gT<>e removed by tho 
cjcpcrieacc of ibc pott. 

Now, if v»« confino oiar attention Co ibe main ttroanu of 
civtIixAttoo, tbc bUtory of tbc problem* wbicb arc bound np 
whh a dfty of rp« dirid» itwlf nntumlly inio thr follnving 
cbiof pt-rriodB :^(1) Tbi^ period whicb u covered by tbc 
hi»;r>ry of Urruil, ibH rbirf tbinimnnt* of whirh arp to be fi>und 
in the OM TetUtn^nt Scripturei; (!?) The period froon tbc 
fouudatioQ of ihts C'bmti&n CburcU to lli« deatb of tbc Emprror 
Conitantine ; (3) Tb« »r]od from CoDalAntin^ ii> ibe end of ^ 
tbc fiftb; cvatury ; (4) Tbo p^iiod frt>m the md of thr Hfth 
century to tbe Reformation ; (5") Thp ppriotl from lh« Refoima* 
tion to tlip prcxnt day. A bird'»-eje view of iht' bislory of 
tUe cgueslion in «»<:b of tbi^sv jKiriofU will form ihi> \ye*t prppAr»* 
tion for a rigbt anderatandinjf of the poJnta at Ismxv, and for tbft 
fonnntion of riybt opjuiou nriLb rrgnitt lo them. 



I 






1. Witbin tbc limit* of tbe biilory of Isnufl wt? ne«d not 
te«k for an earlier tiarting^puint iban tbo Sinoitic CoJe, nor. 



TV Lorii'M Dai/. 



87 



m «« diftcun (bo intcmtin^ but sntiquATtnii qu<^»tmn« whlcK 

p boacd ap with the diviiion* of iinn^. It U the Fourh 

□i&odm^nC of iti' 31usnic Di^c^loguf^ which tat fonncij the 

tindition a( prnvpF nncl of prarrim in tW C'hnrrh of ihtf^ Old 

ftont, ftnd it 19 the nature ACif extent of the nhro^tLtioQ or 

IJicatioD of ihit fuiKlnini^nu] law bj otir Lnrcl Ami Hn 

, and its bimlin^ fnrcc in m<xtcTn lifC| which form tho 

bttible gruund of our pmrnt dU[:i)3Eiicin«. 

But thoQtfh the Fourth CociiTn&ndinviit ib eoailAitily quoco<l 

Uv) rclcrrra lo as a formnl drxTMinrnt of which thr text it 

l^^irt&LD mil ihc m4vuii(i;f undoLibt^, the inquirer who di)i>« 

^ go fTYrii bv)oiid thr timila of iIil' EngfirtL Uiblc will 

find tuflicUot TCk*on for qupfitioning the ground* of ibli 

LWumptioD, Lrt him r«4(l the woril» of the Coiooiandment lu 

ivT nrr ^vrn in rhp twcntiflh ehaptor of KinHua, with ihi^ 

"pirrii, 'Anil God tptxkc nl) lhc»n words, sftviojc' (rer, I), iiimI 

rrcHnpur** jh^^iH wirh ihp word* of fhp fiflh rhapti-r of iVnipr- 

<nioniT/ of which we nro ti>ld> 'Thetc worfU the L/ird *pakG 

ituto all voLtr luiFinbly in tlip mciunt out. of lIu? uiidit i>f 

tbcfir«t of liift doud, tuid of the thick dorknoa*, with li great 

vuine : anil ho addr^l no morf*, An*[ h^ wroto them in 

twu tAblep of stoix*! acd dcUvcred them auto me/ He wUl 

ccrijiuly caiiifut^L* that bulh these fvrini cfiuiiift he litrrfLl 

rumcti from thn tnbUs of alone, and thai hi* Jt dcAling with a 

ntLbod of quoUiEon nhicb ia wholW difFetent irum our mwlern 

ideu of v(»rhril ,imirs<*j" ; whil<* carefal and trhoUrW inquiry 

^'ill Qinhe it extjv^mc] v probnble thht Jn neither <^«e ha^T we & 

NaoiKtion of ihv wunli of the Law, but a hortatory e:cp(Lnaion of 
|v which Tint found its plfKc £a writiog in Itu? hook* ci 
tddiii and Deurrronomy. If we idopt the view of Ew&ld 
^Qd monj foUowura of &U vchoolf of thouf-ht, thrtt the original 
'<Vin of th<* fteennd, fonrih, und fifth coirimnnilmenti w;u— 

* Ttton nhM Tint mnke to t.hyRelf nnj grnvfm ImAgn ' ; 

* RemembfiT tho uhbAih d^j to ke^p ic holy ' ; 
' Eonour ihj fatbor wid tljj mothor ' — 

'* ihull have onitT of form in iho ten *wordi of (he Law/ 
^d hLaII find the only sali^actoiy mdulLOLi of the VAriAtiom 
■* the two recotdi. Mow clie, for cxunple, are we lo reconcile 
^e Mjitement in Exodui that the rcat ot the S&bbath daj U in 
>»A«mbAnce of the re*t afi«r the tii d»y> of creative ener^ 
''itb the Attertion of Deuteronooi^ that It wju inxtitutcd 10 
^^pnofj of the deJiverjince from Ef^jplinn boiidh^n? Bui if 

* B«* DnT*r, ' latinjuetioa to tltn Lit<iiraitirLi of Uko Old TuAtunoDL.' p. ^ 



n 



I 






I 



flS 7^ Lord'i Doif, 

ve nitt tliui to Tcducfi the word* of llie Fouitb Ccirm&ntlrooiii 
ivrittf^n upon rlie lablfi of Ht»i>^ t>> the ilmplft injiinndi 
* Hcmoiitbcr xhp sabbnth tUy t" keep U holy,* wo iiiti hnve in 
tUe tipanilffJ tfonnii pnmphrnirt tvliich pretrrve to iin rh*- urlglnd 
iDtcrpretation j &rid il is iinporlant to notice tbftt fic^iin the 6r«t 
ihe ubief iclf^n isi as tbe name em jilinti cully aasciti, llial uf 
ft ivtt'dAy, In worils wbicb both fc>rm» make prominent, but 
whttrli ID inoilurn ducuBEiioii have been almuit entirely omittdii 
it u only for the rann nho known vhnX work U that ib*^ 
Sabbath day hflfl any mfnning. The idler or ibo Iriturc^ inui 
ft^ moJ&Tn Ufi^ hjul tti} plH.ce in the com niitn wealth of ItrrurL 
The prcpamtivc tbr *thc icvrnth dftv/ which * i> n iabbath 
untf> the LuriJ,* is * ^ix Jays shalr lliou labour, and dci 41II ihy 
work.' An<\ th« ro^sous ior the instilution, thaUjB;h one goot 
buck ta the Dirlnn rp&t aS crrration and the other to ibe recent 
delivr^rancc Iruui bondage, i^rce in tbe principle of re«t tkfur 
iftbouii WoLtlv ltovtJ upuo each other to eipre» the futnew 
And the alUpmbtating character of tUJ* ble»setl privilej^ of retL 
Tbe hoLJaebulfler la not to ^do any work/ and thai wbich U a 
Uw lor himfcrif ifi a lav nlio for all m(*mbf*ra of the hoitiehiild, 
— the ton, th? daLiifhtcr, the mnn-cervant, the mAid-x^rvani ; lor 
the AniitiaUoni]«i hisoontrol, — ch^ox, tbe nt«. PLtiil aII ibf^nattle; 
for the very ^arran^r' that i% within hit K'^tci, Upon ftll, 
fioin the bvad oi ibe liouK^lkoM U> lUe huLulilekt i]ii?niber of il, 
and ihe nicnndftl d^jiendAiil upon it, it iher^ Id fall upon one 
hallowed (Wj in evt^ry Hcven the tweet %ca%e of froodom from loiJ 
ftikil hnppineat in rest. 

Mor i* it IcHt »i^nilioant, though again tht fact 11 one which 
in modern timet ha« for the tnott part eicnpcd aitenlJon, rbnt 
then U DO reference in either form of the Commandmttnt to 
worahip or 10 any icli^iouH e^rrrisoH &uch aa in later ttmm 
have b*en hound up with the very iden of ihc day, and bare 
not pelilojn been a&suQLi^d to be essentia] to (he Jetvlsli Sabbath. 
And if vre pass frmn Um Decalogue to other legal cnnctmi^nitt 
and to thci practice of the Jena, as ihnwn in their hooka of 
hiitoTj and ilTtiacrnieil by (hi>ir propheu and poeca, we Und 
thai throughout the Old Te^lanient period the idea of iho 
Sabbath i< prt-'ierved, in ar^ordnnee with the meaTim^ of the 
word and this \1o«aie inititution, ai a day of reti and r«frt!t»b* 
nient. In the Tempi** llir iiii^rning and etf»mng sarrilLoei werit 
doubled, and tbe iLrwhrcad iva> renewed^ Tbe later aervtce* 
of the synagogae me piubably tbi* growth from r«x>ls whi<:h ^ 
Far down into the eatlitfr hittory of the people, but these rooia 
at^ entirely concealed. There ia no bint before the Captiritjr 
of anj^ Sabbath lervice other than the a&cri5»a of the TMnplo, 

which 



7^ htrd^s Bay. 

vhich wm followMl l>y f^uu; and tlie onl/ refereocts to 
«ffcDOC or ibortcomin^ vitb rcp&rd tu Sabbath Uw arc t^ 
f(i|ii|;rtnp<it in whnt wc should call btitineis or servile work, 
Ibedajr which «vu coDitcraU'tl in mcmnry ol the Divine rrst 
udthcileliTcrajicr from Kf^vjilUn b^iurUgi^, anil brouj^^hl whh 
i1 rvci and refreshment for every man, voman, and child in ibft 
vhulr cdhucululvi wai nect^uarilj a duj of ho!/ thouf^ht and 
wonbip ; bul ihft frc^qannl aawiiion that it va» a day of reU^iou* 
iftitnictioa in tlic Lair u one which cannot be citahlUhcd, nnd 
ecM which ««'0(nt indeed lo bi? contrary to ihi* viprifM proi'ition 
ftftnch inttniction, not on ibc Sftbbath of day*, but in lU« 
S^iUlh of yi^r> (DruL x^ixi. 10-13). 

ll wa« not until the lutt^r Uays of the JevrhU nation, ivh«n 
(UUnotun and Pbariiaiaui had developed Jnto ^yatemi, luid 
tW iJmpUcity and lre«dom of the Divine law and inititnltoa 
had been ovcflaid and <:orrupEed by human iatv^rprelation and 
prulic*, that we find the idea of the Sabbath which u 
Moimonlj called Jewitb, and is wrcjuglj auppoacd to bo 
derirrd from th^ Old Teuameni Scripiurea. Now we bavr thr 
Bnitatjnn of a Sabbatb day 9 purncy, which i% bated upoa a 
pvrcnion of the wordt of the Lnw, iind in later de^idopim^ntt 
«M attended by method* of «Ta»ion which havo hnrdly boon 
rmuded even in the rudmi of cnluUtry. Now tcncheri of the 
L«M of God dare to iay tbnt it is not lawful to beal on thtt 
fiftbfaaibt and thai a mun »i(i» a^aini^E th<: Law who ob^yt the 
Dlvift^ Healer and caJc*i up hit bed nnd watlcs. It is tinful tor 
tbtdiariplr* who werir hungry to plnck the cart of orn n« they 
vilked through thr Jidda on the SAbbAlb, not because' ihcjr 
what waa not ihcir own — for thU privilege of plucking 
%Mt cxpreftftly ^rAncmt to the wayfarer by the tetiirr of ihe 
Iav — but beeau»ff of the labour which it involved. It it hardly 
mprinog to Cnd the descendants of mcD who h&d gone bo far 
kim tba apirit of the Law, tcvLching that 

'VadWd ahoea may riot hf* worn on \h<* 8iibbat.Ii. frir thin wonld bn 
t» b«r ft bordoa/ or tlut ' Ortifia may MOi l>u wtilked npon^ f^r if it 
VN* hrwcd this wuuU he lAiro^hiiLj^,' ^t tStat ^ rhc> lamo may ncc o 
MiC hat not thu blind/ (ir tLat * A hot^e mny be led by a bridle. 
M Dot loadod by u nuildlo ; nnd he tbnt l^iuUtb must t^k^ ojire iki>t ti> 

lil ifae bridlo bnug 40 ItKhtc that ho may a«om to beu thv bridle 
mb«r tLan IomI tlio hone.' 

T^mlitirs of Uns, itnd of a worse kind thnn this, nbound in 
Jewish ttcatb^i on the Sabbath, and would provoke a <mil» 
did tbey n*A ralher cauic the drv|ieBt sorrow ;kud surptW thai 
am fthould hav» lougbt to bind their fellow-men by th<*M 
cobweb* of the darkness of human thought, and profess that 

thsy 




T%t Letg\ 



ihn war unfaoron) expo^idmof Uv L»« of God, Knr bar* 
•M pomittm htitu pooftped to Jrvuh uvcbm. Wc klmU 
BM«t tibriii A^im tn tti« vntia^ of mm nha ilMOght tluu th»j 
vera teackiBff Uic fdi^ioa of Jaaj Chruc In on« impoirtuit 
rapul, liowci^PT. b^vc Jrwttb tn»chi.ri fnm tli« Ent tliflWrcd 
Inn $omt of ibrir ChrUtUa iMilmttnL Tb« mlriction* irbich 
ihej unp(j*«l bsTc ftlwmjs bccD-^uid, ai vc miui ukiq pass 
from J*^!^!! gTiTUikd, it will be cooTeni^nt to ^tteiul our 
illoMndoQ of iblft point bnrood the period niih wUIcb wc nro 
for ibe BioKwiit d««UQf: — Dpo«i biuiocsi tod work, nrhctbcrof 
mco or bcAjU. Tbe ^bb&tb ba» beta to Jpv> in all «fi» a dftj 
of jfj^ snd tirightnoa, of mt nod rpfrr^bmpn?. A rerrntlj'- 
poblub«d work* oa pr«ctk«s of Jews ia the Middle A^ 
giTt* »!>«)«■ pi^ort^ oi S&bbalb i>baervan<% fnun lb? point of 
view of A JowUb iaVf^lij^Uor^ fto refMvhftble tnd ao peitiMDt 
thM w« tbanltfalljr aYail oundrrs of one of them \- — 

* J^oni v^ddjag [laHLM aitd bricUl teste vef* held dven on & 
Sibbfttb—tbo ^f M pc«i>0, bal not of ropMOcioti — oinginf; ud 
dmciPB occnntn Bomotiuc* to tbe AooompAtuuBnt of im 
niiuio, Rnd. wm wo iluU mxiu xtoU^ indoor nminwaieiEU, huch an 
■ml oth«r tablnftUne^ wore ptamitt^yl uu tbv s^r4<Dth dftj. Tbn 
WM Kiir*«d wita tb« ohoioMt Tiandb that tiie basbfLn^'A piin« ootUd 
buj, tiu vino flovrod, nnd conrmBlivu triji^ n1ou(^', trittj, rolitEtoa*. 
ftnd clK^rf, intonpontcd vlth HciJit-rcLii^iouH f»riug8 Mi to laeatj 
luuui- It tlio Ji^nr vinUnd hii Itatbi, ha heMd tjiiuij a hnmoroQi 
Wioodotu or <jUiLint iulollcctual quip^ ti^ld "itb B emilo to a raapoa- 
I^Ttlj nmiliu^ AudicEiCD, wbu tlo moro idilinglj ui^plioJ tbo mut^ 
bnonUjO tLuj L<jjji>vmi tli« L&lc Thti Ju^tiab ubseJULUVU uf d&« 
BBl'b&tb wu ktrict liat iiot Hoiubrci ; it waj* Juilaio i^nil noi pTrritonicnl 
— Iwo lorsu fiir from id^Tjtioal m ajgnitioftnoa. Lif« wu tiuiiK 
flgnrMl on tbfi JjabUtb day, uid ft touo of cloratod joj \mA the 
pnimiling noUu' 

Tbo rrftilon of ' Daniel Der4>ndft * will recall tbe; traiuformn* 
tioa wrought bj llw bobbatb in tho houao of Cohen, the Jewish 

fiaHobrokor, and tbo [niiiitiml will rcni^iiw- Xwiv^ ^^ rltewbtn 
ri ihtf iJcicri|Uioaa by Geori;o Llkiot, that th« minuicat louche* of 
tbe pit iiin> nro tfuidud hv ejiaul kjkunlrd^c.f 

Hut froin Judaiam ipruriK, jicriintinK lo tin* fleab, the DiTin* 
Tooclitr, who toi&m nut lu dratzuy but to fulfil the Law, and 
fnirilUil \\ hy fimphuiiing the elrrtial prinrip|p< on wliicb it U 






J««bfc Ufrla Iha Mlddlt A«Mk' IVW, p. :i;t. Cf- flpw 1% 




t AMAclJM<oJlfolbihnr hMlnvliidti to1on|idinUi ft«<«^lbar;Lnrtt^ 
Ml now ruui |wi Lif nr WiUUiWfl Vm\<Mo Ubmy, ia « c«pj ^ Qi»U^ 
MtabbauuMtiwM-'Uti- Jfli Jmliu/ IV luv^iv* lUra b« nM^Uty Geecfo 

baaed. 



Tfie torrT's Day. 



41 



I 



buni !l wcui inevitable lliai th* Divino 'l^nrhirr of liTiug 
prmt^-iplos should oocii« into ooo£ict with the bumaa t^^crbcrs of 
BUiii<ing lirpraliftm, mnd It K< r>bvIouft w remark how j>roniinpnt 
blt^condict in iho Uw of thf^ Snbh/itU. No Icm thnn %ix of 
tLrmincuUiuft wurbi of [ir^nlin^ arrr wnmgbt on ihe Subbatb, 
ud Dd oi»n of tbcm ramL< wtlbin tlir category of cn^os of life 
utl j«sth ivliich nWr, Jhrt^onling lo t\ir. rumfnt intcrpiPtalion 
of Cti Law, ji wn4 Uwfol to h«iU on that d&y. Notr an wa 
mnA tbff impK-auon ttiikt Lbt? oci^asloiia wltl* JirliK-ulrlj «r>u^ht 
in vhicb H« might condemn by woni and hy dvcd ibe currvnt 

Aod ilij« I'h.innic id«ift of th« Sabbath was not, trt nt 

'Viad onnelTCJ, tbc cIat oi <)urk f loom which some ioUowcra 

rfdwnivin* T««chpr ha\c fouf^ic to mak^ the wppklj ff^iut 

** Hi* KcwiitcdioDt but thr Judnic ictt-dny of joy, Tb« 

InoKii ttfp of Smtt WA4 tbM tif n Jrw, ind Hp wils mroful 

<> fnlEU a.11 J^ftiab rigblcoutncii and to avoid nit oconaion 

<i iiflVncE. Thn rh(iri*«*t of ihnr day, in arrcinlincr ititb 

*Ul Vf« buvc vevn tu be j^cncrnl Jewish iiiifttuiSf did Dot think 

*l (vatrari Ui ibf: li-K^r or the 9\tirh <>f the La« U' give feuta 

*Jfi iLe Sjkbbiib, and Jcauj hai bimBdf pnssoTit as n bidden 

Kw« At oac of iheip. Tbcir hoipitaUtj wa» ibal «( tic open 

«nBH, wbicb wa« onco alio characteristic of grpnt Chrlitiui 

initiiuti(>n« «Qd pcnoiu, and, m Addition U> the irutT«t». place 

^u fouTid for ibe poor and thr* ■ick. At the pnrticaUr ff>ul 

%bi-Ei Jcsu« iim« among tUt t'^J^-^B^i there was ftl»o prcveot *n 

cnuin rnan - . , which hn/l thi> rlropsT.' It vat in hirmony 

*iib ibcir brncvolmt piiaciptcs nnd practiccH lh»t this oinn 

ahuild ilufK ibnir Sftbhtth joy am) jKtrtiik^ of ihrir Snbhatb 

fM ; but yci, in order to preserve tbc sanctity of tbc day. they 

ImU that it w«a ttoi lawful for bim to r<*t.'<*irv the blotting of 

Wttored bealtb. A trAditiciiml Muknah aad Gtmart} had in een- 

tilMs o( torCuoui Rnhhuiir intrrprr-fjiiiotn of the Law grown up 

l":»*irn G<Mf, by whom, and man for irbooii the Law wm given. 

iliraa tor the GoL)*tiiiii) Ui i4^-Ji»rrl the vpry first jwiociple of law. 

Mio wa« nnt inad« te the Law, but the Law w.u mwlt- for man ; 

*J^ ••bbatb wa* made for man, and nol amn for the inbbath.' 

f ram th# moEDcDt that this principle of htf waa rc-A«terteH In 

luuailj, ib« buaka of liteial foTconUtm hcp^ti ut burst before 

■* power. In proportion lo the doj^ree in which men bare 

^'^i**^ Ufo hot it been iiupossiblc for tlicm lo be bound by 

'Vm; aod, wtiile in the dnrkf^r prrintU nf CLmtjan tiistnry 

bfisaic lomajiun boa tousbt from time to lime to ro-A»cTt 

t*^ J?t'*"''^**v »!».*: Johc vii. ai-at: auttilL^^siv. ii.iS; 

jtaejr. 



it4cLf» ftEul lu uv doujAJD moK fre^umOj or tl^tJU iLaD in ihat 
of the tUy of rati, it vu destroyed bj the principlcc uid tbo lik 
of Jeau* CbrUt, and hu nevet re«Uj obtained wbcre the power 
of thftt Ufa hM been fully felt. 

U. Wr cDlPT upon die ȣoqiI prnod of our ill^bt hutOfiod 
»k«(cb, whidi it Ut cilcDd rn>ia ib« fouadation of tbe Cbttrcb %a 
tbc dcnili cf CoaiUntinCr ihntugb lb« ^te of tbcac unipfe 
worda :- — 

* Tbo £nt lUj ^ ibo W49uk comoth Unry Uagdilem «Arl7« vhM U 
WIN jwt ilnrV, unto the Mpnlcbrc^ aad Geeth Uia stona tdcon k«mf 

' Tbon tLc auDQ d*7 at crcuine. lwiD|^ tbo first daj of tho wwk, 
frucu ibu Uuorfl wurc «bQt wlitr^ tUts iluciplL'it nerc abKmblcd for fcM 
of i)j(i JuvTH, cftint JcHu« and etoud in Ili« midiA, Hod adtb unto 
thfin, Pt^ftc-'f Ui luito yatu' 

' And bftor ci^bt dayt AfpLm bie iiftoiplcfi wcro wiUiin. and TbomM 
vitt tbcia.' 

*Aitd Gjion lb: GrHt dn^ of tbe week, when tho dinciploa aano 
togaiht^T to break bread, Paul ptvaoliisl antt) tbcm.' 

' Upo^ thu firtit dftf of the voolt lot cvufj oii« of jou Ujr by bin 
in itoro, M Owi bntb pnajwrud biia/ 

Thus *j|«iflily^ vritbouE eiprPM commiitid, wttliout nolp or 
comment, » ifaougli by n natural law whicb nrory ditciptc 
<xtiild TtfuugniH?, and tbr imr.p ai wba-h vriu erprjwhrrp fell — 
the above H'ordi tell ui in the fint CbriBtinri f^nemtion of 
JcnunJem, of Tro(u, uf CoMiktL — we fkiid the Sabbatb u fur tbe 
Cburt^h of ChrUt dead, and ha* lnn«mittc<i ttc life to it* ipm- 
luftl aucceuur^ the fii*t dnt of ibe wrrk, llie daj t>f tbe Iumo 
Lord, thff iffflcly -recurring Kaatdr ami Pffntm:oit of the Cburcb. 
It docj not folldv that Jcwa who had become Cbrittjuu 
^'eased to obsf-rve the Cf<vpntb day wlien they eonime'nmd to 
observe the firat day, and indcc<I wc arc not without eridrocc 
that viinn ntnnnf: thrm rndra%'oured Ui itnpteu their Jewlfth 
customi on tbi< Gentile eonverta ; but tbe lan^a^e of St. Paul, 
A PLariBce of tho FbnriiteeB, IraJiiL'd at the feet uf Oruu&liel, ii 
dociaivc a« to the power of the living nrinciplc of Cbrjat, and 
the cbanice which bnd been eflectrd ay it,* The very tara 
Sabbath bai no place in the ChrLtlLtn vi>cnbulATy, nioept for 
that ^'LicL brlifn^'rd lo the earlier (U&penaalton and bad now 
p«4«ci] away. The onty patin^te in vhich it oceuri in iho 
ApoatoUc epivtles )h that lo winch wc have jiMt refeircd. Tbo 
Cbrlitlan featival i« tbe - flrtt day of the week/ hot wilfaln tlw 

* 8m 0«1 K IKU ; QtAom, ii, lU, 17. 

New 





n^ L»rd*M Day, 4$ 

TtatMmcnt ir« bavc prolubly one inttancr * of llwt i«hiclk 
bteakw |L« nrrvailinj; torm, 7 Kvptattyt 'jfuptit ihe day oi 
lad, the Lord • Day. 

imxDf the ucbnictl nkinr of th« d«j, sml !» uifil » ft noun, tb* 
Qfio of whicb i> app«Tftitij- forgotten, for it It }i1crif]Asik:«llj 
iiiMD|icuiird hv KiY>iOL>- — 'TOTd ffvpiax^' C^ Kupiov. In n *um< 
mn nf tbe cottUDudoieiita for Cari«ciMu tbcrvr U mi rffr-rnnctt 
D Ov Fovrtb, ftod the doiple lUlemenI of Ui« ChrMtUn'i ilaij 
itk Lvrd*i I3ftj U: — 

<U on Um Lora"* vn ^j ^Obcr jFovnelTei toffetUr mJ bp«ll 
,J<fa yo« Mi^yy Miii thay hat^ b— fc wao^dM, ttrt y<« 
Utef; we fiad &L lymaliM wriiioc 'n^* 

«^ *• L(«r« ^ (-^ np«t»> . . . if tkM fat M» Wv 
ll «k W M» «i li«* awt friv Hia ? ' ; 




«tfV< 



• tA fTM 



70-7VLBM1 



l»yfa»l» 



rw 






'»f< 



*f • 



«^ 




u 



7^e Aon?'* Day, 



Icasp tbmr Tvonl, aikI iiot to r-)fu«o to ratotc wftbt bfel Ua 
antnilteil to tboir dur^ tf demvidrd, Aftor thisi« ORnuacmii* thy 
wad to du|Mrco ^nd aanmblo ag«jn to shuo ft ooakDcm nnl ^ 
uutoQont food . . < ' * 

Ju4tin Martyr, acldreuing bis Fir^t Apolof^y to bcailMn «mpmf% 
earliur thmi tliv tiuildle of the tviiluij (a.D. 1^8-HO), iticclada 
hi* dciCTintion of weekly worship on the d*jr called Son'liy 
(tJ Toy 'liX/oi/ Xe70/tt-*^/ ti^itfa) with tbe*c words ; — 

' But Bundftjr u> Uto dn; wi wluoli vo nil hold our ooolDOa 
jiAWTiubly, huouiwe it is Uw llrnt day oir which Qod, having nuM^ 
ft ohuig« in tluk dsxku««8 and io«ttor, iikftia tba world; osid Jenn 
OhHlt our ^viour on tho eiuno diity rttM from tho dc^od. Kat Ub 
Wftff cnicillci] (jQ difl day hufcjro tltiit nf Hittum (BaluriiAji^ ; loJ^Q 
thu da/ nfti'r tliiit uf Siktnm, wbicb ifl ll^c day of t1ii> S(in« luruic 
(Lpp<iarcAl to Hiri DpoBtlojj and dtiuiplca. ii« taijght lh«ai lfa«H* 14111^ 
tfluoh yf9 haro aubiiiiltod to yuu ilLhj for yom OOllBidat&lio&/ t 

The conCAtiipor&ry view of the Sabboth ia illcttrfttml in 'IW 
Kpiitlc to Dio^nctus/ which, whether wc ascrihe it to JuUB 
MaTtyr or not, btfloiigi to this ]itL<rary «porb : — ■ 

* Hut apdiii thcjjr etruplos oonciirnmg trtoaW^, attd tbctr uiij^onli'ii'D 
rotttitiig tij Ibc biihl>ath and tho vaaby of thoir oSronniomioa lad W 
diHBimultktkiii <.if their ftkfttini; UTid Uovt cimms* I do [tint] AiippuN JOt 
ueed to toaru frmu tikO|aM.i ndk^idouii (iikI lui worthy uf aojootfivir 
lioa. . . . Xii*\ iifj^hi tv lii> npiJUHt Kiwi, ua if Ho furbod w Us ^ 
*&y good thiug uu tbo ubbatU day, 10 uot tlilt ^rofatLO ? . . . Tbt 
the Ohristjaiiii ure Ti^rltt thf^mfam tii Wdiii|{ nJjHjf frnm tliu compH 
lollmMs nnd terror of tho Joint and from thcsir oxccuivo fiuaiuAtaod 
ptidv, 1 ot'iiaidcr that thou hnat boun mfiunontly iiiAtruot<si ; fcoiv 
tegudf the uiyati-ry uf ih«u own roli^ou. oipoc^t not that IbM 
Guiat he ioslriictml h^ imtti.' J 

Before tbc clo*c of the century there are iraoei of »ia|Ml| 
tl«BtU« by Melito of Sardit, *Oa the LorJ*» Day' (f^ 
/tvpuitCTts), and Dlonyajua of Corinth ua«« the um« D%me Evt ili 
AUUtncA thn ob«TVAnc?i? of it (rifu tjjjfitfufii lojptaiiifv rf^va^ 
tftupof ^iityafjOfi<i')^ and apcaktuf rcadia^ up"n it Sl Qaweori 
letLcr tii t\^e LVirinfhiflns. We owe niir knnwiralge of it*** 
beta to ICuBctiu»,J who mcntioiu tbcm in (he ordixury couth 
of things, and t%s nf ootmul occuircuoc*. 

One other witiu^M wo will quote, Toriullian, ropmeati*! 
boLh Africa and Rome, nnd coveting the litrrderland of ^ 

* t. FLiau fli Tisiaai ■Uplitalm,' *Jfi: * Diotionury oT ChfMhin Vit^^bf* 
It. ia4'>. 

f JiDlio. ' Atinl..'L litii.: Autu-!fiGuiiQ Liharj. 'Ji^itm M^rtjr/ |x CCl 

i' fipuUv to Dii^iiotuji/ i 4 ; LJ^htfuoU ' Ai>u«Viiu KaUjutV |l. u06l 



•c«oad ttod third ccntuno. He, liJcc Juitin MartTT, vrhcai 
■ddrvsuiiK 'n ' Aputo^ * lo the iieathen, ukfi iUl* terui Sumiayf 
lad makes iu churacUriitic lo be r^joinng :— 

' In lb« SUM VAJ, £f vo derok Snn-dftj to itrjoii^nGC (ti dtftti vtlU 

VS bsw >iCflnr rftt?ia1>]&nf<n U* t1in«p of ymi who flcrotf Ibc dA^ of 
fafnm U> cs«D iLad luxury, though they tim go fju ftway from J«viib 
of whtct ind^c^ tbu}' &ro i^nontuL' * 



IVhvD VTitin^ on Itiobtryi it ift for A ipnciAl ro-juon th« viglttli 

*T> lL« A<iLrAtri# each fMtWo dny ocean bub ooco au&aAlly : y^k 
bsvo ft fctftdTD djij cvcTj ^ightJi day.' f 

Bal bU vrUjoarj- phiaxr is 1I19 !>»«< Z>0ni{niciM, tlie Lord*! Djty, 
u «rh«A he »*v», lir i^iftinplp ! — 

b« tikwfbl Wo rojoioo in tbo hidd prinkj-o duo from ^Afltor lo 

vikittDBaaj; t 

k i«, haitf vcr, impoMibto for lU in iho Itnuli of nn articJc lo 
cumlnc Ihr nhole i>l iUp AnU:-N'iccne-FAttk<^rft, nikil hnppily it it 
iorobT pivicnt pUTpoic quite unncccBiary to mako the nitcmpU 
Hw roots viUicb nv hav« fuuntl in iho first md second ciMituriei 
nppLy the f^rtivth of tbp thinly snd wo &Tf^ now in a poiition to 
ratiiusir xhr jclncloa of ibi^ Cbristifta restniay of tlic fimt ihrVQ 
nutttHc* 10 the Jewish SjihhMh, In doinj^ cr^ wer mutt b« At 
one* itnpnasn) wilb ihc *>i:tc-nt ond ftir-rrnrinng influence of 
ibr filenl rhnn^r wbirJi niu rffcctttl by llie RriUrn*r:iicin of onr 
Laid. An iiivliEutioa vrhicb bftd »iirvivcJ all iht cban^es of 
ibrCaplitfiiy, anti nu for tbc Jens to survho the iWiruction 
of Jcfiisalem uid tbc aaUoDiJ polity iuelf, is to Chriationity, 
ulacb sjkTUii; out of Judaism, aa though It had nefcr riiatcd. 
Wg bf>sr of It onli- ui in rplftiTp, or in thi^ wrtting of an 
tpiklo^itt or otbrt Christian t^acbcr. wLo m(^nC[alls it but tir 
pvDtMi ■f^intt iu «lav<^Ty, find to prntrrt from U (he liberty 
of ihc ncn tpirituiil lile. The ' hrst dny of the wfck,' tbo 
'rjghtb dav,' the *Liiid^s T^nj/ hrm imJi'ed inuf^h ifi common 
vith the )t>y ftnd rcfrrshment, llie communion vritli God, 
tlw HGriiinT ani) wortbip^ of ihu true Sablmth i>f thf* Old 
TMftBWVl. It iif as writer nfter writer witnoEtcs, a day 
of tvjvkini;- Jl ift the fchst of ihc KiRtn Lord, It ii n da/ 
ol worship whirb finds ill cenTml ide.i in iho bTin«kine of 



* 0«lJ«ri L m t Aatv-Xi^iAD libiuy, L 85, 
t Othlsr, !.«£? AntA-Nloffui-lbnn. L IS?. 
1 OntUir. L 432-^: Antt^KleoM Library, i S30 




brand 




I 




brcAtl in obedieoci? to the Divine oommand, and jci^thct* round 
tUiA idea lb? clcmnnU of conrruioii, (liPitiLs^icinic. Kcu:rif>rp, 
forgivcneii ot" a brolli^r'i sin^ rcfiding of KATed writing;* and 
inslrutlion in ibcra, a« «c knuvr Jrom tUe dc>cripCLot» of VWtir 
and JuHtin nnd TpTlulltDu, But 11 it u day wbich U vrbollr 
frc« Irom aTbitr&ry restriction* of hamitn liboriy b^ meralj 
bmnan auttiuntv, atid a day for whicb the Church had not JK 
won tho privilege of roit from dcgradiag toil. Formui/of 
her chlltlien the had atJU to win frealom from human tUv«fj ; 
and the idea <>f a tiny of abtlin«ince from labour^ ttt the thoo^hl 
Lbat tberc waa in labour Jinj'lbujg C(mtrar;r to the %Ativiiiy of 
the dajr, U foreign aLlc*> (o th*' l^raching and Ibe pricitce of the 
fjiBt ihret ccnEurirfl. The lenrniu^ uf chc Hcfurmcf Bexa mifht 
have ehccked mnn^ raah atntementa of tho«p who thought theot- 
•elre* hi* Ibltowen, if ihey had rem! iheae word* : — 

' Riit that ObrifitinTLH %t tliat iiertiHt MbHtaiti^l from their ^Uy 

iahourii oxoopt while they were asMrahloU tti tho eoELgregatioii, aa 
such duty wfui onjoyuud lunoii^ thorn in th>) timoA of thu Apovdoa, 
nor won it obnorvod bofgro ttio titDe of Iho Clwii*li*ri UmperurB, ifho 
ordurr^ il tu jirevuLt lueu frum bultii^ dmwti awny from thi modltatlon 
of uujred things, nor wob it etrietly ob<«TTed oven Uitio.' * 

111.— 

'Tn KnTRimn Co:(i»r\rcTi^ Aco. to EaLriuicm. 

' On the Tencrable day of ^e sun Inl the mAgJetratci and Mopl«» 
reflidtug in citiec reit^ anii lot all norkih^ips b« eJoeoil In the 
oouotry, bovoycrT poraDiiH onaikged in the norh of vulliTatign may 
frwiy and lawfully coiitiiius their |>iu-dUtU. h^caumi It tifunu hAjipcnv 
tbbt ftfiather day U iKil ho cuitAhli^ for grain noirmff or for Tiit«- 

Slantitig; letti l>y TieglecLing the pro^r niowuiil for Hucb oneratio&0 
le bounty <if lieuv^u should bo loet. Givon, tbo aoronth day of 
Marvhp Gri«]>u« aad Oonittantine boiu^f Coufliil^, oaoh of thom for 
the eeoond timn (a.h, ^2ij,' f 

This edict of Confttantlne aiands naturaily at the he«d of the 
next division of our bisioncal outline, nnd mnrks an iniooh in 
the abvrvanc(f of the Lord'a Day. Without crilidiinif too 
oaiTOirly the motives ubich led to the Emperor* nciicin, and 
withont claiming Tor it anything more 1h«n a politic arrang«- 
mrnt which nouid confer a boon on the Christian, and wouid 
ftlm for buiinest and court reatons be not unacceptable to the 
ather tubjecta of bij greet rmpiiri ihjs low sluiids out as the 
first official and Stale recognition of the Lord's Day, of tbn 

* lkaa,'taO«Di Sot. Ilotn/SQ: Jlvylja, 'I]lfj1«ry oTiAq ^llalli/ IL($, 
t Opd. Jost. iii- tS- 3; UiHb;^, < Uamplos Laotnru,' pp. TT-tL 

Cbrmian 



7h€ L<fTd'$ Day. 



4r 



Cbriflkii Ssndfty. U innrkt &l»o lh<T wid# exu^nt oT ibc 
tfWnAQcp, wbith t(t4i)i? ibr rdiOE nnr lA bp dpAJml in iKa 
mtflv«u oi Ibft Suir. Cbriitinn communitie* sovr l^xi■t«d 
tbrnDgbouc the rnipirv* «)d CT«<rj«hprv tb^ birtlid«/ uf tin* 
Cbrch hftil with the «&nctioQ of tba L^rd himicif, wha in Hii 
[nicDlifc joiniHl tlic littk baiiil Jn their lint LcirdsOa^mcctinici, 
ibe Apcict!r< who folloirati iho •x%mp]<« wbioh H« ha<l gir^n 
I, of the whole Church tor thrtn ccnCario of hitlorr. been 
notlificiH wp0k by «v4^k in the gT«iC«<t nc-l of Chrjiliun worship^ 
*0d by the thoufbi« nnd H«^cla nbtcb naiitrAlly cluttered totind 
^9 itmttnhnaof ^ru] ihf? prrtr*ncr of the l*on!. It It interettiDg 
*o roaiparc thia edict with the •tstcmrtiC of l^aKhijB the hit- 
loTian, whii, if hr writm with rhr pjirtinlil^> writpn ftl«n wi!h 
^M ^U koowlcd^, of ftn intimdtc frifad.* 

Byi whlt«i the Ule* nf Wi>r«(itji niid 'iji^iorldnilj far wonhip b 

Oc»iid tip with the dsxt nnd ^wi itron^cr »s wc ttiWow tho 

Odutjc ofevcuti, Lhrri- xb oIbo ccitislantly )>rr-«-iit the idea uf tc»l, 

KTid (here i« dd word to mggfi^t T^tlntint of the joyfulnou 

C^^flKNTvi^), the fcftliTitj, which had brcn and wu for centurici 

te continva to be a >p(<;lal oharBCt<]»n«tic of th« Lord^i Day. 

TC\c ftbttincncc fruin unneceasnr^ UUoui orOuined hy the edict 

i» tb^ \^^ cxpmsion of that which Cbmrinnf hud tlrffady 

leuncl lo pmcLi*? ; and, jib we bavf? Bcro, the law la to b^ 

rvj^dcd na % pnvllfg^ won bj thrt Cbiireh, and won kb the 

OMn of like pnTjIeffc in all iucceedin^ ^cncnLtiont^ rather than 

«>ire*lT&int itnpoBod rn^rn wEthout. Tbe Jewish law i>f the 

Sibbatb bai no place in forming tbe Churcb'a practice or in 

rcplatiiiff the Slftte'* contfil. It is fiir Sraiti mea\ ibEJughts, 

VMtfunh«r atill aro the burdoni of PhArJBKiam, whether Jewith 

<v CbrliliBD, That work waa not in itself legarded m un- 

MafoJ Ib BhuwQ in the tafegniaTd that i-ioeptc from the iptiere 

^ ^bc edict, ibe fBriuer's operaUuiis of sowing or pltiLting, 

*ticb moat have depended far lets on the viciBiitudcf of 

*<Kthcr thAQ baiveating doeB in leia temperate cliinalea. 

f^efOTtt pMung from Conilafitine il it intereitln^ to obinrve 
^■^t in Ibe firat ^cat (Kcumcmcal Council held in Nicirra under 
*>■ pmldency — the only General CoEinril which in any way 
■Hwwl to it — tbeLord't Day is the subject of a Canon, but it is 
^i to direct Its worahip, which hail no* obtained the lanction 
^r^d conaiaiency of tong-continued cEistotn in a corporate lifet it 
J*! Dot to asaert iia authority, wbidi no one douMed waa that of 
^hriw and the Apo»t|e< and their followert in unbroken con- 
^mily ; It is not to claim the suppojl of the Fouith Conimand- 



* BnebtaB, -ds TIL Conit.' W. l« : Nloene FBthen, p. H4. 



ment. 



mcnt, or to mtnp Ui« libcrij of joyouf Cbrijtuia lifoi tl 
ttnumcs the Lurd^i Day tvitb aU iU b1cttinfi[s nn<l privilcifr*, 
And timplr ()fr4*ct* a pmcfW, whirh wo liavt* alrradv met in 
Tirrtdlijiji, of AinniiifiE; in prtkyr-r i>n liic L<>i<i'a I>AV nnd Iwrtircco 
Ktittrr nnd Pi-ntn-oit, in iiit-iiKirv «f ttip riicn lift*; — 

* BflfAiipba thrrc ftm vonic who Imct^l 4)n Ois Lonf s D>7« ftad *m 
ia th« dayi of feutocuitt; th^t kII Uitiigv uujr b« untfonat j pcHoniKd 
ta OTorj raridhi it hlh^iib icood tu tho Lolj SynfjJ. Lbat praron bt 
laido lo OihI atuidJiig.* (Obuuu u.) 

Bui while General CouocjU tUd not conildcr tlic qu<r>itioo 
oD«f wUk'ti ^'illed Tor demi^ni on thpir jtRTt, It continuc-d to tw 
the subjrcE Will of Lmpcrijt] cnnctmcnt nnd l*ri>vinci&] Canon. 
C^nblnniinr* liimsrlf inodified hiv wlicl to far ac to allov J«ga] 
acU contVrriiii; righu or Itb^rtio*, auch as wnmimutiu «id 
emajirip/ttw, '»n iLt L(inr> Day ; but >t law of Valt'iiTininn ami 
VaJciu (a.D> 36$), irt*atlnf- CbiiKtlaniCj a« a rc/iyu) itci^ 
prottH^'tn] CLitiaLlant from proccs* far dcbl uu ibe '<lirft*nlU 

?;tti dudum fauctui bab«iur, wliU« one i>f tli«- locc^adinj; nign 
A-Ti, 366). rr^Arflin^ Ctiriitianhy ai iho religinn of the Siaitf, 
Qnlar|;e<l thf^ umpr nf thr prcihiliilion, and gnvn nil citiMiu 
iDiinunity on what hia now b<rccimc ' dicvvoUicucm ni>niuiicuD 
ritS* di!*"!*" ifijij<»reft' ; whitt tlj(' litrnkcr nf ihe Uw U * non modo 
DOtabilit, vcnim ctinm sacrilegua.' * In A.l>< o$D all Ihia nai 
confirnird udeIlt ThctHliiuuii, ^iid the 'aidis dirn' and Uie 
'Santti PatcbJF dif»/ witb aihm an^cJal day« ninountitijc to no 
1»« tbun oni; hund^c^l and twenty-lour in tbc year, are Oi^arad 
to be judicial hotidftya.t Orber injunction* forbid appctaclct, 
the law ai tbe younger Thc<idE>»ia» (A-Dh 425) going «o far a* to 

Eroliibii any jierfonnnnre at ihe irirrui or the tbsatK' on tb« 
»ir» DnmitiicuA and other chipi ChTiitian fi-ilivnU, and direct- 
ing iliat wen cb<^ Hmpi^rors bjiLhday slmuld not be lcf*pt oil iltc 
boly day ;{ while tbc law of Leo and Amhemint orderg in atill 
ttron|tt*r Uu^uu^^v tliat llm day ■ball be kept sacrm) no: only 
fioiii buAincM but from ihe ' ohaccnc ploaiiuifia' of tbo slaffc and 
the cItcu>.^ 

Tb*" ri-forpnn* lo ■ obnrrrr pWnturo*' h*r» give* probably the 
Itcy to 'he probibition, for the contemporary prra«:heis an? 
fnurtd lrpi|i]«nt1y ptoti*slioj^ a^inii icthm which ucn^ unfit foOT 
any day, ftnd icveral anriifnt caaons («.y. the fiJty*tbinl of 
Laodicoa) forbid wantJin dancei. 

The ProvinL-ial Synods during Ui« »am« period furnltb two 
clatorv of vnactiiicniA — onr dealing wilb the (jur^Uon from iba 



^ 



' Oxl, Thmd. Till H 1 »d 2, t thid, li. 8. t 

I tbhL. if. y ^ i Odd JiuL, UL Lt. iU 



more 



nui* ili»linci1y «x:lf4iuitOAj |K>int tti ri<-w^ ns ital of Eh'tn 
(Uu 313 ^21), vrbich Uy» iItsm on wor)hi|t, And llir<-nttn« 
nipRsiun Ui nuy townatnftp Kb» nbicitu hiinvir rnim i^liurch 
(ar thfvn Loiil't tUji ; or Ibnt of Gan^fnu uliiohdecUit-'tf ' Jl any 
91ft, lLti>ii|[h a ftUjipfiKTil rxrrciMr of piftj* fft&t oil tW h»ni*i 
DiT, Irr him be ■iialt^'ma' ;* or thfct of Aaiioch, wbicti con. 
^tmt\t lKo«c who come lo heai ttie Scriptum but ilo Qot 
jnlci |jt tU« prAj^cn ^r the ELichnritt;! or that of Cftfthug^ 
«tudi pTohiUiu Lravinif th« i^hurcb during prcAching ; or I h At 
of Lftnrliron, tthirh ilfvaion Afivrrnl e;ini»n« to lilurgical minutiffi. 
Another Lniodicrcnn cadod bflonir^ hovrcvcr, to a diBVrr^nt 
ilan, aail i« ijirri.illv Eii>t>>nr«Tflijr ^% rurniihin|( ihr Tint hint 
froiri within the Church of taiy parallel on ttir Lorvl't Day to 
S«bhin(.^al »bH-rvjLui.T. Tii« (litettion IK thftl 

'CWiifeaM iu« vti>i to Juduico uul roAt on tho BablHUi dfty, bnl 
|*vCen'iii|{ U)C Lord*« X)nT ia hotiour, dtc *>» it. if f>4iMibl0f to rMl m 
C^IUiu But if lh«j luv fDimd tu JudftJEt^ Ut tlxsm ba ftD&thninft 
fam Christ' 

W^ M i!i>iid«*mii«f1^ buwvpr, i« tfj JudntEP, lo ml on thr 
3iAb«i1fa. Tbcj iLT« not M hononr iho acv4>nih dEhy^ t)L>t nrtr to 
boooiir iiif^ fir^l ; mid um i\tc Loiil\ Hnvt tii<ir»-iivfr» the rrU i« 
v«iiu be JodMr, but CUntUon ; and etch this it cunditionftt. 

Of utii;«rtaui dales. bu( brliiti)^iiig majtd^ to ibe fuutlh cvatitrj, 
oott bo plnood ibc rcmjuko-blc doDUmont known lu the * Apotto- 
'■oJ CvnsUtativDB,' whivb rcprcacnls for tbr mutt p^rt cuitoma 
^ lt« EMtem Church. H^n*, inn, th^ Lord'ii I>Ay RundB oui 
^ tbr chief of fr^Livali ; bat numbers of iccnndary fcfliTali Are 
l^aeccl by ii« tid<, and ninon^ iL^m It tb» SfthbMh. One 
.'^UmaAd will Brrvo m nn ^Jiitmplc :-^ 

' Top mutt Ami oh thi* dajr of lliv pr6|iamlLOii, beoALise on iba^ day 
Lwd mSarwl th^ Jekth of th* ctowi nm^lnr Pnrttinfl PilatJt But 
p Ibo S*bfa*thi (Uid tho Lord'n Uoy foativiU ; bi^cauM tho fnurmcr is 
avaonAJ of lh« orcAtion, And Ihc Utter of the rosuntctioo.' J 

Nor ia )1 difficult to tcv, in pt^rt lit Icodt, the influences wbicb 
«?re modifying ih^ direction of CbritiiAn thnuj^ht hnd pr&cLic>e- 
(T rcrr ctittcnceof Imperial edict* making tbc Lord's Uat first 
ChrLaim And then n Stale holj' dav, w^juld auf^t'pit ihe parallct 
Lb^Sabhtttb oi Urn':! and th<< Divinf* AuIboriLy which f<njoin«d 
In tbe liA^t i-s|K*4'i[d!v, ibt safej^jiiils agsijist ibv bciesy ol 
ion would kJl tend tb<- tame way, Th«r adiancn of know- 
uf the Old Tcalamcnt nnder tbe influence of the great 
^pouton (Oriffen, Chrysotiom, J«roui«<, Au|[iutin«*}, aad itut 

* L^ujD ixUL 1 Osac« &. t L&ak nL 2S. 

Vol 186.— M». 3t$. K typical 



J 



(f picnl «nil mjojc*! iniErpfrUticm* of the SaliWiU. miuld pcv- 
pfti# coen to find in it iltst whit'b tli^'V deairixl to fiiwl — ad^fimiv 
ami bi^tkrr lUkU IjwniAii Aalljurity for tbc buUncis of llio Lonl't 
Dftj. Th« Sftbbaih^ ipint»Ali««l, iniii«^TBi«d. tmnftfufted, vw 
tbrb <t«ii j(>j»aB (cjuii It v«i but s >tcp for untiMritnai vca 
ui n^n! ihc Lnrtl'i Hi* ac ibp Ckruiiui SabbiFh, anrj to 
£io(J iu Aaiboriiy ta ibv Fourth CbmnHWdawDi. U(it lb« fourfb 
aimI lifth cratorwi uvtiKi iw«r tbe llTiogmuroioribeChiucli'i 
Jiie; tbe stream bu been too imtty tOtti^ithtned bj th« 
■ptriiVAl gifu of b« giuui MKu ; iIm >1rp u nut j«t to bo uI«d ; 
dark umI dry MfM uo iiM)««i uoou tA fi^tllow; but ttwtn 
cmtUTBci ure to p«u Uct'o^ tbe term ' Chtiituo S«bbAUi ' it to 
b«l«oofiii*«d. 

It cIcvIt lic4 bejottd the scope of mo Mnkle to cx»miii£ tke 
wHtingtof tli« foarlli &oit fiftti rentorj Facbf*n, Tbts v&i cIodt 
in tb« ftiik^Dib crolurj in «bM >iJ tbio^ coci«iilcicd tr«» ^ 
nudifjr of Inunlnf hy Pvter Hcjivn, «bo wu, bomrai; 
urf^ety iiMl«b^ to l!>e •^rlier work of Prid*aux-* ll ha* 
iiatUTAlIj' been done far loorc lIiai} i>qk GTriu«ii writer. It 
bai breo cttune (or Knf^WthlDttL of ocr o^-n dnv bi' Dr. HriirT,7 
Hh>.i. if Lr u Iftt^lr iniJebtcd to bU prciJrreuora, li&t mndt ali 
bU Kixrcecton fttiil nton» ind^bml lo him, tnd whh mocb 
pbtloKipbical uk) bivloricBl iiuicht bj Biibop B*rT^.t Ibe 
cxKidBiKMis BC nhicb Dr. tlrwj^ urriTf* w fnllf tuppurlnl 
far tfae CTiileac« wbicb he ftildoce*, uid «re vrortbr of orefu) 
tbou^Ut; — 

'Ifi aU tboKrovpMU ft oori&uich«]i|toiuobMrTfti>I«,««dtbc<c£of9 
X oil lb«Hi tW9 eMbturioa Ibe comiooucaiicnt of » xww ora ia tbv 
luito«7 rtf iha Lonl'ft Oaf. Bat vith all tbu. in «a «dMrij g«adM 
HHifD tb*l I «UB ^afyfr in uiy vriter of tboM tvo etfitan««, or 
li am^ poWo ioo<«n*pt Be ri c riarti c*! or Otvil, u ibe Fouttb Con* 
MM^aotti nfortod to m i^ srooM of lb* vUgriiga li> olarrw t^ 
Lavd'ft Dttj. . _ 1> MUBA to lwv» baM Oill mctmii 




Uuatbonl)- 
BOM e b um wtor of lb* daj. (U <«<HNlioB w tib« LofTa Un. 
thai Lonl,lb0 Bom of Maa,) opca o^wiKiJ, art pMtdoJ ^ w^ 
wotA tl gwM. »vi vmnif vonU Pntifci aaJ B-^vkI; ht 
OocK tnU ll* fi«l be ^mod bunikMlj, Tbo ik; U sot to ba ft^ 
FMt, teHiaaa^ctfJojrTlba ChmA bu fthm« omvdmi it 
to bo A day of J07, ttd BOM bdft bmCm bn» tb«^ «lb«r«iii of 
a' ^114,115.) 

IV. Qnr ncKt fvHod MBbrM«« ^h iboauaU ie*r« whicb 
nutod fran ibc cioae of tbc fiilb oouv* to tbr lidumiBAiait ; 



AHalOiJv^iai t , 

bM 



'£h^ Lord'$ Darf. 



&1 



bat Ett iinfM>npno« for oar purpose is luppily in the invonfr ralio 
nf iu lcD){tb. Jl |tirM-iili a j^ru<lu:il tritrmlmtr nf Sabliaib 
ulnortaiici* dvrivMi from th<t QJd TreUmfriiE ar^l ibr Fr>urllt 
CiKDm»tiiJiDFnt, apoo lh«! Xoiv TcsUmcnt ttn<i cafIj C'turJi 

foniA in ihc West uid umlrr Koinnii influcacc * avrit.'* uf 
tbnml mtrk'tioni on Chri«tiftn frrpilmn and joy nhich arc nol 
•^Hilled evtn id Jndaic I'hmriraum. L«( a Irir cnarka by tb« 
•iTihnw ihr r^am? ivhirh rvenu fnllnwiHl r— 
Tlie tccooil Synod ol Mik<;on (a^d. Irt^^J directs^ Atnoni;; other 

'thu DO riit* ilioul'l on T.Tif^ LonVn Dny ynlre liin Ofttlle imifcr tb& pW 
of iitio«iKrhr, but lh«t «1J fthoiiM t<xoruiti^ lijcmft»lT«« in L^riunn urid 
piuetDUtKl, being iut^nt Uioroau haXkt in raiiii] biii] Wly. If *u[y 
BU bu a cbiirclj at liuni). be i» to gu t^j it. It U lL<i cvnrtAfillitg ^Iny 
rfml fonnbadnwcd by tli^ H^ivmih Jay in lliu law and tlir pmpbnU. 
(^fffcnflon vUl locnr the ''tnjpUonbU ftucitT ofllio clergy." LAiryont 
*U] loob t1i« pTi*iiflg;« of pliiadinir, A naabftudmui or sorrftE^t niU 
ttEdorvo ourtMrraL iiuuiaiiEUcbi. A clvrJc or &HJuk will b« uul ud' rroiu 
UlMlowv f<iT Hii monthfl.' 

iiariyH Mt lbi« Symirl, in wlitrh x gmiil d^xl of *trt?u hat b«f^n 
■ul IfDiD ibc importanrc of the biihopi who were pi¥»irat at it, 
wd fitMn lbf< ^iiKadov ivtjicli his bwn ni4di? towArdi Salibaio- 
'UbiuD, the true dfHTirin* <if tiio nariy tlhutvli L» etill proBcn-cd, 
'CWfnUEe dji-m <i<>iiiiaiciin> <{ui mis druuo ]K^prril . , .* TUe 
Mvijee which we olTpr lo God i< * frev itiid vulaotary , . . aot 
^1 tWLuid eittiU 11 iA lu thnt wc »hiiuJd trlrbraLf iLn Jaj in 
AttrpomU jtbBiincnce or n.*ct Iruin Iftbonr.' Ttie force Tifihct* 
*vi:iDU, moreover. fl> wilueiara l«lhc ^rowtU «f a ttrktvr Sunday 
ottttTftBC^. U lo Iw moAsiircd aUh hy thf^ prvB-mhlfr (' \\ {% 
•WtTcd thAt('brivtiftD pc-i>plc do very rojLiLy iEi|rbi ond or-f{kol 
^hnLotd'! Dnr^ givir^l^ iLd'in^i^lvr^ w on nthi^niiiv* tn r»(iti QUJill 
'*^Mift '}« nod Sy clicconfirmatiry IctteroE Kiaif (iDihruii, ' who 
wih cstcnd this Canon ns wpTI iinttt tli*- orhf<r UfA^f rhi^i^s b* 
■>nio tbe ^untfiiy/ * Wh»t thi* proo4^tin^< ot tbii pn>vinoUI 
^no! rrft]l\' illiuirftfir \% nni «i inurb tbr ^jaw\\\ai S^iilnannjin- 
"tti u tbftt or tbt? power ol poclvtuslici, and tfcio it><:re4«iii|f 
'ncrence Cut bolv d^i)^ iu ^rttt-ivir UV Avr at tbi; cIok' of ibe 
■tocMitnry ilUl far from ibo idcaufii-^ation of the Li>nrt Dhv 
*U tbe Snbbatb, or frucu &udju|; lU anlUmhy lo tbo Fourth 
ConDnADdm^Bt. 
Uctanbilc portents sod mlrades arc broa^ht to \>c\r upon 






pablic 



a Tie Lcni'M Dof. 

pobUc omatm aad Ut im<x tbe anditj of tbc LorcT* Dtj ^u4 

Omti. DeoH* aad ciaooi Mlo« n tte Ma» cam Ibmgb- 
<i«t WWem Esnvpcw iadB^in; oar own fo^aixy.* It u iadcvd 
fn lbs iagnapo vhicfa om eoaQtr^niftn Alfsia n«m*«>i] sE tbfr 
Govt of CbuimxAfoe, Ujai ma^h of tbc dkftAce vtiich mKiJc«d 
thff UsBdtkMi prfiod ui ttui mprrar ikottlil prubabU be ncnd- 
Iq on prPBinait •cbf»lar ol ui cttriitr af« b*4 vord« b««a foimd 
■D iCroof u tbove »b>cb dim of Alc«tii*t b— lilW «|ipUc« to tb* 
S*bb*tb, * cvj«« o b t» r T>tiot>^M bm Cbrocuau &d <lM>ia Donu- 
Bk«B conMCAtia* tf ntfoKt,' aod niarii— ^iw pnlacvi tm 



C' 



InpcrUI «&t iH*^ aita«te Ipjnnctiaa^ oo die Lo«d*« D^j, 
witb ibc woriJi ' ilAtoImB* MCvadBm qoud et » Icfv Doauntti 
pnMvpli.* If tbu U nHvpuvd with ib« cpiritoal tvmcbiaf of 
Uw aMrteipporajr Tbcodttlpb of Od««iu,t >^ *>11 be d«tf ^^ 
ihcMgh AU^in bimMJf OMStiont n«lv Cbrtrtiao mitoic, and 
nkrt ocitbcr to th« Foortb Cotnnnuiidmccit oor to AHMt4>lic di- 
nctSom rara aiFbrtn^prvpved fur tbr edict of Ltd Pbila«jpb« 
d tCftd ttt C<>o«uaUaopl< U-O^ ^^1>, wbich •anaU tb# too tnt 
ftJid of CooMBttiin-?, &aA proclaimt ftb«A!alc rest a» covqumimM 
by tho HoJ/ Spirii »ml ih# A[»il]r« Uugbt bj Hin, 1« tb« 
twrlfib GCBt«rr Sl Bcnurd bod* Milbofitr fnor tbc Lord** Dav 
umI cHkrr boly dajm in ibe Fourtb CafnnAmltftMtt, mod Petnn 
AlplioBMa •floida tb* firvt um of tbe tcmi 'Cbrutiui SabbttL' 
lt> tbe tbiTteentb o eiiHirj a crmmtiii U prP4rhnl io Kn^and br 
Bottac*, Abbot of Fbj, wboeovBaodi tiJtn^udmic obierTaacc, 
mod wippona him docuioc by m »upp>Md Utter fn>tn our Lofd 
ivbtcb WM Umnd on tbe mlimrof St Sjic^on at Golgothm. Ev«v 
tbc Scbuolmim, tbrfU(:b tbvrv brid, id tbe Uogomge of Aquiaas, 
ibmt tb# iratituiiao of tb» Lord't Dmj wmm oot 'd* Joi* divioo 
•cd dc jnre bsmmoo cmBooioc\' not * ex ri Irgia >cd cm coB»lil«* 
lJoi]« ecciemjv «t coDturfiiiiiur piipioli Chriximni,* tmofbt (bmi tb» 
Cbimi^a KemtirmU mil ci>rmp«oded with tbotc or tb« Law, mad 
ibmi niD^ni^iLrn'Smbbmiaui luutniiit in diem Dntnimcvm.* Bat 
it wmi ro*f>rvj^ for Tottmtoi, Hjhbi»p ol Avilm, m tbr lotirti 
tYutufj, to pobliib « cocimcatftfj oa tbc iwrDtictli cbm[ 
tlxodtu, frofii ttbicb bf> dpdac«« m mpriem of lonuoiu reftiric^i' 
itn tbc Lonl*> Dmj vbjcb bmrc iMvcr been cmcievd«d ui 
biDitm livlf. 

Nor did tbe Lord't Dmj ttmod mJoBC. In tbc ijnportmiu 
SvQod b4*ld mt L^on* in l!f44, ve 6nd tbp folbtwiDft liu of 
bolj dmya mccepded — ^ibe pmiiioo of tb« Lofd* I>jit ii vifoi- 



n. am 
11 limb- 



Ibd^m mmd ecmbia, 'GHacik,- m. SU mtd tt»: J«hm*oo, -KhMmIM 
Lmviw' Lm. mcvcm. 



ll— ' Cbrifti NatJTitv, St. Stephen, Si- John, th<? Innocent*, 

SjU«ter, Cirtociitiiiciii, Kpi[jhnnj, Kastcr, ^tl\i tlie wcuk 

b*A>ro «k1 ttM iMwk after, tbr^ Ko^tioo dayi, Whiuundaj 

Md IWD dftTi nflfT, Si. Jotin RAptist, feuts of ibi; Twr|v« 

^pnvtW^ ill ibp f^Euu of our Lidv^ St. Liurvnce, all the L»r<li 

<r>>«s la tbc >car. ^t, MicbHrrf, All Sh'iuU^ St. MiiilinV Wakes 

nf parttcultr cbarchci, LocbI S»inU/ On all ihtt* w«rk wa< 

■■'bidden. On IrsAcr fntivnjs ihe p<.'f>p)p wore A'>t U^ he com- 

p?Med to kopp htiljr dnvj but nnirSrr wrtr thoy lo he hinfli*rrd, 

■^l<.l Altbouifb thcrv 13 aTi ciccAiiunnl plcodiniT voice? on bebkiK 

■f Uir pikorwho Iiat^ noi ^noagl) wnrhingifnji Ip-ft in rarn Eh«ir 

br»^ the tendency rcniAiai to incrcitae the nutnbcr of dnji and 

^ in^rFOM* the mlrit^tionK on tbem. Bui tti» Rr<i]aitMiric»? iraa 

It hftnd wiih LU tij-bt «nd oulturo ; th« KoforaiAticm wju at 

Wnd witb ita fAJib and p>ver. 

V, Tb« $at>lKith Utmiurvor lb^ ftiit«^ntli tnd levenuvntb 
f^nitarif^ u A t»ng1od iabj'nath which wc flro not caJled upon 
to enter. The RefArmMion ptniMt folloivMl iwo main lirw» — in 
f^fwi&aj and SwitterUnd ri^jcctinic the mui of bolir dart and 
Vvnitin^ evvn ih4> V>i>itrt Dav n« ati in«ritiiMMrt wMrh nnj C^nrrh 
^&V alter a1 iu will ; in Kn^lnnd, Sroilnnd* and tlotland, 
BlMtav |>TominFn1 lliv Lord'i Ony nn tbr ClitiBliAn Sabli^tli, 
fT^doiiljr bMio^ it opon tho Tourlh Commnndinent, nnd 
f^daif il with ihr mott ri^id r»tri(7ltDn>. Wc arc more con- 
o^rned withi the later derelopinent in Enf^Unil, but It u not 
^■tiBiportant to ahow llic pcjaUiifit *>i chi? ^i^thI loideri of the 
n«fi>nD Dkortrment.* The Au|r*^urn Confenion, which wo* 
P^tparc d b t MrlaiiL-hihoci at thr iiiitjini.-r of the LuEherana and i« 
*b* rale of faiih r.f ihf I'fotr-^iflnrs, ilp*rlnrna i — 

*Tkoae who jndgo that in the place of the Sfthhalh the Xxitd'* 

^■^Kj wa* iuatltulol ■» a Jii/ to hv iieomBitrilj' obflervod an> j^njidlj 

^iifak<g, Sorlpterii nhm^^Uid th* SAbhaih, ami tfu^ii^ that nil iha 

Voiaie Gvpornotttea may Xxt omitliid now that the Goapcl ta rc^roalod. 

J^ j«l, larumnch a^ it wu noojfal To appoint a eeHuia day Ui«t 

^h« povplti might ktLov Yfhnu tlmy tiught to jUbumhlu k>g«ti[fir. it 

*>fiini that tht Chrirrb du^tii^wl ih*' Lf»ril'n Day for thia pririuMo, 

"Eii^yiMEiu to havo tb« ralh«r ^UH««d th«Dt, in ordfr ttmi mon 

*i^i biTo tfaoroby a iiroof of Christian iiborty, and kQ'>ri tliat the 

^Wvtaiioo irbetiicr of the 8abbath or of tbo other day waa not a 

•Ufarof nooeadty/t 

*DaHy,aHmytii,LBrt Vt; Ovjijn. fi. Mp. H 

* iJi tU, Dr. 0<«^ i^ bia odiflov «f tbc CaufdMba, a.ltU a ontc TbJob 
n>ifa ef <lltl« H«w ff U» I'hrtallaa SabTvlT., vhloh tu IiaIiI hf dl th« 
M— M hhI fUll pferaib on the GorittDi>nt <it Eum|iv - . .' <fi tffi|. 



• 




And Lutlirr't own view h tiprcucd witb h» in>cotii|>romUui; 

* If BJiyvhora Chft dny in mnclo holy fcr tTiu^ mom d«f^ MlkCfl— -if 
•Jiywlici^ an^oue ocbi tip its oW^rviLHt^u on u Jenith foundfttlOVlt ilkM 
I orJtfr jtrti lo irork on it> ti> ride on it, to ^Janvc en it« to foMt OQ it, 
to do uiylliiuic ttubt BiL&il muoTQ Uiitf vPcruMiliuitait wi OhfiitiiH, 

The Second Iltlvcttc: Ci>nfcsunn, wbkb wtt the voflc od 
Zwin]^1i\ lueoetfor, BuUirigf-r, t«4L'b(.-«: — - 

'In tiio CbureliM of 4>Jf^, frcriu tLo vorjr (i»i» cJ Iho Apoedai,m>l 
nMnlj arc cortoiu liijv in ciurli i/iuik hjij>L>iaU'i] fir rcjigioaff mbVd* 
bl{«>, but ibfe LuTfrn DiL^ itBolf vha ronbc^mti^ Ui ibftt piirpai»«Hl 
to hfily roHl. Thta pnotioo oar Cliarch» r«t»m for vorithip'* vak* 
Olid iot vhii>r'tty*a «Bkc. But nu iJo not Ihon^W givo oaiiutcoftDOO to 
Juduc oWrfHUWfl knd to sujHiiatitiuii. Wo di> col buli^t^otl^, 
that mio day U mom fiarTod tiukn arinLhni'T nni) ihat mnrv Mt U In 
ilMlf pj«ftntig t^ G4k!. Wo koop A Lord'fl Da/, not ft SftbbftUi 4aj, 
by Ml DiUMi&btrJviood ob«erTftiio«/* 

Cdvin't TJowi artr «spreis«d its c<]ub1]/ »iroD^ u-im*, nod bi* 
practin? it f>ii*nip1i (imI b_v tho iir^ry that John Koox found bi 
plttTiRft bowl* on a Sunday oftcrnoon. 

Ilu€cr, wtti> wai by llif- LnHuriiiw of Cmnm«r Imm^ttl Mi 
Cuiibrid(c« &» PirofcMor of Diviniu, advocated n srvater ir^gnid 
for ibtT Loid'ft D&v and odi«r UoU d^Ts^ uad nti in^rtfiue in tbe 
numlwr of fastis, but w?iiU doing to atwrtA chut 

' to tliibk tljot norkicg on tUo LonlV D&j in ttMlf * ain, U ft 
«tition uiil fi lUijj^ing of Ibu ^tQ« of Obrtnt/ 

Nui jpis ttlrikin^t and all in iLi^ uuiir^ diicctioD, iB tl]€ 
Ungui^ at iho English Roforinrra nail nk^rivn from Tjndtl to 
Cmunor ; but it in murr importftiii ta rrniMdrr tlii-< Unftn^gc at 
oar ioTmalkrirt thnti thnt o| iniiividtial^ From 1519-Lf»61f 
fts piLTt c>r (he OmfinoHCioo St^n^ii^ niid afU;i«hTd» »^n«»lclj, 
our IViok ol CornmoEi I'r^jer ha* conuined i Cntcdiuin, it 
hiu Diidrrg^inc liltk' rhnnifr cjL<Ypi tbe addition oS ibe p&tt on 
Sacmmffnift in )lU)4. It wai pTobnbl}- luggoti^ h/, and la 
aonie f*ilr»t foltovi*, a catcchinoi in Hermann's ' Constiltation,* 
but, unlike thAtnmL, liiclud^id, iri arconlaaoi^witli ejirlivr Koglifth 
ti»a|^, the T«a Commiimlirenu m well jks thfi CHirci and the 
Lofd'i IVajcT. This, tl nai L>iiL, madn zbr Fnurib (^oitimiuid 
meat put of » Church formulary, and it wim cTra ur^^vd tbat 




* ArE. \XIV' 3, Of ttils CtsfMioa ]>r. SofaajT «>«, 'ti n* jtduf^b-l. Of «l 



_^ 



ibe Clfltcli buMl bnr XAtuW Wny upon tfa« SahbAth of th« Old 
T«nuD&iK Mul tbe oercmonial of ibc Conmiiidinenc* 'l^bft 
ODltdtiun w>u in tbtf icctli of aII tiuirirjr ind of rontein jmntry 
n[>g«ilion, for Cranoiff hat\ rxpfculy »pj»TOV<sl M iLr Mlow- 
IQf «i>r<l» '\n ' Tbr Inuilution of el < .1i t ikI i hh Mah,' hj 
Hfnt^ VMI., wliAP, morfwer, the Fnnrili Camuaandmc-iit 
oenn in tbr *boit form : — 

'li 8t Austin *uUk All tZiQ otJier uino cuiiiiiiftndxu<tiite bo morml 
flmvDdmcQta, ukd bBl<mjti>d not mity to tho J«ini, and all tho olbor 
il» of Ibo vofld. tn tho timA oi Um Old TiMamRatT but Um 
toovr) to kll ChHstuiii pE^opIo in tbo N«ip Tottamcnt, But 
)iii:uH|it jf tKM»ili, UN ULiucvniing m^ frvm biidily Ubuur Uift 
iNwih lUj, pntAlrii'il iHily imt^i lb* J«m iu thd Did Teatamont, 
"bm Iha coiniag of Cbri^l, and (pprtoinofh) &ol to Oi Olmstian 
l*c»pU ia Ibo Now ToAUmoiiL' " 

It )■ >l»o ti|cni6cABt xhhi in the itininiiir)^ in ftniwcr to tbc 

fOCflivat ' Wb^I do«l tbiiii ditrHv Iear;i by lliese cxiuiuiaiiU- 

Mott?* |h» Catfffrtiiim mnk^i n^ r»fpr«<nc(* to th<* Sabbath ^^r to 

*ie Futtrib ComirondinEjnl cjccpt in the wnnU *and to icrv« 

Wm truly all ibe liny* of my lilu,' Thi« U tin? mun? r*mMk- 

>bU, us Fojrucl'B 'SbuTt CalnLjani ... for all ScLoolmaiten 

lo tvBch/ of 1553, nrbicb vras piiblitbcd in Lnlin and l^nglUb, 

*<kd «r&a tMUCfil by ntytki authority, tboagb th« approval of 

ConT'iciUion which ap|triirt on th« utlo-page te^mi lo belong 

t*ttlj i<i ihc Artiolr* (>rintH with il, hni thc*c froria: — 

'liSM of all ibis vuKLt wo lo hold »lvd£u&t]y itad witL dvTonl 
^OonrMpfw that rn k^mp holily and Tvltgiiiiigly th^ Mbbatli <laj; 
Wlixh «a« uipoiutod out from tlw otlior for rt«t and acirioo of 

Bat mor« itrikinjc thia tbt^ iiia«nio» of tb» Tea Commaoil* 

*»cnca hi \\tt C-ttechiiu waa tUclr introduciioii foj iLi: fint 

^iiDc in ibc butnry of Litor^e« into Ibc Coinmunton 0£c>e tjf 

^far^ojtH) Pfnycr Book of Edvrard Vt (l5JiJ), wilb rcaponda 

^wbicb rfprA«ont tbo unrl^'nt IJiany of the OtHnr. Thn origio 

^tftbis Q>c ia lo he found in an Order of C^funcil n| 1^47, 

"^fUch din^rtiriil thnt on 1i<i1y lUjkit falling in th« wevk tima 

^bi IVl^r Not^cr. tbc Ariidoi and the 'I'cq CommAnduir^nta 

tA BnfibJ) tbinitii be rntiird befoti? tbc jnnvplR ; but tbeir 

^ftMTlion at tUl* place wcl* probably intend^ to supply ibpQ Mlf- 

*!UaiiuiiUi>a vbidi Hat tlir ni'inr m^cnaary now that (^cMifsaHoB 

^iilw PfiMl wa> not rcqnircd. la IfaeScotcb Office (1^7), tbe 

' r,rV.i^ -Rcb^mi </ TlwoM OnDhr/ iL U, Ci tol. ir* flS-O W be 

■ 1><Q Liliirgteik'Ae.: PiubirKMltcy, |^4ff^ 

diffi^tlea 



7%e Loni't Daff. 



I 



illfliri]|ri»-4 «ppciAl]y frit nbniir ihr Founb CfimnM&ilineQt kftTe 
been Kiel hy the fiircction that the rcapond* should \Mf *eilWr 
iWYxjidiDg 111 (lie leltvr ur tu tL<- tti^sciCAl mtnuiag of ibc taifl 
rocnmnmlritrnt/ nm) liUfir by u^ing our X'litd'i lummBLxr (M«1L 
xxiL ^T-40) to the eicluiiou of tbr CiJinniaocimvau. 11m 
Amt<rioaa OfBoe ntlJtt Uie suinmHry at ihe {lia^Tiriion of the 
minuter, Manj sit»iHg I'tolcMunta — Cbillingworih U Ad ox* 
ainpl^ — have founil ii hand to n>con«il<> the uie jf ih^ Ita'AjvirKl 
lo the wonlf of the Fourth CommrhiKlineiu >vLth their CbristUQ 
ncgleci of ihe sev^ciih dny^ but have found m, »u1uuuu iti 1I10 
' mjitical meaning,' and id the preat important*? of hAvin^ iht 
Cortimandinents us a whole jtuL||c:ly ttaiI- ThU Qic of th« 

CommandmeDts wm, 4* we havo teen, charge lemticftlly Eagliih, 
nDiJ is further <rmphaiiiifH] by the eigbty-^rcoad CanOHt whicb 
djrrott * ihnl Thi> Ten C 'am m ami me nil be set up on the mtt efiit 
of every church and chupel, where the people may beat nee and 
rifad the lauie/ Rut ih<> geii^i^il me fit' iht Commandmeitu 
do«« iii>( ^tli^ct the relation of the EngUib Keformation to the 
Sabbnih. The fact renuiiu tbal the (rrm SallalA ucver 
oblaineJ ev«n & tomporary plac« in any iarmalxry of the 
Cngliab Chuxcb, though it occuri in ibe scnjud book of 
HotniliM.* Nor c&n any correct vi^w af th^ RefOTmaCioil 
docamcnts be forined wathuut bearing in uiiod that ihc curlier 
cdendar* irern erowdwl wiih holy dnyt, and thai tbew hi»ly 
days ncre placed on a level vrjtb SuDdayi. Our Itmilfl will not 
admit of full proofB of thi« irnportjtni point, hui refrreotv may 
b« ii;adc to « doeament which we hare not seen mciktioned La 
llifr dUcuMiom of the cju?!»i]ou. 'Thnrle umdv fur thabru^scios 
of ccrtaync hoty-dayei , . . Ao. 153l>/ t to tho Act b aod 6 
Edvatd Vi. cap. «% to the Iwenlielh of Queen EU^abcUi** 
*lnJDncelon** of Ibb^, and ^^tpecially to tb« tbJrt^eQib (^anon 
of ItiUi^ ; but at the naoinrnt when the wi*e and authoritatire 
woriN ni tht« blading Canon were bein^ pEraned^ the Chureh 
wna already in ihr throes of a atni^gle which the doting ye«l« 
uf the Mtteenth century bad bcqurnthni 10 it. 

Of books wlu«h hav« lhrou;;h ciictiinitanoei attending ihw 
ftppenrancc rieiclted nil intlucncr out of all pro|>orcioii to Uicir 
menti, then? has perhaps ncrcr been a mor« copapicvoiu 
czauiplc than ibe * Sabbiithum Vrlrris et Not] Tcitameuli * of 
Dr, \:coUi H.'Hrnd, which appear^il in iri95, and wai the fins 
usertioD in ihi* country — and for a panJlel wc most (o, not to 
xht iMcfaing of the Rabbit, bnt 10 Umi of fowm^oUi^Miuiirj. 





'Ih^LoTd'^ Day. S7 

HoBiAAfr'— of what bccoiQo bnowa as |1i« Purit&fi doclrin^ at lb« 

Sftbbklb. I'or foilj jran tbe peaple Lad licstJ tljr Fourtli 

ComroaDdfiMnt r»d in tba charcb» with k prober lli&i their 

kcMU mfty he iodincd tv ko-p it, but aU tbls time i>uikd»y was 

ft dar of UoTDcv And rvv^lrv, lach » IpiI xa the CN^mpbim, 

*God U more diibonourcd and tbc devil better vc^rvod upU4i 

Sundfev ihaii upon all the d&ji uf xhr we»*k betitJv.' * In IfibO, 

the LandoQ lAA^Utnitc* obtfrinrd from the CJuccn n prohi- 

bitioB W pW^ *'>^l inErtlurlri fin thr SumUv witlau ^be Cit> ; 

bat a gntt diBUt^r wliic-fi JuUowrd ttio fall of thn >ca{?ii]d« in 

UmPativ ^ATtlfrn* in I£t^3 ua a Sundaj, »how> tbat ouutdi? 

ibr** liinlia ih« bear-baiting and otbcr low amu>ein»RU w^ip 

cobtinncd. Thtngi bail giovro lo aucii & pilcb tbat many 

f«ii|inoi p«}p!* trrrc prcpnred Cn nrwpi any argumpnl, and 

Boro to w«<lcx>cno D&y prnctital Uelp^ in tavooir of iLc kAnctit)/ 

ofSonday. No rjipuUv lUii i\ie tnfljfrnci- of cIkt Uxik iprrad 

ibl ArchbUbap WbilKili. in 15lt9, ^nd CbieJ JatUoc Popbam 

ii IGOOf mdeai^uunfil lu >uppm» tbe wurb, aud wilU tbo uaual 

Mttln: — 

'l&a prioo of tbe Doclcm BcioV m/b FnUcr, 'l«Bati lo b« 
InUil, as Doruiuntily Fonkki am ibtn mont rullt^d od» wlimi citUod 
b,iDd aasT who b«Ar not ^f ihetn whon iiHTited. enrjuim nfur thflin 
^ii proLibitod ^ aod thc>iij£b tUfi Bixjlin winfft w«n olipt from 
ifUig abnttd is print, it rtin tliv fL»1<-r fnim friend lo frioud in 
iMcribod Okj|jiai; mud tba Lordi duj in uirAt Places wu inoal 
ilnlQf obwrved. Tbe more liberty pcciplo wnrv oO^sred Uie 1«44 tli^ 
^xJ i^ rvfasmg to ^o tLo frvcJom AuUiuiitr toniknd Ifavm- . . - 
^iK >ii 5<*» aAor, .Baimdf Buok cam^ fk>it!i, wltL ABlarfromaita, 
FiUiUj aoU, and uilkc any roiiJiii^tit^ Cuttu'l^iiLiii, i^r ouutri^vemo 
•» Kt forth bj' ibe ■trirttr DiTin^-ii, ivb^ioiii ibis DtMitriiic iiho 
■fcaoad in tbiit iltng) vc9a not lar^oly prewcd and pruvud ; n> tWt, 
*4M laith. tbo tiabbath itatlf bod ao r<wt. Put now all ttrango aad 
^b»wa Tnt4:iv, vrilbi/^t fLirtliTrr cjuiiiLiiiatiiJiJ paii9cd fur friuiid8 
mI ^imarilJ^a of tbo PrtfAMlArliLii pArt^', irbn conld f^vn tlin word, 
wJ lad a&ytbing in ibeir Troati«* t^niiiicr to tb« atriot obMrvation 
<fft«Loni>daj/t 

tWtsptd «p»ad of tbc docirinc find practice thui introdiic«d 
Uaaitrr of well-knoim bi«iorv ; and thotigli wt* may disL^iunt 
■n* % l*w of lb« i>itr«inc «tonc« culE«^cU-d bj J^^^^^p^T, Hejljn, 
ud utbcri, a valid ftubsirauin frtiiaint kbo^iii^ Iidvi far tbc 
[wadaluiD b-ad awiuifT- ProtF»t4Qtiim gfcv iturdv in tlte pru^ 
pt«t of « ^pauitli allUucr, aa h bad Man a ^paDilh Aimailft. 

■I^«±lr *Ofllie ri*«f iftd Time crpn^T.'cd-Cbrr1o,pp.3iaH, Tbe«< 




«8 



lULcr^'* Z%. 



lo U80, llie ddziextt of Londott, •* vre haTe sceUt fot tfac*tr<« 
dnard no Siinrlij : iq l€ld» • fojil d«<:Uralii»ik'<- 

■ Ui4t for Uu good pffopJoa IflwfttU rccicotioaii, Uiff pXc^tv^ Wt UmI 
■fkor tfac nid or liirinp Scctioc, ihej slmclid tjot bo diUt^rbrd, UlM. 
or di*<M>ur»g«ii froui nay Uwful] rocra^lioaa; 8«eh a* ilsacAitf adtWr 
of ini»ir nr vom«n ; ^ffiierie for mea, Uuia^ vuUiiw, or ^nj nek 
bMtti«M rocrcAtioaii ; Nor from k^natf «rlli^r-poif«,WhttcQii-fttai^ 
or Uorifo-dukoot, uid «cUiDg ap of Ibj-poks or otlicr Bp>rU tbctO' 
vritb BH*il. ■« w Uic umB be bad in daoaml cttnvttiHinl tuBo. ititlsiiil 
ImjtfdimKtt^ or It-t of Diii!ip» Strrjoe; uid thftt ■^oma ikoolJ h»» 
Uaro to 0UT7 iiubM to Ui» Ctevcfa Tor ttio <UcoifiPs of iti ceoordi&g 
to tboir old cviteBo; «itli«l] frolkibiliw «U isbafall garpw to be 
and oa tiio SuiUw cauljr, M bnMniUo^ boll-UJiio^ intorlnda^ 
■ad (U aU liacs in tke mcwwr nort of p*opl« V Lav prolifUlBd) 
bovliDg ' — 

met «itli fd^ a iinrm nf nf»fK>iilmn ihu it vru wiibclrawn.* 
lo 1621, n juunf; Uttfpr n.-ucn) SbrpZwrd, nho trmliunl tu 

SpoM lA tlie CottiDk»4ia a Bit! ior *th*» b«tur ob— rr a ncp uf 
: Sabbatb, OmhUj called Suudrfij,' aud tu tucfat that Salsi- 
d»j-, not Soodaj, wu tbe Sabb&tb, ajhI that in irjiing l« put 
down daodnp tbrjr were opportiDp King Dand a* well a« Kittg 
I^mt%t aru rf|ifiinjUKl«d on hU koce*^ and rxtwilnl tb« Hoi±m* 
fttw hii profoDit^. Aotl yvt «i)0o ibc Lord* amt d^Mrn ibn 
Dill fit til 'ib^ l^ini*ft Hut 'Mit>«t4LU[rd U^t * Uir SabtNUb,' andtbe 
rruiarJt * ihil pcropU lio nov- n^uch inrline to trords ot Jadaiias/ 
tbr OfinitiutiB atk-rj>lnl thr KliMtt^r, anil si tbr Klag'a ivqural 
•spongod all paau^aa op|Mi«ad lo thv > D^elaradoe a( Spurts.' 
Bni ibe Pontoii patij frev rapuUr in powct, and more than 
ABa Act ArOiari«<'>««riv ParilanMnta made tb«ir pr«Mk« of 
tbe tiabbatii coapoliorj on all hU *ab^oct>. Jodpc* oci ibcir 
Htraita mppmaed Tillayr frut« and ^«indaj «akn, to which 
tbr p^oplo bad bvCtt neeviomcd lin>c <vat of mind* K«pOCU 
sod cmnplainti rMcb«d r^ri lahjrh wm^ but too willing to 
r^rvjra tbcm, and King Cbaxlrs in 1633, vainly tAd«around 
to cIiaJi ibc ttmng cummt uf SabbaUruntKn b^ rc-enaciing 
bi* fatbrr't ' Dt^ctamion of Sp«KU«' Ttkr diiminant force €if 
tbr currrnt wa» Ml «ll ttirutjgh lb« Great Kcbrllion ; it 
mmildrd th« do^^triiM of the We«cpaui«c«r Coaf^'woa ; it 
crowed xht Atlantic with tbc rcni^rantat and sbvwrd iucif in 
wild IrgSalation ; it Xnok monr tobrr bat not Im bt£««d fortni 
aa it pjutnl tbc border and minglcvl vrjth tb« n^ltooU chatscter 
nf Soitiami : and mhea il vrmrd bv spreading to batt- sprot 
iCwII, it Mi prnnan^ibt (otOM in Ea|;land, wbofo it Lad ana»n. 



TZe Urd'M Day. 59 

Common fl^sllh woa At an «-qiI, &nJ a 8taafl wm on 
liie dimiBe aga>D» if fnvr ihrnightfiil mm wUhM for ibi* irvrritict 
of tbv «ztr«m« PtirilAD 2S«bWh, lower nUbed for tbc Suatiay vf 
Eiunbrili or Rlii kingEiAni ; if Tpw m the i^nit cif tho ti^yentn^nili 
c^nrurr acccpr^d the doclrin^i wbich Or. Bownd ua^bt at ib» 

f^Dfl cif (iw »iLl4fTitIj, tcwcr ciiuld wi»L tliat his ivirili hofl ncrcr 

brm wTittm, Thi* u>vt<RlHtEit^ rflntviry vrtt in MiU rp^prct^ m 

la oth«n, the batttc^icrLmnd o/ cilicmr mpu on eilhsr aide ; 

pGuriuna lou iWr h^Adii, ri»d In tb^ rf>it* of ibe baulp ^ihtr 

inii prikccful men were \M<i licani of, thoagb they littd net, as 

n *iMnvtim«a Jtumnvd, cvsunJ Ui out- A rrniarkahli! ekainpltf 

idMdiid jadcrintAt bued u|K>a full knowlod)^ in fumUhAd by 

Bubop ^micf«on iti Linndn^ wltiihi< nivc a<lvir-<? in cases of 

toi*cwocv brougtit to biin^inany im|uircrs. In this <vay h« 

vratCf vbcn the contr<>vrr*Y i*&« at ir> bt^i^Ut (1030), 'The 

CWvftbfr ^bbcicb/ which conCfkiat hj mocb cx(x'!U»ni wnn*, 

■iapplieabktcithenitiekenthr^tiiury ai the « yen t** nib, t la at we 

Mukt Mntnn ritnifcs from it. Tbf* cnre of thp lni<> Dr. Jv^hnon, 

CO* of Simdcrsoti'* wi»e sueccstora in die Oxford Chair i>f 

iKvinitjt lib»» buvtrveTi mnJ^ ii i^asy fcri our reatlers Ui fiuil 

IM14. 

Oa how for tbe Fourth CuiuintnJincnt, with its respond, 
Innds Cbniiiant, be chink* tbew^ jioints 

'«agbl lo b# l*k«ii M oortAiii anil ^rautud »iQou^t CbrUtiane. 
0) That no pari ^f tlj4< L«w iklivored by IfiMM i« iho J«a« dutb 
iod ChrJatiaii* u]i(i«r tho Cr<ri^jii-1 u» bj virtue of tu^t dulirory: 
1^ VDt tha Tim Oominandtnantif thantMilTno, but InitAt of all thn 
IlMith, wHcb al) oonfcHs to be. st Icwt, in Eoma part C4ird- 
AmmJ. (3J That tLo porti^aUr dcturiaiTialion of iho tiino to Ihv 
MiN^lb dax of Lh« wtfvk. uait oar^niuaiaL , < . {9j Thid tLo 
i^Mun of ttw* Funrtb Cruniiuindtuiirit in lli^t goaeral, vil tti»Lt 8iim« 
Birbia tiofto shoald ba u>l a|iArC from s^uliiP i'ru|iU'jintriit4, to bn 
■kftificd lo an holy ro«l, tcz ilio better >ktkiidiDjE iipoQ tlwd'ii ^mblio 
iiilideiDi; Tri>Tdlji|', is moral lUid |jcrpctvisl, sn>.t of DiviTu: rit£ht. as 
* bcuch of tbu l*aw of Nature wLutcutito Thrtiitisi;* uinbir Uio 
Onp»I am Btill boTinil. Tl) That <U fn<io Tbt^ LotvI'b Day or 
^Miy, k iLo timo iip;3^lut«d l^ uh f t that purj>o«« by STtah 
Anlh««-ity, aa «o «UQd buuud iti ccniHciciice to ob#y: 

fH W:, whothrr ibat Authority bo iuiinudiatvly Diriottt OP but 

btdy tliroa^h Ulo puwtrr of ihn obnrob/ 

Oi x\m nM of Ktrrou It tills, bo sayt :— 

\) For Iho 1 hic^'- That nt* man oilh rc^annablr ouudomn tbo 

1UC of Uirfi-t J£«ctuaUoiM u]]4ti iL« Li>fd*al)ay as ajiapij 

foto fraTc iiaki'fal. (2) Y^tr tb^ Kiud , . . rt^puul uould 

In timcbnirnufiiiir HncrjoaliiiUK : I, To t^Etpnhlic TjAW.iof ihn 

. . . u. To thu (-jj^iLiiUoA of ihti E^orsoo. Walking and din- 




. 



GU 



1%€ Urd^» Dmy. 



;, iht& OMtt of libers] edocAlun, ia • pkofiust i«er«ftlio& : it 
u BO v^ deligbtooiiitt bo the mder »arl of pcofU, vho anra 
sooodbI U/iliui^ » wporl vbidi m ml Itrujl ani bpibtrruiu- ia. Tu 
tlb« ^flecU ^if the Bef«nti04iB t]>««MlvM. Thorn hviAg th« m >aft» rt 
io bo ob^, wkicJk giT« tbe bo4i refreakbg 1* lk« body Wb4 JoftTS Um 
tcaM uaprofsioa iu tbo mmd. Id wbicL rcjpoct ShootJDga Leapiiig, 
Pitdiiog (lio Bu, Stout-ball/ Ax^ aro nlbcr &> bo «hoMa ibu 
Dieinir. C«nling, &e^ (3) For the Tfi^ . . . T^l tb«7 b« MTtrrM 
lovuds tZMOOMlvcA tliui tovuil« Dtbcr men is lb* na* of U)«ir 
Cbrifllkn libcrtj brtcio, not mftking tbdr owa opimoo or pr^olico 
• nilo Io tbfir btrUitMi. Id tbu, u in all [■dliortBt tbinga, • hmq 
Hitd rbadlabln ntvi niU ia gorily wisdoia deny biniMdf mHiy tnu» 
tbe QM of tbiti Libotty, wbieb in % godly obirilj be dato DOt d«Dj 
Io bit brotbor/ 1 

DoriDf tbc reign of CbarU^ 11. luiwr lluin i>nc Act bcarini; 
UpOQ tb« obi^rranirv of SnndAT «u kddfd to owr Suiuto Book, 
iLod t>r lb<^»v th« 29 Car. Il-t c 7, b tUU uf prsctic&l iiuponuicie. 
Ill chief provitioa* *r« — 

*A^ Tbftt no te*d«aita> utificer. vorfcnus, Ubororeri or other 
pttTHc vhAUo«T«r ibnU do or c3;crdBo kay vrcrlilj Xobonr, biwinDM, 
vT vvrk. uf ibsv ccdinaiy oftlLbgH upun iLe I,^4'« lUy ur «nj pu4 

' B. Huu no ptr»oa or piVMM vbUtMVW AaD pvUidy viy. tbav 
forth, or «af«so to mU Any wttMS, iP>rBhinrti>ii, fmiL borbi^ K^>(*di 
•r Aottdr vbfttaocninr, npoa Ibe Lord't Dny o* uny pari tbor«af. 
[Tbb nobibitutt k«i uaisa been nducod for ttrtaui porulnUo 

' d TbAi iM droTWt boroMounet, vt^a«cr, balebM, bJg|l«r, UMti 
or ft&y of tbtir Bcmnli, tbftlt InTvl or ocnM into btt or Ibw ba 
or lodging D|ioii the Lord « Dny or any pftit tbvroctf- 

' D. Tbftt na pcnon or |««Kitax shmll mv, otnpJoy, or ttnTQl npon 
Ibe Lori'a hay vitb any boat, wbony. lighter, or Aarg* . • / 1 

Bui, a» Frufrunr WcritULr h»i ilionn. tb« ktrict lultag of ihr 
Conrta baa Limiud tbc Tcx&tioiu nac of ihia and tbc oarUer 
Acta uf ih« «u>ir reiga. It i» not^ bowrver^ plravuil to mil in 
dir Hunr iMwijiap^r of thr joamey by ir&in or t acbt of a fomgn 
potentate OQ a Tiut to an ^nglith Sovcrrif n or Prime Mioiklct 
takinr pUr« on a Sonday, intl of a prfMtlT impoaed by an 
nnvillin^ magi^tralc- on >i>nae miMTabU* anial] abopkccpcT 
trying iu ^Le i>di a pittaDiv on iHr tame day for the mpport of 
bU tamili ; and it it a mailer of rrgirl that the Sdoct Cou- 
mictrc, wbcue KrpotU atr befarc na, trrrr pm^)ud4il from cimi* 
•UUring ibe Art* i^ Cbaiir* II. 

f TimaiipaiN Vtfti.«d. JwvtaM. T. la, ifl^ ic 
:^ac«MlHif«l|L»7 rtifwtrria^aarirwcWEK 



■nd fo« loritiiig^pointfl in fhc ^n«du«l ilcrd^ipmcnt of tbouKht 

ftod pntctin on ib« SuikIaj c|ur«tion ; and tb« piclurr* cf thU 

ppHnH hnv^ h^pn ao vividlv (Jrawji hv \fr. [.i^rkT t>n ih^ iin(> 

tiftbd, and by Mcuri, AbL>cy ami Uvcrion on tbc otbcr, that 

fvrlmpi iii> miTury in l^ng^Itib bUttiry i« bc^tttrr kmiwii. 

Sunday wtu ftprnt dorinf thU prHod, opocially bj the hi^b«r 

cUucs, ID a way wbicb wuuld surpnic many iii our nwtt 

day. N«iiber tbe Houi« at Omtij>e nor Ibat i>l' Hjinov«r bad 

bmi traincil undrr Puritan iitnurncc*. Gwtti Qurcn Anne, 

CbotichwomaD lu the* w&c^ b«bl her Cabini*l Councili and trnnt* 

icted olbcr imporUnt Sutr butiticM an J^unday <-vciiiDC9; and 

^Bncjr ibp fir« hnlf (>( ih<r miiiity Sunday d:nnpr-pnnipt and 

Mbn f»liir>nablt v(ilcft4Lnmi.-t]t« wcr« by no m^nna inInH|uunt. 

Biihoji Piirn-Uh ominlniiK^l tci {ri-i>rgif HI. of ibc SuchUy bAntU 

M Kf^uinj^tun aad VVcyoinutb, but tbe only recorded cfiect is 

ibil Ell* Majeaty i»dji augry'* Uuvrii CbzirlutUr law uulUing 

■Tpag in what iba bad bvf^n accuitomcd to from cbildbood. 

Il vu fvT tb« Mctbodiii and Eranifrlicat rc^'ivat to brinf back 

• Bm of SAbbatarjnnitm, lo hi* f illiiwvl by ih^ rhh ai in- 

'UflcfdMC And it ii to a warm supporter of the ICvaniEcrlicnl 

vnvtmmt — Pnrlc'tB, lli4*ii I3rkii<tp of Ch^«l4rr and afL«rrwan[s of 

Lwiiiofl^tbat wp ow(T ih<* J*orii*i l>ft_v Act of 17ai,t which 

n Uw lubjcct of ibc pit!>enl inquiry. During^ tbc winter of 

lifO luro o«w forma of Sunday ^tming i*nt(*rtainm4>nt bad 

Eonc into FiUu^occ, — onr, a pionirnniilr-, wkiicb aoon brcuu« 

lh^ moTi of th«r diitciTuit ; the ntbrr, nominally a debating 

cfib, ibr 'inquiry into rrlif^iouft doctrines and raplninin^ l«it« 

flf Hntr Sf ripturr/ but Irndinff ' tn ibe riirrupi.ic>[] of f^aitd 

V^tU, and to tbc i^reaE <<n(.-uurD{;rnicnt ol arrtlj^ion and pio- 

'wmwa/ To prrveni tb**^ *Abntir« mid pii>fanatiorr« an ibe 

Utdi Day, oa1L«d Sunday/ it wcu provided tbat any hoaic, 

^. uppiied for ptjblic eotertaiiim«nt or aniuavinenl or debate 

nr>t Sunday, to which pertonfl >halt ho admitted by paycncnE ol 

n>f>(i*y, ^-fc shall be deemed a diaorderly Uopar, and the keeper 

ibarof iball forfeit ^^HW. fr»r *v*ry Siind:ty ib^ lam^^ «bAll b* 

iuhI. Tbcrc if a pendty also on the preiidenl, ^Vc., doorkeeper* 

*nd ivrrBnta. Mr. Jutijcr Afatbew in the Ijfrdstaie { eitpreiirc 

ilk« opinion ibat lhi« »t*tutc, together with tha oarlJer alaiutoSi 

* ^t\* auriy fan tlul hv coasaltod Bulicfi DongUw u to tlia jmfofvlj of 
^M^ imi^Timitt At ibc Unv* w^-ti UnJiupfl IVrlvUt nad BomDgtoa won 
■MMRortiiiE ('^ K«tr*]n tUpm. Dni^^lM lolfl lifcm iirt 1a miacl ilirot.Av th« 
iMiM a JSatbodlat anJ ibe lart oD]y fijUiPircd ;he Oni.' (■ l|uarterly Barlew; 

made 




«t 



Tht Lord' 9 Daif, 



m 



feiid Ijiril lAt>riiir ; * nn<\ PrnrnHir Wfritlnkr poiotn tmi tbit Ul 
pr'ihiljilion ol ilic aiattite? Jtpends on tli« cyNictirrmra of tbn 
o>n<illi-^(»; lljfjf iiiu»t Uv cTiiU-n^Larni-Eit — and tfulars* la j 
UclUfp >■ A fjUf-itioD of dpRTC*— or debatP, it tnuit be public 
nrid admiVBioii PiuM br bj- pajmcnl ; and on e^b of ibnr c>a' 
i)tiJ<iDt ib# Jnvr ia not Hcnr * A aimplv mttd clear criterion, loel 
4« tvbpttieT the cnlrrttininrnt or debate U coodncted for prcfit 
woTild' in bi* njdnfon *\rv prer^rsbl^, ^ven frnni a fi^^al poita 
of virw.'t 'Vhf Lrr<lt JLir/t under the ilrin^rnl nalinjf a 
Mr Jtiilicp Mmhrw — ' fntcn rery m jch Ijv ibe ihmHt ' i* Lm 
bebrr'ft dr«rripti<Tn — found na vmvniVin^ vordicE for ibr 
with thr ridrr ■ ibnt ii would be winr* if such an An 
pcol^.' Tbc Jodgc said, in Buimning up: — 

' Pralialilj, tb^ moM (itsufciblo tlcv of tliis particiilHr pTO0t)Q4&4 i 
to trcftt it ftf9 a ntqi in th^ ■gitnti<tii lliat but bt^Pii so long gmng a 
to prontro Ibo i^|>ca] of Ihia and sirDilor 8taUt«s iwi . . . . i 
call Ibo abtentioa of Ibv Li>ij:iB]aturv it tlio L^xioteiioc of thip M 4 
leati uid lu lis ufffct in ichrrTeriut- ^ilh nbbl uoiild 
Ihft p&rfeoUy Ifi^JtimAtA ainn»iiiafita of iho fyiMa.' 









Ai tlio Uw H'tu contfrupd ttrinfcvntly on maltcn of fa47t,ri 
VAi h uii IcubiiicaliliL'k, jLud i;lt^atLy boLb tUe CoiiiC of Fir- 
InUancc and tbo Court of Appeal, vrbil« ine^rprptiog iki 
j>riml atACUlv itrkil^* were not ioity to deddo ibtt; ucitber of lb 
di'frn'lnnFfl von» ppraonB linblp,} le cannot bo for tbr'flood 4 
ft natiou tbM it ihould bavc lam wbicb arc condcnmcd bj m 
wbo bavr lo iLibniniirtT tb^^in. 

'I'bo Saodav Sricirty, *oi>n ftflrr ihc dccinion f4 the Appf« 
Courl in cbr Ljwlt tvst t-OM-, lujq^itrd a DriLft Hitl to nmcn 
Ibi* A<^t *ii Goo. 111. e,49,and to provide rccLriciiori* on aciioi 
fur p<-naliir« in ffBiour of bodlri iLirorpornlrd vi Tc^\tU-Tvt\ and 
tbv i]i>u)panie« Act»» if tli**y ar* bv th^ir eoniftituiivn prorcnitf 
iV>^Bi <]itatiibutiD|; anjr piofit to ibv Djrmbcv*. This Oi ail n 
pir«t-oiril on Muy 30ib to lb« Lordt' Committee irLo bad bc^ 
oniurd i>tk May Htb< ll was natural il;at ibu Leeds c&ir and t 
prnrmMngt ot ihr Sundaj Sijcliiiii^a and ihc* Lo»r« Oay ()b*n 
rancr Si>rii'tT nboiitd otvupv a ifood df^al of tbc Commilloc « tic: 
and Atirjiiiiin, and lUc*}- nrrv plentifullj vupplW trilb docflmee? 



whicb nrr printed in Appcndice*, tbc moat valnabk of 
brinjc a KejHvri nf a Joint ComintllMr of thv CbnToratUia 
Cnni«rb«ry on tbc Sunday OpcDing of MunMuna. Of ifl 
Cnntiniiiea oni* uf thc?ir mra nnmbrr. Dr. Randall DaridaM 



* rtlil ItvKifl, p, SQ7. t .Scwflil K«foTi p « 



tt=i 




Eb#o 3i>bop of UocIiu»trr, baci been Cbairman, nod iht Report 
botn iho imprrs* of bin hand. Rut ih<* Lords* Ownmiit^^ 
«t»tuacd uUu a. ln-tf^ mt^tt ol expert evidcnor, nnd UiiB ihny 
printnl 111 llieir FinA 1U|wrt (Juii«> 27lh, 1895], iikkinK npnrl^ 
tir«t]T« Dionlb* lo coRsidcr ibo rectiinmondklioEi> vihich they 
dkuuM bav? upi^n It m tbeir SecditU Krp^m (Julj Hcfi, 1890), 
Th» Uni) of clpftfftgo in ih*« Commiiiiw wa» from it* vortitituEinn 
iQCTiIable, and U u not lurnniiae to find ihr l><ijd CtiaitLvtliir 
fT^ttentififT n drnfl report nhtch nt Wftt hu lb« meTiC of br«rilj 
Kid Kiiiipi)cil;r : — 

* Tb*t tbo Oi.iiitcnilU« liftvo m^l luul c*j]i«iil?nM) llifj HuljEot referred 
\a tbtfcn, toiptbnr with Uin eridcmni giTin hoforr^ thn C'tnmitioe^ lout 
fe&r, tnd mrc cf cpiniuQ tbti thoro in nothing in thtt «Tid4iiive udduood 
bafoo xLom to mUI fbr any ftlUmtiou m tbo dvirtia^ lav ' ; 

and U b mtuml m find Lord Hobhoaw* preieatini; a full dmit 
of ibirty-lbrec «cction«, and coding tviib the fifllowtu^ aniciid- 
in«!Qli to ibe Act : — 

*(i) That ao ttuit Bball Ll- inttiluW onclor tt «i««p4 wilb iha 
•^nctipn (*£ »mu rovbouiiMa offiduL (^) Tbat ftJl rofbr«iiico b> 
di«Di4ef)y boue«ie uiii to th« p«uA[tiL« allKbiiig to Uicia ubiUI bo 
dblaltd froED t}i» Act, (3) Tlrnt tlju Act «1ia11 not Hj>pty tj pi.*rforiQ' 
iUMa giT«Q willi a vittw to tb» ptiblio good ncd not f<>r tli« pr^lit uf 
tll€ fffomoton.' 

Tb# Cnrnmrttirr «dopI(-<l neilfier tif Iheve drniu, but prrfnm^d 
On* bj Dr, Ha&dAll DnvidaGo, Jiow Biibop of Wiiicbc«cr, 
^lucb wllb fpvt allpntunn* th^j jux^pted as their own, |l kIvm, 
'lLc Lord Hobboutc's, a mumc of the whole qaettton and an 
^^KjUjiti of tbe et:denc«a but fuillows the opiuLou of the 
C^^i'ocatio^i Kepnit, which it quote* with approvnL U «nda 
'^iib dicMT uoidb: — 

'On the wboto Babjeot refomeil to tia our cunGtonaon », Lbftl wbilo 
^%i« pbmKOlu^ of Ut« earlli*r Act w now tTiA;j[iri<pTifttT mnd iu 
^^tlilBtiilUl. if pr«i«tlO>bl«, voiiiii hci ■dmntagttoHAf ibo uiXifiLrti^ law, 
^^«luldown iEilbo two «lalnto«i, 21 (icu, ItLc, il>, atd the Htdutuioii 
^^t TuaIiIv^ Act, 1375> curn.^fioiidii *iii0Lautjully iritb iLu kJUkth 
^hjd uuliiQcGtit of tile Englml^ {luopk-, niwl that mty hiaU-tUI dmc-ijo 
* % ilN jccoarBL f ivviKiOJu woaLd bo bkrvulul mih^r thnn odi^antAg^Kivt/ 

TW C(iiiuiuU«w MTiii Cu bail- aiuched great wei|[bl to llin 
^■ndenr* of Mr. John Nash, K vocnl mmMllaQ of monf tbau 
"^bly jcnri' vipericoce io lht« coimtrj And America; aud 
\v the picrluro wbich ho eives of a Snnday tarred nuiocrt 
9^ New Yuik is lu^cjrndjf alarming. M« i^a* ■UpplJIll.^i be 

• pHittoa aiffwl by 734 meinben nf ibc tnitcnairktiiviit 
YvMtMoOi, wlio b^ liul ibc Uw which proLibiu tb^ oyonlnc 



H ^Sff Lerd^ Uay. 1 

nf ptdf PA cif amusrmrtnt fnr muiie^' »n Siiiul&y« may 1h< uphf^UL 
in thi^ iiitert^nU of 500,000 p^opl^ ninplujed ia 1L«in. Tbo 
cliicf t|>okr»iiHn uf the Sundit)^ Societies aUo ibioka that If 1I19, 
Iftfr were bltcr^ tli4>rp wnuKI be n wide ipr^ad of (h«M 
S(>cieUn>i tta<l tliit itic country 19 riper ff>r tlit.- vlianifir; and tbe 
CommitTPP, whilr dwlining to ^-ommit t}irniHHvn to this ww 
of ibc populoiity of llit-io ^^ocktk'H and llicir objccU, think 
that tbe-iv is tuflickent gmund fcir ili'prrrRiing any chari^i:* in (h« 
lavr. Tbc?f do not, In our opinion, lay suilicicnl itTc» oa tb« 
fftrt ihM Mr, Nruh and bU oiBucinlirv Uavu no ubjotrtian tn the, 
lectur«»ft which il hiiM been the iiMfDial obJAct of Sunday 
^ticictict I0 orjranUc ; nor do ihvy jfivc lufficivni credit to th* 
delinini; pofv^rt of piirliJim^niftry drnti^tu^nivn, wh«in th«y 
■JHume ibnt o clear line cAnm>t be drawn bclwf:cn say an 
utroncimicat Icrlun* by Sir llr^beri Ball and a mutjo-lial) tariff 
bjMr, 'Jolly Xa-h/ 

Tbfr CommitUw do not nppnrtr of thft sufgeatlnn ihftt im; 
pri>MCLition tbould be inatiLnEvd under tho A<;l nf 17^1 without 
ihc Jiat of the Attonicy-Gcnrrrjil or some other publit: authurity ; 
fin the cRie i« in (hoir opinion qnile dilTereDt from that of 
Sunday tMuline^ and Butlicicul «xL-iuptioii ta uivcn by tbc 
Rttrni^fiion of PenAliira Ari, whirh wni thr mrihod delib^r- 
atcly adopted by l*arli(iin<;&L in i^lb. But they >ccm to u» to 
have underwei^hrrd ibv mAlicin and indignity nf bning 
proaernted under n penal ttntute, even if a iudjre dircUrct that 
thp (oarit puriutd wui Ipgillmattf, atiil if the pmnliy in 
remilttfd. 

Tht-y hUi^ think that the dcmAnd for Sunday evtrnlag 
euicrtnitimenl can b« l^'gltioiaf'ly m«f by <uch teaturo* or 
niuui^ >A arc prc^vidcd by volatitury ci>ntribu lions or collcctioot. 
Tb« ^nrntion ia thus pUt-^ed ouiiiUtr the domain of pHocipU 
and hrou)£bt within that of cxpedioncy, and in our opinion 
uiiiif rif^Iitly. Hot vfn are not frurr thai the CommiliMT wixild 
be prepared ta accept the ot>nMH)u<4nct« which follow irom this 
opinion, Wovild tht'j biy Jt i* capririvut to iipprov*? tUc 
difl«rrntiit! pnymcnt of the <.'olWtir>n plate and to condfrmn tho 
e<|ual payment of the lurnalilu? VV'ouId they nay it ia inor«| 
for a man to enjoy an entertAinmeni a1 lomrbotiy el«e*B cnit, 
i^nd iinmorii) to do so at hii o^n? VVby ia it desirable that 
money payment should be penal when It im noi in othfrr 
eircuinslanona on the same day, r.g^ for luncheon at a rlub or 
for a rah- fare P U it eipedjent thai n lecture by Sir Kobf^n 
Ball which, if delircireil at the lioyal Irislitution on a week day, 
IS uUeiuk-d by our girts ami bovs in cri>wds, and rightly cxin- 
aidercd by younf; and old lo be as delightftil and innoocnt SkS it 

it 



7^ Ij^nVs Dtfy, 



65 



it iuKiwairf', »hi>n1d, if ilMiTrrrtt on n Suiidny, %xy nt Tnvnk'P 
HiUoniler tbe rhiiroiaiitbip of CAiion Baracrtt nad if & prnny 
'<tfcv^1 fur ndmiMiuDa brcuinu mi ptrsUfcrvfus nn lo tizakc tilt* 
iltJ] > *i!iBonicTly bouw,' nnd (ubjocc thoM rcApoiulbU- for It to 

Aiirl jfi U i» tli^ I'jct **! jia|mriil of non^y vihicti liet at tli<f 
^ool *A ;lie opinion of ihc Committee, ^i iWy icr^r witb 

t^uld ftllov llx« opmin^ ol Mu>cuie^» luid GallefL«^ tin t?uil«lttjrBt 
^l <iHuI(( T^jjarfl any pavm**!!! tivr admittion a« n diunU^r of 
^l>P jrrkTcai kiml. T^ <^\^t idra Jcrriv^d fri^m the Ji'irs was 
''"i' ibp ttmng l»y, ivx in |»)in^ monry, hut in mnkini: U\ 
"id wft oinnot hvlp thinking tlinl ih« t.-rii^rio'i of p/vifil, ft* 
*dioci[eiJ l>jf Pfiif.^tifir VVrttfikkr And m lln- Drnft Hill, t« 
"»"»* in harmony wilh the bi^jbrr idc* of th« Lon!** iJnj ihftQ 
^^< ofpajriactU' 

VVe can refer but for a momc^nE m AnoLli^r PArliamont^fT 

P*Pff wbich Wfr bcivc fl«ACT]ticd al the head of thii Ariiclc?^ nnd 

*iiirh «i>i*r»i lo h*v* rK^Evi^d fiiT Ip« uEl^ntlon Uian ft dncn'M 

"~lh« Minnie* of an Inlfrriaiion*! Confcrc&ce bctJ Hi Mail* 

'n 1 JsWj umlcT ihf* pppsidrncy of M, l.i«iJTi Snv. Thi^ dUeufl- 

^^*»tx ir4i lakcn in «c<^lu>nv^-^anLlarv', Social, btiitding Trade, 

Gviimt Indmfry, Publir Trnnnpur: Sprr™*, Ponift, TflfjfrApha, 

■•d Tdephont-s, other Public Servit-c*, CotnmeTcc — and in 

*^Ji secElfin llii* mnr1ii«iiina wrtt- emphatii^nlly in fiivtiur of 

''^iiiUining and exE^-ndinif thr ncckly rent-day* Thr^ folJoiv- 

^Ig laumouitfs * will hive sjitLii) weight aiul iiiU-n-Tti for nil 

Cbgltab-cpt^nJiing pa-op|p»; — 

* RllB^dcott null i^tMirration bate cnnniiccd nio tliat cvcryonu wbu 
^i>Tki vhith bis hnadtf or henil ndMla n rui. n'biot] tun only bu 
^iiHiunl to )]uii by k gisiicrnl kocpinir of i^naday. PLilrLiithrdj^ifftit 
^^^ Chmtian^ maj rrgard Ibo ijhobIioq from djlTirccl «UiiJpoiDt«. 
^til «baUi('r vo vouvidff maa va an auimal ur mb uu uiinioital btriDj;, 
^y^^ pogfit to nxj&io to liiffnr* for bin £1i9 fMl dDmEUidvd uqoftlly by 
|^<*4y aad Aiad, in orJor tbat Iboy may bo mainUin«d in iVi* bi«t 
«ucd)tioa> ThoDo who do utit boo tho Uiviiiu oommand in 
^^*ft Bibto Mill W3t (ail to liud it in mini liiuiBolf," (^PatfjuKJit 

'£nr mv it l« iiuiitpntabl* tbat Ib^ oliiorratioii of Svndh^ Ttnat baR 
'^Kxicd ilwU deeply ia tbc cimriaicnn m toU an ia !li<i batit* of Ibo 
a^nn'ty of n:j oomitrymcu. If to mnuy of ibom it ftppcwm a 

'hriHlibu lift, utbors, no fcwct In 



dty of tJic Hjiiriitiiit and Ch 
'»^t'»m, d«feBd it no J««8 «ici«rgfitio«]l^ m * Mcifcl neoflwity. Tho 
^'^•tiug'claM IB txtrnaoly i«alou9 for It, and i« nnl only opposed to 






J 



€6 



7^ L&fdU Da^, 



ila open abolitioHi bat Ut all which indirotily londa t« thi* 

Ulonrts), to avail nijuoJf i:if thii priviWa; «qi] tinv that I btrf 
urivfid n^ar tLv goal of a luboxiou* publio camor <^ umli <'I) lSftj> 
BOven TV^^i I uttnbutu id ^«t [Jut l4? tlii* pnctio« tlH> pri>Ioiigin{ 
of tQjlifo Aail tl;« ^roMinnbtiuu vf mj fflculliee. Aa^M llieiBMisi 
Kn eanoemeil, thn ijimatir^Ti in eUII mnrr- impnttant- :t U wabdH^J 
tlio popnlur questioJi-' (Mu. QLATsfTcjwt.) 

Thew iMlimonics takn thciT plncrc wUb many olhorstfiMfl 
eLil- Suciatm ProuUlion'* faaiitcj* ctijiy* onnAnlt (tUr G*i»i«-l 
Uw of 1^03 furiii«h«« u »rrjk;n|- rvc^ot ^laiJiiplo), to lh« f*ci ih« 
at the cloic of the ninntccntU c^ntur^ a» nt the close of (bi 
«*ighieeiilh xVvt Lnw of God mainEaini iliolf iffDinftt both cti 
accrcUoiu Mid tlic cuTlAitnK-Rt of man (the I'rcQcb Uir of \'\9 
will r^car la the- memory), ami tlm.t tti«? principle ol tb«* oluei 
vAnco of ono <lay in Bt^rcrn t» of moral and therefore of aaivoffttf 
nhligntinn. 

Our own mvo«tii^tioTu hare led u* to ttu further eoncloiin 
iliRt ibo (ippi>n»niri<<fl for worilitp Atitl r>-ii whtcli ili'* Chiirrh (ir 
won from thn ^tntrr in tho opening ycori of the fourth wntor 
aiv 4 pricelru jirivilrgr! whicli ihtiald be nijiii>tAiB«l Nt ad 
oott, Hut that the cer^moDial of tL« Fourth Com maud m ent 1^ 
no npplicAiion to the LonK* Dajt^ itnO, up^rl froai tlu'k dajf i 
bigotr^\ wbvChfi' Bouian or Puritan, ha« n^ver been held to bat^ 
The frrui CtiristtMi Sabbath ia uubiioivn fur the firtl t«el* 
Lvntiiri(-t of Cliritiinn huinry. The term S*bliaih ie applied 
ttw? Lurd'a Day ii unknown to the Articles, ibc (^anoo*. nnd t3 
Prnvpr Rook ui the Church nf Knglan'l. The C^briitijin kA 
of the day 14 of a daj ol worship, lefreshmeni, icst, peace, jc^ 
fibeny. Thv duty la iherefore Incumbenr upon every Chfltt&i 
to cltkJm these privilcj^ei for bimielf nnd for aJl poranni C03 
luuinl to bii» cair, ami, a> far lu in him liea. In obtain m*', 
lo pr9forv« it for the whol^ brotherhood of mnn, Manj emiatf 
Cbtistlati lcac^ht!n have rejoiced during Lhff ^Ni4t ^cario weJpi> 1 
oM .1 «t«p ir thia direction (he openinir <^a Sunday* of the ctvk 
ptihiic Mutcuma frad U&llerioa in l^odon, Srjine eatia^ 
Cbrlidaii ceaohen hare r^oiced in poat yeata in landing tl 
men of tU« highe»t aci^octfi< and UteraTrffimacncc were wilI5 
at great penocial lacrifice co nfTuT on ^Lin<)ay eveiuagt enK.' 
uiament, of nii ordirr that it was impoaaible for them to obt« 
in any other way, lo miHtes uf our ^reiU (own nopulntiunt ; aa 
they have moamcd utct a proaet:utJoo whictib while it (aa^^ 
on Icebuk-al groundtL, Uas led mmc of the tnoit c( 

* ^ Dc la Culiibmi^n dc Dliauieb^' IfiML 




Day. 

rer» to decline the mk of it jicn*l Action. Thow wlio 
in pnrat (owni hnvr be«t r«a«i3D ti> Ost thnt it is tli« 
pfiUiflui AHti not the moruli*! who wilt piofii l»> kUutiifi^ iU« 
coon of thrfitfr l^pitlTnii^ mnd improving cniertainir^ntB; fui<l 
fDiniffm M work) (pi) U9 cvni iiuw willj mJ ffecpriicv litiw 
ihe eicnin^ ftf tlif Linr* A^y ia tprnt, and of tb« I'ou of 
MijjiiUr ibrou|Eb the d^Wuch ol'Sandii/. 

HV can but rrirrpi thai lli# Lord*' C^mmitte* tiav** l)**n 
onaWt to **^?e^t anj mc«t)» bv which ontcriftinmcot« like u 
Ifctiiiv bjf Sir Rotipft Hall coubi be «.^ntiiiin«], and a !i»w tjpr 
«f Eauichftl) perrormjtnop piohibilrd. Wr have nlrpftdy es- 
pw«»d our opiniua thai ihr rriipritm <if pT-ofil viould lap 
iiifflf.lmi; but aD.'Hh*»r mpthrHl <>| control wn* reaJy to their 
^fib, thoo^h ii Kcmi to h*v<r r»cjip<:il Uicir ^ouccf in ih<" 
pr^nanl «]g^i*stion of Mr Jmtico Mihthcw :— 

'In a\\ tiiiM« ib«ftt MS4 aot looftl AUtboxit^ vith kU tha p<)w«r that 
«<il auibi>ritx DO' powwftft*. «iid tb«tc£>r9 Act* *>f r*rliAmwi w&ro 
vti»r« iMriD^eDt.iujd prrhtps D«edu4 U> bo mcLTo fltrinice&t than 
«<r Mod to ba mtiJi? Uijw. On* cAnnot help tbinkluii iIaI wiiij 
FbAhjI lafetjr cnnddt^ocv luigbC bo ro^wMnl in tbo dib^retiuu uuil 

KWib« uf loeal AtiiLorU,ir to dc»l Witb uaii*«xa«iat* *i lhL« kind, 
^Ir «aott^, vbcn titcro la time for IviciHUtion ou etioi ft aabjcotr 
^Iw FilJ Ix) the coujw; Ibc IrgUlutioii uill taJw.* 

V« have no roaAOii to tloabt ibc citntcientionsnpw of tb^M^ 

^\tr iniihtilnl this prrwM^tiun \ but wp nonp tbp lpi» tLmk It u» 

*» la intol^rnble imcTfcrcocc with the liWnT of Ih* pwplr, 

^^tjKoctl til manlj' fn-lirtff a4 well » lu Chn«tia» chtriU, 

1^1 A procAPdtor wbo is GalTotl a • mythical jiPTerm " •Lanld bn 

^'•^ht fr^Mii A disUnc^ lo uri in iniitiuti * penal Act of IVrliA- 

Savnt, passed for n, wholly diffi-rant purpoie inon< '^\\^ « hundred 

J*u% ago, affainsi tbct chivf mnEis^ratc of incb an iisporuot 

<^t^ la IjNKia, aupportpd a» hv wju br monjr of hii nofti 

J^nuocat Jdton-citixPLia ^ud b_» general locnl opioiofl,* ll U not 

J*yKiP(ho«h lilco these that th<?"rtrtorir*Jif Tail b and Monli hive 

Kon tali auxllio, iwo (kfUDVonbo^ 
Tempos og«t-' 



I 



• Pbmt Hopntt, IL 51. 



r :* 



Atit. 111. — 1. HutUtin de CoTTcapondanco Jicil^ni^, Atbratf 

1882, 
2, jhpikurpigche Se/iriftm anf Stvin- By H, Umhot. {* Rbein- 

lachei Museum/ IflCl^O 

Dr. A\ fVoth in Horn, (* \Vtcn;>r Slu*jicn; Ibtfl^) 
4, Ejnciirea. By H, U»ein^T. 1»S7, 
5* Lttcrxiiui^ EJiu-U by H. A. J. Maaro. Fourtli lilditionu 

IN tLi; /fjiir 1842 Iwo Cii^Uab «ip1i>ivn. Mr, Spratt luid 
Mr. Forbes, discDvcTrd to thi> benrt of LrcU Ibp ruttift of 
an juiciciil Greek city which thry i<lr»li&<rU as OlnoiamU. 
Prngmr-nlft of mightv wnlls wrn' Hill iitnii*iin^; in thff c*»nirp 
of the ruina n pjivctl iquorc* surruunilcd by pciic^t&tt of fiUlcn 
nillAn, niarkfrl llii' nticn'iLt A^iirn it ifinrkw-tilnrp i nnil over* 
^ETOVD hjkI hidden by Ucvs and buihca, ibcy found at )aat ibc 
tlitintrc, witli tt4 tiftt^ii Euw» tif sl'^iU* iiuir t-roiyiliMl bj «aan<« 
thouiandt ofcagpr «]>octntori,'^pccifttoTa ftbaorbcd a« k*«nly a« 
VTC ouraclvet arc in ibc dninga and *utTe^nnxs of Antigon*? or 
(Kdipua or Agnincmnon, hucI in ilat* great pr^bUini on wbich 
their dolinic* larn. All ruand wi>rf> ihr »ien» of tbc Miiruif 
Uff and rrfi(i<fitiriii iif n Grf^t-k riiy. On (IiU ipiE. in th« yi*jir 
l^j^j, («'(> Trtmch «rhi>Urb* di>ci>vcit^j a gn>at number of in- 
trrilvd ilcinu. Intrad of rpcunling pnblit? rvrnct, ibo birth 
and dcmih of individuals, civil dccTt«.<a or law*, thec« aton^*^ 
■LiaD^ to A&y, all formed part ^f onv ^i^a&u<: tiuN.Tiptl<M» 
dndinff wtlb tome philokopbicul mbj«ct Which school of 
ancic-Dt philotfophy did tbU trtr^ljac rpprcscol? As ihi? vtplorer* 
dpriphprcd i\w fnilowing worth, tbr tf^m irnv %aaa an iipen 
one : ^ By mcani oi Itiii writing I am oRcinptinjf, a» if 1 wore 
persi^naLly pri-irnt. (o pmvr lliMt wbftl iftpnifitable for our natuiv, 
aomciy, calm ((rrapfifVa), is tbc aame both for oi»c add alL* 
(The Gn;i-lc trrm iiuoted, denoting ' tranquillitj of loal/ wa» 
a wMl-known walcliwnrd of nnc impcttant school of Greek 
pbilk>u>phy.) Other pjuiigcs ran i- — 

* MftRj tfiord be tliiit imtHttv ihllModli^ foir tb« aako of T«alth a»d 
hoooon, vilh Ibo Ttcw ot obtaining UMfla frnm prtvato iadindiMts 
Ot from IditfA* . . , But we have not nudcrtaAcn ti« iiorsait vi 
]ihilfNi(7^y in order that ve may gain any «f ibe jalTacta^jna bcforp- 
namcd. but iXat it< raatf bf ^aypjf^ tmS 0m* oMaAi ri« md whifk 
•ofarv ^ar^ And wbi^t b tbift It W lbat«bieh M«lb«r wwJili, 

* JULUotEcaiaio^l l^im The m j nnpliMH wm fcujrtnfcj In Ji<ni. a. 
CnuilnlnthB-l^cillrUudc Cor w a p oaAttw W lWfi' fcr IMXMdWt^laljy 

nor 



£picvrus and hn Sctfin^t, 6f> 

m plilicjkl lionour^ nor a life of Inxury and ftoatly bvtqniitfl, nor 
>tl Ihe oWicoflt EAUHUnl d^if^htp, iior Ekcivtbia^ cla« auit Si?'>i but 
pHlOflopbT 0jj>iio pn>diic>o« it> us *y sarolj Wo*,' 

MfthfcU saT- br^th itoi*- luul *iI»Hjrit, t>i all meu, bolL OnwkB auil 
■ffWlaiiB, nb<jutiiig with A li>tJ(l tuik't l^i*l 'ft'' ^^'' 'n'*^'' >/}%/*• h*u 
ku/pmtu /(>r I'l* "TjJ, nu<i Umt ti)0 virlucs vfhioh aro ik-w aoACAHua- 
a% diw^oi in by thc« mcu [tlio Stuic*^ (for tliny ]>m» from lU 
g»u»d rf tho mmiiH lo Uic grLHiud of tbo aacl) fcwi iii tut iwj Ihe 
cod, linl oiiiKljr nfin^rrn t> the onrL' 

In the Uat icnicnc-n ih^ unknown te&oKer tnmy svtm to blow tbv 
tTQtnpct of EpicuronnUin villi ion h»nh and blatnnt a sound ; 
hit thii will offenU us tlie lew when w« G4}nic to rodlxe hU 
!po<l intent. 

Wbpn thi--ti- %Umt% w*re colIrciniJ and dpf^iplu^rc^d, il appc-Afvd 
'H« abnnt It** end of the »econ(l century A.D, n certain icnchcr 
of_ tbr H[>k!ujvaii phLlo«(fp}L_>. rmmeil IMoj^nv^s^ living Itt 
^an^tuia and beinir thcti a very <ild ronn, had rciolvcd bcfofc 
"I c]|:j;li to bave iLl- cliirf tluL'iiinL'i uf Epiturus iiiicnbt-il on 
la» »4l[i of a larjfit pilUrcd hall which w^« ft pUov of public 
^rt. Tbe inscxiptioaB cover a Bpar-i? of nboui £nrty'fivi! yttrdt 
<tt length. Tb« piLungc# cbr>tcrn wore p&rtly from tr<^atttt(?* on 
^icnrcMi tlootriitv bj Diif^t'iid lilm»lf. uwl puitiv neletttum 
tem the writinKi of l^ptcurus. In a brief introduction l>io- 
t"iLM ox plains iiia niutivc : be appeals first of all to the voutli 
rf llw ciiy : It 11 till* • fair*' freti'h** f^ilk ' wboi** par bp it noct 
"^^tioas lo catch ; hut he ipcciallj invil«3 the ignorant ai ircLI 
^ ittlii to liSt me«<ag<p, und aUo the ttrani^pn wtio may from 
^t to time viiit Uinf>APd»^ — * llio»c who arc cftlletl airangcrst 
"Ut are noi hi, ftir/ hr )pK'Ji frn to %ny^ 'all ihr c»rth ia tbi? one 
^^To land of udl atciit and ttc world but ouu home/ 

^^J fog tho dtsircd cud is at baud; fi>r, tiwiiig ttj «*IJ ngc, atand* 

^|B_ia 1 do OTi iha V(iry r^rgi^ of disKclutionH 1 Luvu kiliJ £ucwoU 

»tti* thing* of lifu . . . thst wo may not loLv upon us new iv como 

*^ Ui& aid of tLu ni'M^t^Ily (liM^lpUned only. Hon, if one only, or t^ro 

^ tlino or fjiur or trn or nil, or 6i> laany monv raailer, nfl yon 

^'UiK beloojpn^ to anob a cU/ta, but no groat nntnber in all^ wttht in 

"^ oiM, I abould, in ooob udrIo injitimoc, have t^ivcn my boat 

^^ttael; but nnoe, na I Lato Mid, the multitnio arc aiok. u» it wcro, 

*C am oodiuMJU dimwo mrruoly, llieix fiJsa noiiimK n^gardiug tbo 

^ndnotof lif-),— ^kduaoraare being always ad dt-'t to t}iu lumilMr, for, 

••tag to tbwr <:iniilation of ono anotln^r, llK^y cAltib lijy filokii&B» 

^ fiioik tbc oth^r- like ah<op, I think It ri^ltt to cuino to t£i<; rc^^uu 

^ihcH vbn nhaJI orime nft^ ua : for tbe^ too am ontH, irvim thrjn^b 

^iT'^cK^Jot bom. BEnrvover, it is a bumnne thing to surwoor 

Iw dmngcm obo who ocono boro, Since thercfitre the auiHtanoo 

«d tUa (rtfttin ha^ (lOM nbtvftd to tbu uiom of mwi, 1 w'i^ Uj lu^ia 



70 



^r'afrzu anJ hU Sojiirgu 




1W0 <S tbi« p^bico to poUinb to bll ILq mciuiB wlticb codduot to 
Mhlratioii.* 

' Swing tlif: tvil cniM tif tbtise uitu, T IhiututHl cier Ibelr lot aaj 
Mbt<f1 icftTA owir tbp vTAJiting nf f^jrlr Uvea, onrT I OAinld«red it ihe 
g>ut of Au aj>riabt mut, iw far oa in mc Ur. to u&fuld lo tUo inl^ltgtftl 
i>t thorn. , ' - Tfor did wo c&qmtr inUi tl]i:«o tiilDgs in ord«a- that «c 
Diijcht Iw iilil«i lij Bit &t homo uDvl iLtrt cojuf the goods of philu»i>phy 
without imptirling thwn tu aU tin? nn^ucfttaj who nre bcra^' 

Do Qt'i iho*^ wortU fti <>"iw* i-i-mind x\% ol a l(*nd«T note of pitv 
anil comiMsaion irbicli ft^JuntU from ]<fn-: u^o? — 

' O mis&rft* homlnnm n}ehl««, O i><ctoM OM* ! 
Qunlibiia in toitobrla vittt qtULiilisqtifj poriell« 
Begilurhoc icvi quodcumquMt! > . . 
Nma TelutE piieri Irepiduit itiiiM omnia cVCIH 
In ten«%ri« moiuutiT, lic noi is luco ilnioniiiuB. . , .' 

(^O irretcbcJ uniiuls of men! O blind bc^rtv! not to *ee in 
iriwc <Urkni*«« 111' liTi* nm! in a-hni (Ung^r^ i4 «ppi^r ihi« liittr 
wra of htiokftn cxi«f4:acc. . . . For &» ^hittircn ^j*- in tcrriir and 
tlnad vvrn ubjnrt id ib(< il^k, lo »<- in brtiail divligbt cift«ii 
Imt wb«t t1irt«rw« n» mon to be fM^rrd ihiku ihi iliio^ wbicb 
diildrrn dread in thr dafk and fnncv tbev mmc rxisL*) Do 
v« ooi rtrcoffiii*? bt onn< » kimhip ol ipirit be4we«Q iHIa 
vaintinn, pnhapt not vrrr giftfxt l«nch^r of LpicurcamMB in 
fbr rcmotf? citj of Oinoandh and thr mnn of ^;cniDS — LuirrpiiiH 
in ibe wocbWi^ratrr, Home? B<ilh arc |»»c»itd by ihc sumo 
■Wp piJT tt*T mankind ^\\*^ ii.-%%iv ti>eir liv^ in profitUw and 
fti«an ambiiMMis, and by the tai&c boniin^ dc^rc to bclp iacd 
in tbeir ifounuicr hikI «bnir th««i a b«<trT war. 

Had Dioficnc* C3a<ie af«rcb in tbc meaner quarters of 
OiiMKuitU, be might pmbahh ba^Y k)und a soiall compa^jt 
MicMlOp tojprtttfT (Hir d*> in ihr Kc^k l'<w notihip lad f«Uoir< 
aiiip. witli ihLvw il^^uiura bf bad witaiii pifiutb in comOkOfi* 
GaibrTrdto^rtlicralnBoit irraltbiU brftir^ daylight in tonic work* 
ibm or upper rmkiK, be nif bt bavc I'ouml a nninbc-r of ohocuro 
cnAwi^n and «!aTra, * viiolvioriien;^ <\>4>blcn« ibllfTV thv mtm 
illil£fttlc ood rol^T at nanluodi* aa Cvlsot calE* tbcm, nlon^ 
mWk <mye or tu^^ prmns mi tfaAdw umI MlwMion. a ctf^ntttriMi 
prrbarn, a CkiT^rvmf^t of&rial, a Tadr of rank, all Joining IS 
«L>nbip and aiumf Ujfrtbct at a liinplr tmt, iIh- icirible jnlf 
b rt ^ft^a patrtcian and Mw«lunic at tui font^it^n. Both Dio- 
fvnn mi tbrte vorUiipivfT «rrr a^r^vd tba: tUr world wu 
aide at tbe br«n and iwriM tM^ting ; but * tbc- rnllowrn of mw 
Chfe*«o** bcMcd tbrir ductnnr <n a fat prvAMitdrr diap^oaia of 
ita dnniv iban |)iofri>n (wbi< an foiinkijr calli bJmivlf 'an 

nprigbc 




Ejticar-tu anti /lis Soyin^t, 71 

igbt mtn *) ot bu a)»irT Epicurua bad Attnir«il to. But in 
uut jmtfti ih^y wprn markedlv ir» itgwpmfni, llnth sprHalh 
Mt t^ tbc poor, thi? ij^omnt, ihcr itiivc, the dovrnuodilrn, and 
aimc-^l i|M'('j:illv at irtili|c]j(rfiin^ rlu-it- ntui ft-lic*in(j tlieir li>t. 
To Hprcarua «uch ftffllctod otie* n^rc hi> brotbrnn, and pven 
mot-o )u iban tbc prtisprrriuv, hrrnutr tliv^v Kiood more iii ne»l 
oi a^ld, ThU compiiMon for the sufTcring, ttiii iDttinct of 
hfflpluliicM, thU re^xignitiun of \\w prrauii^ duly to »ha^(^ out 
4«rm light with others who hnt-c it not, were tocdi of i^^Tiiiinp 
lif# vnibin ibc t^acliinjE of Kpicunis, It waa iLiti mU^iockarj 
«lccsa«nt vrithin KpiritTi-nnUm vhic^h innd^^ tr I^ai n ii^^Mrtn <>f 
philowphj than a reunion, nnd rauscd it to prp*cn'[? ita viulitj^ 

It U w«U Icnnirn ibni LticrHiui tyvorenced Epicariu aa » 
oan of vcinicv, a frailcv tliinkrr And a thorough goinjf ep«ny 
oi r*Ii(rion I Hot f« Lxjcri^tiu* Kpicunia w« far moi* thnn thi»: 
be Vb-aa til»c) an unrivnllnl mt>rnt icjkchcr 

' Jtiftt as ht+fl lip <if nvorytliinif tn Iho flnwcry lucfldowa, 50 do «# 
^e«l ijpuii all ibfl ^utdeu NiyiiigH in t)ij pagi«, tliou gloriuUA vm 1 
-wiTTngi most wortL7 alway of cTurlaiting lifo,* 

U l«iif[aii^ whiHj Hreiit* I't ut exEr.'LVAgant^ hut which ncrrr* 
tb«l««« coroc* from tho hearty htj aajti — 

* B« vfta A God, Q God, ilLanlrioiw Homnuofi, who first found ont 
itet nle of life which i» nun- called " n'iailom." and who hj hU akiU 
>ncW UXv frum hu ^tal hUlonn mild «i di'tp 11 darkutnti atiil uiuurvd 
it b M otkhn ua aiiclior«gu ond uikIci m^ hriglii a liglit' Tli* 
Ul»M whnA cti«s wi>nkij> ^i\*t tbum maiUwi tluBBLug^t i^ucb as cGtu 
■•4 Ua Tibo, which mca «oiilil ^^il ti?o without, but without a pure 
kitt ma cuinot liro hajjpalT/ 

*Wlmt are ihv d<wda of llnrtinlcfi/ Iil^ c<mtinu<'ii, *tu llmw of 
^rimnia? Wo ihuEi Xta hannhi of motistcn siiutj aa that htro 
kQ«i, bat oaJof* lh<H h'-^rt ^b olomtcd, wLnl battL^a nnd dan^:«ti 
tiWuc oDCountvr, nLt^lbtr nc choobv or mttl Wu arv a piry to 
M^lo&ar, tolcst, tn ]nviirj.* 

*H« th«rdcfi.- who thnXl b^vo oi>nqDi]rcd all thcoe^ not hj arum 
Wl br biA worda, and drin^ thorn out of the aoul, eholl not tbio iiiau 
kwrajoat tallii to he nuikod amcug the goda?' 

'Cpionni^ d^LiiMd thtr l>mk^tA d mvti by Uifl truth -smtking 

ScncjiiJk And dic'd a lltnil Ic iuHt and fMV. t&d ei^tbined iniat mu 
9 tiief good and pi>ukt«d 011I tho road thitbcn' 

TW atrongcBt iciumonv I'l ih«i character and pifta of Epicurui 
tf lix drplh ol his ini^ucncc over Lucictiua. W'c ktionr di> otbrr 
ioKaftrr of a man of high gvoini to completely po«*PMP«l and 
dMbintcd br another mind ; ftnd thia ia the more romarkabie 
Ixf— P Lncrrtiua did nm mmi? undrr the infliirni'F of npicuru«*a 

marvellouU^ 




I,pi<itru4 ottd ku Sa^itifft, 



f^f^rvelUitiily AttrACtivr prr»>Tmlitj, bnl lived tbm c^efitane* 

jfci't4-r lirui. * Thrr ! follow, thou glorjr of lhi» Grv«k n»i>,' law 

LuC*'"***- 'A»tl >i*^w ti* <n_\ itcpt finnlj in thy f<MtpnnU and 

(fv?A<t in tljMti/ Thr iniirp ihat wc Ifeud of Epfc^rus^ the mofv 

oloApIr <la Wit ftnd tbnt LuGiviiui rrprDduc^r* hia <loctrin««. 

He fol]i>w> bis inutrr, iirp for surpt vtilb no wAmriDg frrH); 

^mazing indeei] U the Ofinil<tcnce irilli wbicli Epicanit iospim 

Wi* wi<h in thia article to thaw brieflr wbai were ib* 
frAtur» ^i^ Kpicurus'a IKc ftitd (cacbins wiiicU inipirpd ttwih 
bt-:irrrrlt rpvpr^n^^n Mn<) mlirimiton in Jt viin llkn LurrPitLiv 
Wc »ball be nidccl pnrtly hy :hc <x>]lGccion of nil Epicaiut't 
known wnliMgi nml lAjinj^ in Uspaer*K ' Epiitirra,* n noiV 
which U>itaM ft ffplf-ndiil monuwont of Gcniiaa *Gholhr»U(p^ 
and pAitIv bj ■ Lliiritvcrj mirnllj madi! of a rollrctioti ^if 
miKimt hy Epicurui. izioit of ihtm n«w to at. Tbese v»^t» not 
(ln.ij>brfi-ij fitriii aouir pkpjfut fifuml ii* na IvgjrpUftn lOEnbt buti 
Atrma^ to my, vera ditcovcv^l bv Dr Woikc in & MS, roloise' 
in ibc Valknn, fbictt bns, diiriDi- tUii ttnlurj, bcca UaJkill«di 
Enminod^ nnd rnpiiv) frnrn hr iu4Dr ftrholin^ ixintiLiniii^ a$ it 
Xcnopbon^fl * MclDorBbiliI^' t^mcirliu'* * Baduridioo,' and 
ibi! ofti/ i!OfnplHe MS, ^lUtin^ of Mmr»]« Aun'littfl: ai»i>tli«r 
tmnco ibat oowborv can anything bo so oflccdwlT bid as doia 
baod. Tbe ODUtf^ioa u beaded, *Thc ExbortalioD vf 
;picDnn'; a 1it1«< wbich imp1i#4 ttw notion of a 'p#rionaL 
inaagv* lo tbc reader. There U indml a direcioeu in tbcte 
tajiD|f« which ii v«ry unlik« ihr iiile of ardiaarj pbilnaophloil 
writing Tbej are dravtn, a^ Uaeocr ihowa, cbifflr froB 4 
cnll#irtion of tayia^ drrir«l from the lectin of Epiranta and 
bia three cbiel diaciplcs,* Mbicb was at ocw time widelj^ 
'dfeitlat^d, mid ulut fnrm Cpi(^rv%'t liitl^ ratvchiun of Itsding 
truiha, pretrrvcd by Dio^i^es Lvttiea. Tbe prv«ent short 
•election bas been made, a« Uw^oef belietrn b_* > Sluiu ll 

emits Ui# dafinidnci of plvaatira which tbras so Mwwtitl a pait 
^ EpUninis'a system,! 

Wa know bot ImW of Kpl<-urei'i «>ar1r hUtorr. H^wasboctt 
«boai34l B.C.,acTea yeaiaafCcr thpdrathoirUUk. ilUpamtt 
9urt AtbeaiaiM who emigTUad to Saana, and wvfv probahlj 
Tenr poor. Ht> fatber k«pt m Khool of i^ w»t oloBMQttqf 
kJad. It U uud ihat bia aocbfr loUow^ m ncauoft of tvri 



sfOaiCbMlite 



i?«9>CKaar,-cnU MaOft Ww oMMad ■ayaaa far < 

bJfctb»iBH<b»iiHnLii«fi>««^l»>4e^' I 

tfK«ii««abtf 



^ 



Epictkras and hU Snyi^^fs. 73 

qurttioQtblc Ebanurter ; »be w^i n dc^lf-r in aornery-— wUffthnr 
m lifr <tmji af^routit or in c^nnpcion wilti ccnu* ip(>t:inl i^mpliv 
vnnhip, wr know not. ^hir ux^l to p» about ■ prrrurmin^ 
[WirifKurintii ' ; tbnl ii in ini\ tn(tH|ir'>«l nt™ »thI rhnmi*, intpndptl 
NT pmpitiair the d«itic« and to avvrt dt«cwjc Anr) misfortDH^, At 
tilt niuflg*?» Iff itmse nli'i wiiWI In i-mploy 1i*t, w1h>, it it 
probable, wcnr cJitcfiy the p^xir nnd tbc i^^'^'^'^t Pottiblr 
ibc VM the printer uf uiic* of ibr ruitri^M drrilk'i wUuk* Kurabtp 
h»rl IthvcHihI from iho Knit. Of such worihip* all aort« of 
Pipijitjoni ami purificntiiriiii, initmlcd for ibc tapcrilitioui or 
lb- niii«ripr)r*-«tri^k(>n^ formw) sn e«itf*nilA] part. It Ii k\v\6 rbrit 
ibn buf KpicQiu* utod to MftMt bi* mothc^r on >uch <icontioni 
bf n-ju]iiii^ the f^irmabr, Afttr prr?Hininanr crudites, w[iit?b Knrm 
bi bktc bono >lif:bt, »o far ma living- tvaclii?r* vrc^ro conctfrnud, 
li? becMQC! A ir^:hrr uf pliiluMiplij' ; aikI nftor kriuring niid 
plhOTiA^ <)iif^ipl<4 in rarioua pUcci, be settled in 307 At 
Meat, nbi<b br btii\LI> [frft Ci]J bib deAtti lu 370. Alc&Andcr 
Jtni in il2Hj to ihat Kpicuru«'i life fell in (he tim* of ibe 
l^docUi, tbe Buccv«»<jr9 of Alexander. Ever.T paae wf the 
wciry of ibm timi» U Twd with bom^rt. Mj*n vrbn HvaiI tbrn 
tni^bi ircll conclude th^t ibc irodi h^ vboUy doettcd tbc 
'wld And lefl St tii b« liirii lo pipcn bv duipoitt Ami iisurpvri. 
^0 doubt tha m^ bo Uv<»d in, tUo firitnin which ho ww on 
''^CTV liJtDd unptmisbcd, had thcrir inJlucncc nml % luoni; imt- 
tn tpirurut'* religioua b«<Ii<-f. IT thv story ib&t hi« uiotb^r W!U 
» nircercM be irur, ic i« pjobaMc ihw ibc dcceil* the liicks, the 
IT^vdlij]^ fear of Unteen Powe» which Epicuruc had witii(*«ed, 
^ Veil AS tbr incmoij uf tbc degrading part which be bod \A s 
baj unwiitinj^lv pUyrd^ firti kimUrd In him ihftt pitnionAte 
^Jttrcdof fALcebood nnd >aper>tition which vrA»ft mlin^ principle 
<»lbii \\i^. Tbr trty wtH'll of nii* fiicrrw^ in a irmple migUl 
ivciU to tiiin hU inalhrr'B inrantntii^ni. It is the «nmc with all 
tif at nho lijve iu juLilh »>itie u^idtt ihv inlluriKv ttf whiit uiaj* 
bnf b^n u\m\y % ©arrow uijd unipirJtUAi crF»f>d ; tUo diicoTory 
■>^ ici £aUc |jrctcn»ionj crcAtct a vioUot, pcibapi m lifelong^ 
mninn. 

Kplcums ftppe&n to hAve been a uiAn of boiaodlcst si^Rip&iby 
tad prATticAl bpnevnlenw. ' Thvtt- jirr plenty of wtEtmsr^ of 
bisDniorpAkiAble handat-Bito everybody,' savs Diogenes Laertiui, 
wbo al«if n^iikft iif ' \i\\ ^Mtiiudi- U\ hii pniriit«, bii broeficfncB 
>e1u4 brothcn, bi» jfi^ntleneu to hia aUvei, u is evident both 
Irwn hU will Ajid Uuiu the fact ibil tlity i^juk part in hia sLudiea 
f>f philosophy, And bis univoraal htndnnu to nil mon/ Hu 
tbrtc brotbcri cheiitbod tow>vrds bim tbe utmost icvcrcnce, and 
were Among bi« most «ncbii«ikttic dltc-lplei, ' l^veo if they bAd 

bf«a 




J 




Epimrtu 4tnd Ait Saying. 



bifen mitttik*!!,* «>\i PIdUrcb, *jn tb« brii^f which thej 
held ftQ() Airon^cd fiom ttieir bovtiondf that ih^rc vrA«Rooac « 
ihan Epicurat, (till wc mtiit aidmin* both cbc* m^n who iofpi 
»uch a kcLiiig aud those wUochemUrd jl/ Hti followers v 
wnrmly d[*voii?d la him: anp of ihom * b^s^n witnoat At folio 
' In r«>p«ci of his kindnc» and self-denial, (he JU'f* of l^plcu 
wlifln pfinnpftrvid wilh thp livp* of nihtr ra*^ri, might p*i» U 
tatty inlc' (Jiccro^ the unapATiDjc vpt generous cnciny 
Kpicutpnniim, mysi ' Eplc-ifras ii cliipnittMl by himself, ami 
wrilliiffs ar« n^fuCfnl by hU owu upnghlnvrM fLnd cltATX 
Hia life Khi^ws ihni there was inlj<'Tcnl in the man rectit 
witbuut any thought ot persotiaj adv^tntORC, — n^titiide ni 
nced<xl no Luvltatitrn uf pleasuie, and vraa c&llvd fodli bj 
mercenary rewards/ UnMdioj; one <if iboM cbarred rolli 
HetcuUnc^um nhich b» uii^vilHiLifU di.M:lk)Hc ibvir srcrel. Ot 
next deciphered a letter of Cpicuruh l-i a ohJI'I, the (UaghtPi 
Metiodoru*. Il wm written apparcnllj alter the rojrafc 
LoiTtpaacut, in which Epicurus nartowt^ e*ca)ieO »hipwr«d&9 

'WdbaT«ajTiTcdBaf«iuidBi.it]iid at Lftiujiucu^ 1 ani] P^thnUwi 
Hannai^buB and CttBippuft: aud thvtv ^& have fiiiind ThflEnkta 
Uio roAl cf our trioada in ^^khI Lvnlth. I traM that yi>ii uo nn> * 
and vour uotlj^r, and Ihut you i>l>ry ynui' father ai»1 Matro in en^ 
thing as )-nit TtHnd to dn. Tnr reiin^mhdr, my (^hUdrf Ui*t I aai 
uf na ioT« yua dearly bocaiuu voti arc ohodiODt to tliooi.' 



di 



TbU little letter, Mct frvm ovvt seai to the diiLd wIiqiii< 
ni» forgotten, ravaaU a airong jat tvtider characior. 

EpicLirus ercir up lull ol the enlhuiiaaoi of hmiik>u._*,< 
vitti the iCron^^r^t conricliun o( the dan^n of ihff cr^lai 
TeligLona. From ihe vet} flt^^ he declared war a^raioaT 
religion fif tut da)% and lo ihe emi at his life tie a^ioweO h 
aelf il« thf^TDUfibgoinc, katlris. and uncomprocoiting cat 
TAhin^ up a pnaiEion ajMrt Ui^m nny school of pbiloaophj; 
selected from previoiti teaebc-ratlicir doctrines of natural acii 
t^nd psj<:h*)I(igy. modtUing thesr- to sail htmtrlf, and fonni 
sch«mc o{ rnligion of ht* oivu. Ha sav how large a pott J 
pUj ed in the rrJigions ui hia linip, — fear of unseen jHJirtrs in 
lif« and flf Kkcinenta in th^- world to «oin^ ; bow une«sj it b 
human liEe^ and what a hold II gave to impostors at all kii 
The couvictioa was lorccd on him that won eould n<it have 



* PnibMj Ucamasohoa (Fmiu ibt \atcaa Mj»^> 
ll is lb? aiae j^im;; eitt fir irhoK i:i|u<d)uwiip 



C|i|(iari;a ^le «|K<rwl < 




Ej.-ictirtt9 an/i Aw Sa^uttf^r* 



75 



jAti^ fur i\ve aiiainmrni i>f p«ACir And bftjipinctt iiniU tl^t-r Wl 
bMii clfrlitvrcd from Ihit cruahitiB: bunlcn of fctir. 

In hit lilllr baiitlbuuk uf Arucles *j£ Puitlj. ilia fiat two 
Apboruint will ftliov bow [£picunia aiuined this cnd^ Ttii^' 
we u foUows ; — 

L 'Ih* Bl««4«l und laoomptillo Nahiro fieilbtf- h*a crauM« of 
Hioimtior ouiA«« irvnUo to oUion, 8o Ibut it U*\9 n^^t^ nager 
Mrfferuur: fur sll sudi fiuiotkiiw belong tu tLat ^Licli U iroalc. 

JI 'Doul in mithifig to hk^ for ihjit vvhli'-h ik dinalrcd Ivui uo 
CdQaaioQuiH^ uimI Umt wMeh W no coUBoionKUciA iic tioUiiug to ua-' 

Bt tbcM tffo docIi>n«i Epicarus believed thnt he ba<i broken 
fortvrr tbc li.-fitble frttrrs uf su|>entiliu[i. Hiti ileiEin &if, IfV 
thesr Tory niUuTo, incAp^bU of n^t^rrfitring; in the nffniTt of mon ; 
tati tincc, in d>ii]^, the suul is {iitintL-jfiAUtl liilo uiictmBciout 
pridM, ihe lir^ikd of V'tmKhiii^ nCttr dvaih whiHi ibrowa Ut 
Uuk $hndow otrr our Jif«- i« ukcit nvrnv. Hut Bpicariu aa^ 
tiu!. In a purely alomtc WorlJ, man i« at ihe mer^y of Fivt** ; 
^ir^rM li a TftK aiAchinc, and maa oaljr n b^lplcM little 
»W|, Tpvolvinfic *oir)Pwhrrr in it : ihcrrfore b« imbcnl alwj 
th« man'* will is (rt*. How he attomplt^d lo pxplain tbit 
inntttav of ibr inoit rvtrnarkablr chatil«n iii the irLole biKorj 
of pUlo«opbT, And cannot be dincuaacil b<:fc. 

UL ' Tba wUo mnu laugba ^t Ncconit^, wbo i» »>:( ii}i by wibe 
M nditnift of all UiLugn, , . . Our own ^ctioiu arc fne mat way 

VMV, B&d it U i& OOllfHVlLOlLOO of tblfl ihftt WQ OK lublo to blflUV 

■i|«iilM. ... It W9iild bo bottor to ImIiovo lite fablcA abattl the 
lU( tban ti> bn » hUtq to thi: Fata at tho natural pbi]<ui>i»hijr> -. Ut 
ibfitTcMT giv« a ^odowy bopw tbat "^ in«y dtfpnwal*' ibo an^r <if 
iUO«li by pajing tbom honour, but tbo otbtir iiiq}liM NaooMity 
^Uob is uwiorabJix 

htv luvipp taken afvay thr bi^licf in iLo Iifi? tu romi* And in 
^ nigbty H«lpflTt aborts, whit th:^]! t^picurus give u« in 
ticbuige tor thotc frcai hopn? Epicunit »i>aght ta Ifad men 
b^llkf gTff^n paftur«« of life; he T»adc> much of irt innocent 
'Ajajmcnu — of xlic plcaaurc* of bcalihj «nd tctnpeT^tc Muag 
tti. calm awl untroubW thought « ; but, above all, b« vi 
•■i4uaM>d one poini, th&t it may even (foliowint; bia docirin<: 
<f rlnunn* as ib^ diipf ^ood) Im allied hii fifth cmdinal 
4owine:— 

T. *C>f all thiug* nhicL wiadoai; proridca for the bappanctt of 
•* *boJi- lifc, by tar lh« grKit<»t b tbt twquiiati'a of Friendbhip-' 

EfWBms lifted up fricndsbin into a kind ol »acmui«nit whidi 
»mld pQRoblft M bunaan f^ilowtbip and brighten tbe daikrtt 



I 



76 



BpiotTua arid hit Sayiitt/i, 



% 



of life. Hit stitcin of morala ii intUeil bniMl on 
ieirinh uriairiple ; but witbin llir inagit? iphpra of frieodl 
tUii principle no longer scU: huiunii iHiinj^t ri»o tomcb^ 

Probablj no pUiloioptiical leacUcr ba« cvet beefl 

hv wi* tjcticvcci to hwc been bimicll a «ensitftlUt and t«l 
piL'u<:|i«l d^Jt^Lfiiii-K i>r itjL' s:ime kiml, VV'Linl. atv 1 
n^lfurdiri]^ bicn? Tliit pntncbcr of plrAaufo lit^ aIoi 
ao iucctic:. lln wu i^mtcntcd, ire are uiM, incnrly Ki 
bnrad atui ival«r< Ht* writes {** & frl^ftil, ■ St-iid m^ vome 
of Cirthnu* lli4t, v(ljrn 1 uvUli to Krc bunipluoutljr, 1 nuj 
abW 'Such/ Dirt^n** CiJotinilM, 'wris th? crbaracior of 
IJIJUI ivhi) IniJ dunu ibe luli- ib&t plrrLsurt' is tbr cbiof «a 
life." The disf^ipW of KpicuriiB fnll^iwrd closrlj in i 
ia»»tcr'9 fuuCalcps; the; lived, na Dio^^nt^a Icit* ut, upon 
pljiinr«t fnod, mid werf* rontontjvl wiih hftlf a pint of vim ^ 
but, M a mlc, their drink wu water. Tbdr tcmpenncG w&f n 
nnd ufitfQ ndiculi^d. 'On eerNkin daj!i the ei^in in unity ti 
ti> baro obtervod a f««L lo u Irttor to Palvfrnu^ for iiuti 
£pii:uru» indti1|^i-ft in a pta^ful biMUt ihHt while MetrodoTUi 
onlj leduuci bis eipcnnc* to tis^pence \tk tttxy j, he binuoU 
been able lo live LUEiifoz tablj vn a Icsa kuui. Tbi' pmpOl 
such ibfltinancc wa> not uoetie, but to dctertDiuc on h 
it waa poMtblu to bo happj'/ • 

- Ejdc-uxutt to the treild had Uoght 

Tlmt Pl^ftflUK vrafl th& M^bM good* 
And van jiorhajis i' lUit right if rjghtlj ttndontood/ 

But wb4it did Kpicuiu* nienn by ptcasare? N'otbin^ 
ihnn b«<allh of bodv and mind — frf^dom from sulfering 
cnre^ Hia notion of pltrMurc is largrcly ncgatire; b« lovi 
dcdoe it at * fri>edotii from pMn.' 

*Virtao.' hu my* b one plae*, *i« tho only tlimg n^LJch 0) 
b(f Auparntud triHn pliaimrio, but other ihlngi lany bo aupar^l^ 
il, BUcb aa fuude. . . . It ia Li>l jiubBiblo tu livu plettaazitly vi 
living uriNnly and hoiiiitirvbZy and jnkUy^ tutr Ia it |ioMili1u t 
wlEuly iU)d hcinourobly luid justly witliont Uving plMULnlly/ 

* W« qitfiU fffFiiL I'tofvflior Wullare'i Dii^>]lc<iit llltlt huTLdliOcJE en 
voTHDiflifi/ » fliagvlorly kblo. tiLif. oad lympfclbollo tkCLSvauE of Kpi^iirw a 
Va'k. Oai;» vi> ajv lu<^Uiu-d to any, WiLlAAfj Riili |a laukt luCleloDtlj Olii 
i[ili(ri%ijt Wfaknau ef KT«iciirii*'ii iitliical mlmii^ Orii^ ur two L'tttlurit afl 
d«*tlh UiBiffurilB ' £|iiLiu:mi^ * ud 'ledBUttlitt' liad brouiiiiv Vr n iigtiuvaUit i 
ajDOUjaoui; ao^. aa tron rolled ad, tbr^Lecaaio eaUrafy *<^ TMi aluf] 
wliva v« r«m>Di^ tho rflUKkrlmblj anworHij eWb^lcr c-r BploufBMI 
ttobloii w ef Biufch ef hii iai4>Mi]g, it vncpugh to pievo that ho 
upao ^a nuound foundution. 



upOl 




Eptcurui iind ki* Suyirv/s. 



77 



l£i notion of pWfeBure t« the Twenn' of ^tni^viil,' in (tie 
orileeary SM^ning of that «T''>nt, We d'l intlml fiott Btrin^ 
4Cributied to him like thr l\>l]i>win^':— * We 'iiigbl lo tinn'iur 

r]dDM» aad virio** *n<l ihfl HUp if rhrj pmdiirp pfe.ivjrf*. but 
6c7d'> not wc ihoatd luivc tiothinjt to Jo with ihc-m ' ; £ui<l 
ipin, 'I «PiC upon virtue mikI lis fTitpty udiriin^rt whcm it j^Ivec 
10 pl;&mra/ Bui w« muit mnnmbrTr ihnt to »otne rxl^nt 
Cpunrrat'i poiilion vr*% n wsuiUm a^^nitLSt cirrtain mtg^eriitrH 
uidd4Djp!roiJf Stoic dt>ctriar<i nAm^^ly, th^i virtue and plrn4ai:« 
itvfftmitiAl oppmtli'*. mid tlut lh«rc in no ili/TriiTiitTt- iii <Irg]-»vf 
bctvHD difft-icot raiill* anil vic«i, Tliin itie Uiter mjtiim 
pruliably a ^tt4l imiti wa> tivttT cxprr»«vd m uiokt dAu^PTotii 
mt, Epicurua't orror «Pom» to bair«> bron in putting; iho Ti^rhi 
uid tW nieuant on the lunr foucin^, in ^ntircl^ co-onlinaiin|; 
ib»m, R^riov tho noii<m of plrtEuro in ihf vpry utino«t Ebat 
*<ni r«A, itill ttic Tijebt mait lake pu-L-ctlcnc'c of the p!f»tAat: 
thriDgb jfiMieiallv iti liDTrFtoni'T t'lrj^ nr^ not aIw^vm «ri, nur do 
Ibjj v'«ad BO fclnli^ft ihrtt. il wo lake plmiurc oa ^^ur i»j£o-p<>tt, 
wt ihtll rmrh or folIiJW tlip mnil u( tigbl. PrctlfEildv I-rrky i^ 
in the rijtbi in anyiiif^, ' It 14 impoMtbU U* doubt tbat Epi- 
L^iffruLBni nAit lo^irailly compfttiblir vrltb tt irijr li't^b di-;^w of 
*itta«« Il i^ 1 ibiak, oquall/ jmpotaiblu to tloubt tbit it* 

fnttii^al tcndc^cj' wav ^J \k*r,' Cllcio my» ti* lUe d«b«iHihee 
iio, ' VVby tLAT« yf>a not butt'^r undvraiooil ibc dnc^BM of 
><mr ntutr??' 1Jm[Uc?iUoniib1y tbe KpicuiL^au dnctrinc of 
pJ«i«irc wn#, (or tlji- av^ragp mnn, -^oe mwy to b<» [ninmder- 
■<^ ; and ibiB in itwli l* a moit arrioua chnrfe A^ain»t niiy 
pbiloiaphici] or, «till more, ngainit any Tv-li^touft doctrinu.* 

Let 13% do l^picUTUs jUBtici; on nnotbur ijnp^riAni poiQL Id 
'^ WftHd offirtpire and Rome Ibe Epimn^anii filled the placA 
^bicti the mr^o »r bcienco filU to^dny. Kpictiruv iniiBted on 
'bp! ifufiv of iiaUirr nA a atAre^unnl iigaiiut lup-rfciiiLin : hit 
'^UnwcTt irrrc that trained to (K>mo extent in tbe lucthodt of 
'AcDCV ; tl^ey lunmr llie dlHioulty aiii] ibr itiiptvrliiiii? of 
ito obwrvAiion. 'I'be Kpictirean took bU stand upon 
and be ^ainnl tlic? cifiirai;e of tbr man who does lo. In 
'itn WMtbttd the apirit of ib« xnw man of aeteoee, opK[i-i>yiK) Xf> 



Rtasart hv])ii<4 m INi chirf «iiil nf liftt nnjijr mvti Ir^i lo a kind *f 

nalatalnnl iu f&ct vIaI. liiicc; pl»uua- ia piiHturi-J uy L-omrjj.t wii:^ ijuin, vii 
'*' Id fMk tdkt patn uijJ luacriuj; «■ uiuch d* ]jo>wblii, ia rjcJiT i>y (Ivhi 

led hta Lt^ Xo tlut nilxs anJ Ua liuU fkry<i \i^ ^rnll ty it' (Gufnu'i 
IT—, *"*** d'6i«icure.' p. 192.} TbU v^ ao b:lrrcm fna bU em dovlxiacr 



76 



EjfietFTHA *39d hU 5!fj^ivjr'* 



nil TacU wlitch cfta he venfimJ. cavtioiu* tniib-lorJAg. Wc 
an initaficv oi this in Celiot, wbo wn>i* « boolc ftgainat Clii 
tJ4Piir in the tctxxid ccninrr i^D, Crltiu » ■ true descend 
of KDkunii : be MUret tbat ih« woilJ goM on tirirtly a» 
tlingl/ t» nMtuint \aw^ which ktunr no exception : (b«c lb 
n^fpr wn« «uch a thiDff as > nkirarle : Ibai nn ip|jnivnl taim 
CAM only be Buinc phmomrnon of nature ftccn In ■ fftlko li|c 
■All ihpTrfnrr* thnt rtrry prnfrwrtl mirarlr-wcirkpf W nn h 
potior. Many men bavc beld *uch ccmvtctiont, j«l hi 
rv/ininral Irmn ftttftckin^ tb« rrf-rtU which CAnin ioto cxilllii 
wiib th^m ; but m Epi^ntua wju the true fijfhlinif «pirit ct I 
reiunnirr. Jii whuwf iniiid fnlBc-liuud dikd truth t^aiintit [ie doi 
|Htacarnl1y trtg«lh«r, i^ach mvxi do noE ihrink fmcD nttidd 
6il«« rrliyiuui (lixiiuiu on thr pitiful pW o( iavttez Jain* 

In thp ■]>1i>n<li[1 tiMa ai Hirrulnni^um known m ih^ Villti 
I'npin, from the library of nearly two thoannd ptpyiui lo 
aIJ bj Epkcrvun ftuihorc, fjun<l in it, ther? wbk I'ound a vi 
M¥i«rv«J l}TOiiii« buai, invcnbcd vLib cb« n«no of liptcvn 
UV ftfr »uurk by iliM uton^ ff-ntnrpc the btavy hrow I 
llArwin'i wbtrh ibuwi ih*^ poMtrr to 4>bsL-rv«i and i^enmlMi^ 
Intmwrd forr-hi-nil, ihr MitiLi-tthnt h<i]b>w ^nd waitwl Cacr, 1 
«bove aIJ, by tb« lvaili-» Imik of the vyc*, vrhlcb, from wi 
QMiMil livowa, \ni.\ ihr wuild full tu thi? facr. Whcrii tb«' «« 
pitHiilnm of anpcTttition hun^ lowering doira from h^avm nj 
mnukind, KpkuinB. u LucrvUuA t«]lt osi whj the fint who t 
•Urrtl In lifl up hi* vyet ftgnintt hrv : — 

* Priiuivn Gnuna homo ntorldU tolI*r« oootM 

fc«r1««« t>p^D g&i» of thia >iatii« tU once c«JU np 
linn, l^o vi>r ft Eiii^onritc word of Kpicttru*, th« rj^prcuioi 
\h* Unt iiiggr«r», \rri iiiArkrdljr, wopp^to, a * &niik outapok 
nwt.' Il iriAt this nbtoliiic foiri(tM«9« of chvactev mnd 
uWi'omimiouiLinjcnrM in tbr buttle (tfninu tappratitlcn wh 
f»ii»i->l (or l-lptcuni* the rgrcrtocc ^i Locrcuu Bud wb 
ro«nprU «iiit rempr^ IdhIkt- 

Lt tey* t Ktmt 4mX for Epirar«a tbjit lie iB«pir«d bia dixu| 
with tnu^b of bia owft Aurai ciuua«r. Wlimrwr the Epinir 
wwni hv tt«t tlic mtitpitlra eneny of all inpotUirB. Tbi 
wvM Krn in I.^FrkRitA »cci>«init f4 tbr £al« propbet AlriaiM 

■«U T J^H ahit Miwi K &aiv4» m& vH alato & Tk> xomi 



lio t 

I 



• »**K.« 



>kl«i*«t*««k^ 




fyioirui oW his Saj/ix^, 



T£> 



vboin LuciAn, liimvcir an EikicuTC«n, trirU lr> rxpotc anil near] v 
|fi«tlita life in %a doing. Alrxander bad c<«tablichftl bitnccir in 
ibc <maJl Greek cii^- of AWnot^ichofl on i\ic Enxiiit (n amal) 

EImf j« rvrr ihc mdui for An tmp(»Tor), nnd hnd ifAinnl fur 
■ nvrlfnat otilv £rvat rkbt* Uui cnorjuoui prtvti^'c &U over the 
rfnpirp, by prof^Mjng ti> U*'^] tba &i<rk aiktl lo rov^iil tlio fuiuie. 
i^jjcUa, mthing to »vc i friend who had fiUlcn mtotbp roguo'ft 
bvmli, madp ilic- joLirii«ji- l» Ponlus Vt i-mitiiie for hinjaclf. He 
wr«i tlriirk bv iHo inAiv4*llnnt dexr^^niv atn\ €^nnin^ nnd alio 
bjr U;c innjcttic brarlni; of ihc imnoitor. AlrJiJioitrr ^nvc out 
ihfti th# god /EtcuUj>iL»« h;ti1 hwn riorn Aj^nfn iipi^n rarrh in th<* 
form of A •erpcnt: he hftd Accordingly pnjviO<-d bimtcif wiib 
ui enonn4>rii taire inakp, whierh he bad fitted wilb m fnnck, very 
akilfollt painted liJii> a human countcnanci>« allowin|- ita tongue 
to Aub in And tml through ihe mouc-b. Thia nriu the g'Hl by 
«b«in hii noikdcrfij) ftiiii*ti« «<?re ^iven. So cunningly wtw the 
inpoituic niim^bt itiat, an LuLiaii aa^a, 

'ihAtrtck iroald lia7i> Lot^ded a D«inocrit([fi, ot even Epicunie hiiuiwlf 
■t Uctrodoro*, or ikhuc oiLci wbo«c mind iraa fliaj m adajuuit 
npiding aaeli cnallDrir iti ontcr I'l itiHttlicvo tt ntid to giicicii what 
ilftiM WM. At aU aTtula U aeed«d a naa who, oten if be vera 
M lU* lo Soil out lli« nuuwr of Iti waa ILnn]^ innnadod before 
kttl llial Wv vasiMDo trlckrry ulucb b« &iajd not boo tbriJagb. 
i^Mb ft U impoMlble for a mirtclo t> iii^r^ar ui alb 

'Xovtbovar btitrcoa AluxmkT nnd Epieitnw waa oae nifhtiui 
cnei or herald [i>,a war W Uic Iui]fi;{,uDd ttia waui moat naturoi : for 
Ai«&» «■• a caa^'ictui, a mua ilcligbting in Jugglery nnd bating tbe 
bdk aa4 nbtjiu aLuuld {»■ luutr ruAaoiiAljly ua^a Avar ti}>uii tbaii 
^umn, a man trhi ha^l dUv^^m^d tbo natnro ef tlilngi^ and bu^iv 
Aftittkof thoni? . . . Butbii hod j;;o[>i HOAon t>> hato Ibo ■' r^ileallf^ 
&b«mf," M Alomidier Died to nauo him. for Kpicorni Uugbcd at 
u nd) Uunga and made i^rl of tbciu/ 

Till? Fpimminit of Pomua difttieliri'rd Ateianilet'ii pmienera 
riVB the fini, aoil ibeir opposilioa tau<t bare bo?n lonnidnblc. 
To an en<[uiry rv|;aidinjf the buul of Etticarua, A]r4;ujdrr'a 
oode had replied that he «r» in beU, lying in Itllh and in 
rhijo* -jf lead. Aleiaader ireot 9*' far us publich 1^ burn In 
^ ceotrr of tbp markrt-nlfKw nf Abnnnti^icho*, whore he had 
dipt*! to niAny, Epicuruai little banclbouk et' maxims, or, as 
iW citle may be n^ndtrreij. bi« * Arclclea '»( Fnltb.' * VVt- <|ijuie 

' SCflL a* FrtmilF ujit ^ hU rhpLRuiTig oHijran Al'ifiMlprt'Sljitn SiiidiM,' 
*4It^b cam atihv AtitrlHtjf Ejiim/tv^ TI(i^ it^ul'l IiJiiv We tirb>9o«tlja 
bliiMiL Tbc Ximci itfimrrd »> vhiub is Uit n itv |u£f4 lone. La prcxr^Td bj 
taoaah Tkb via «w at tlm Uolu vliicb Epica>u capeelod hi* Adkjvua fo 




80 



£/AeKrut and hit SajftP^gt^ 



tud»n*« comm^ni ; nbfn W «jw*k« or hi* (ivn d^ to Eplcorti, 
i-vrn ]if- UiT once crntci lo »:■»»:— 
'TUi xi relet ^'Tin ifiTioinrTt «bnt blcnitigji tKnt bc^A tiritt^ l> 

thniw tt'bo linvr t.hr< irnml foihiTir to &11 fti wUh i1 1 wEini piw^ «W 
uoliiL, wliat ftt^Liltiiu it noTb* Jii th^^Tn ; iclc^tuiug iheta Tti^a tttjtvii 

in Tfftlicy jiiir];!^ tliroti of fonliih opitimiw. not by Uirohn ttd 
irjfiiuioad uf fiqiiiUi U.e. by lUo fcronunici of Ui« M^btcriai* &ad ly 
fhnloricB of Ba<>b a KiDd, bnt l>r ivnod i:auo:a uul bj tratb, Aoi by 
vi^cmkitig thtt trnUi iffitlitiul fc»r. 

Tbia bonfire in ihr- mnrkct-pUcr, kindled by lli<» f^iuniVj i> 
nn nTch-impcMtorT Usiifici to (lie biave mud orcnvkry woi 

III ri<-a»on ftiid Kirncc, not onlT A^nimt luprntitioo. but again* 
tTnpottun'ft of wery kind. To aII d«r«in>r« ami qiiJickn 
name bad bc'Cuine a terri>r, 

Wt* rjnoir- n few nf F^plcunis'* mvin^S ftliovinjr ai onm t! 
nnrrowcr and tbe finor kid(- of bM tcacbinj;. He ii Dti«it; 
(';iri:ti.->i!( HI to itiF fiiriii of tiia urlliii^'i ; liii lanf^ua|p^ U M 
drawn from book*, but ii tbat of ordJnurv Hf*^. His pbi 
MJgjCTJtt tbc busiufvv mnn. ii)itLetime« nlrntist iht? illiiernte mj 
«4; vrry loove and unprecuv ofi^n » hi* lue of irord*. No doal 
be ineAnl hiH work* lo br^ raulv underiiodil nC ibe dodii 
Pirarui and in ih« boothi in the market- place of Aifaei 
VVhrrev<.'r br can fiud a direct and 1 1i id eipre^siuu, he it w 
frifttidtoiiB %a lo iic pflDoi i;tt!ons, IJib iTord(, ita lh><*v ^tvuf^l 
^vith tbcir mcanins, come Mr^ugbt from tlii? bcait nnd rUo t 
t]in» into & roiij-h but livtnj- ]h>iirer. 

Fhiivsophy. — L ' I'biloaofibv i* & continued ciciciir of dL 
TDune nnd rf'timiiry lo leniw a fiappvlife.' 2, * It t« only tb« wir 
man viho vrill bavr a ri^l»l opinicn uboiit mu^ic and portr/ ; 
iri*e mnn liv^a poemn intend *)f writmg fbem/ 8. *Tb» nu 
irbo bu oDce become wise can never reeeirc the cocilnrydc: 
pivtilion/ 4. *Tbf* Jinpioni rnaii la noi be wbu T<>jWts lliv Godi 
ibo mnny ; but be wbo nceepts tbe beliefs of tbe many n^gvnllS' 
tbe Gnd*/ Ik *Vain U tbe diieimr^e nf iW pbitosophnr ' 
wbicb no bQtnan ftalTennj; i* benled; ju*t ai tbvro ii no 
ilk meiiicrtl mltU'rir trbieb doei nnt cmI out dm dJKe^c^ of 
body, Ko i« tbt-re no profit of pbilo«opbj Qn1e» it c&tt* out 
iU»enHr) of tbe soul/ 

I,it»raita^ at>d Art ar4i ciynUnptibltn — 6. * Dear yonih, b^ 
errry »ai] ond fly from nil maimer of culture.' * I derm (V 
bappj, O Apellev, berraUKt* tbou bnct begim ihe uudy of phi 
AjpAfjivr from alt cuhitre.* 7. Iripicuru* abhorred tbc wh 



£pictimM and his S^iyingt. 



6t 



AOfftic flTl HS * tUv firaill^v biftit of ficlUm/ 'Tlii- fsljblr uf pM?t& 
&n<l tbc ulJv tik\o9 of Homrr/ cu the Lpiourcnns inv. Ttic Kpi- 
rurtADA 9AJ th»t * Muiic [ Mttvcrtjt/), wbicli indudcs [itetatarc, 

v<k9tcr of aiibfriAdCr.' H. Pol^n^nm, who it »aid lo h*vc bcf^ii 

• irmt iiuit)iPiiiiilir|jin, after his (\jiim-iion by t^pirurLii, 

bcltevnl iUo wbole of C4wim<'iry tn b<^ fftlne, ^, Kpii:utu» ftnri 

iH^t be liiinsclf wax bis irnin irtchcr. 10. Rpiturui uahI io 

c&ll tb^ Mlo*<«n«f Plain *tho ilattororaof Dionyiiu^,' and Plato 

UimicK * Um- CDftct of ^Id* [ibnt Uio»av, ibc lovri i^ splendour], 

«nc] ArUlotU 'a proilifpiti* wbo, afl<»r vaitin^ hii patrimony, 

joieni iKr army aiul auLit dru^a,' and ^ cbc copyitl of Dr^itno* 

eriuu,' HenwIiimhroalW 'ih**o*nifntinn.mnkr-r' ; Dr-mfkrHEiit 

b« nirknam^fJ Lcrocritiu (MUf^ iriAcr'). 11, lipicurut's book*, 

aft Di'i^'pfit^ Lni'itiiiH «ny«, mnuin in> qixoiAXhm fiata other 

vnuTTo, bat ar© Uifi poitf* o/" Epicitnu himietf. 

J^ticat ff^ttfiifm. — 12L ' VVe uiukt butU study pbil(i!H>]>hv 
and maQBg* our houwhold alTairi al iho lamn tim», and uao ib^ 
T«at of oar re*ources and apvct c«a>e lo proclaim thf^ maxim* 
im philtn^pbj-.* 1'6. *Thi^ wi»«> innn will take rar« of hti 
ipcfflv ftitd proridn for the faturc/ 14, 'The fir»l daty of 
alfiliion 11 t'i prrt«rve our vt|f^>iir and to gii:irt1 n^init thf* 
Uli&lf of otir iivbo]<* life in (onM'GUCiic^ of inaddening dvBiroB.' 
\y ^Anutng (be oiber rvils which attend folly is thia : it ii 
*^«m bcfpnninj; to Jivcw' 16. 'W« are born once; twice wo 
cuDot be bijin: for eternity we must b^ tion-ei latent. Vet 
(W nho art not mailer of lu-morrow pullrat oiT tbo riffht time, 
rhe life of all of ua it ruined by prornutlnaLJon, and tt it on 
lUaacooum thai micli of ui dira bi»fiirp hn i« rrndy.' IT, 'Thn 
■Mc aion «i^iJl no: brliorc that Love ii »cnl Irotn beavco/ 
Itt 'Though be IB Wtng torture<) on tJie rack, tfi« wtve man 
ii irill KappT^ 19. ' If the wiie man ii bcin^ bura«d, if he i% 
btiof iDrioied, nay withia the virry bull of Phaloriiv be will 
tfy^-How deliffbtful tbi« 14! h->w littlo mn I for ill"* 

Naturally ivr*u>pec1 this of bein^ mcie byperbolcv Vet what 

CBBttadJctory opiriK^naean trxiit in thv «aiTi^ mind I Epieurut'i 

tunuG endorance ttf tlic^ nwfol tuflortn^it of hi> latt ilUcu cauted 

C*Tm 10 aav that the d4*aih of Epjrurita excel* thai of Leonidfts 

kod KpAoiinooda* in fortiludo. 

TV MOiurai DaMweM qf Man. — 20. ' It ii the wlae man alone 

■ill fee) ffratitnde to hi« frienda.' !j£l. ■ Human nature 

duB EH't ^ve natujnl aSeetifju for nutUio^, nor can it love 

vidwttt adracia^ Co itself,' S:f, Epicurui aaya that no one 

tofn BAotber except for bi« own inEerc»t. S3. Epicurui 

^(M a jett of oar dittinctioni hptwe«n ' what ia honounibLp ' 

VoL li>.— JVo, 3S9, Q And 



^ 





Eptcana and his Sajfin^s. 

aud ' what ia basr/ aail saja we Are uktfn uj> wilU ironls 
Utter mere empty sounila. £4, Epicuru* *AV« lUftt tbuft Ji 
an cvi] ihin^, but tiic bt^ing /ouncl out. Anil bciinqic wt: hi^^ 
no conlll)v^c« iTuU tto will Eii>t be foiiiid out, on Ctiit account fts 
»AJA» ^ Do uol ttealJ 2b. * Jt it t)t)l piiMllIc for lire tnan ii1_b 
Hrrreilj' irntiKgrctiFs Any iii' the njfrcvinrnft ^hicb mm ha^p' 
madtr nitb irock otbcr for lUc purpus(< <i[ i^uiirJjtii; af;iuD>i d<iir>f 
injury or ftUttntning^ il, la bi-liirvr Eb;tt he will mminur io 
etcapc dctectibn, cv«n tbou^b lor tb« prr«cnt he thuuhl ckcj^jtmI 
d tbuubA[)d tiuiei ; for unlil Li» dtutii iL rt-umiuB uiicefU^^uu 
wbtilx-r he wjJI not b« faunct out,' | 

Cunt and AiMtmt tifstro^f the Soul; Temffratti^ and 7V*«»f-1 
quillt!!/ tavr ir.^^ti- ' It U hciit>r for thtH* ri> bjivr* no IVat* and to 
lie U|>on a bed of Mrnw thnn ti> hare n golden coach and lurm sb 
tablv, yr*t ii» Ijl' trojliltnl in mind/ 27. * In no far ai ibuu an io 
ditLivin^tbou nrc in di>trr» brcnuftc thou tiji*; for^otlm Nalur<', f^r 
thoa lji>e«t upiiii thyself fejin mid dnirri whidt hnve nnlimlO,' ' 
2d» 'Giv0 tbauk* to Nniure tbv bl«»vd, l>#i;»u<4* the hnth m»<Ir 
ueceMAr^ lUtne* coav to be obuinr^d^ wbtlc thinga bntd to be 
obtninc-d tiTc noc iKcvfinrj/ ^d. ' By tUc iovv *>( iruc philosophy' 
every lioublous Mid painful d<^»iiiT is dcstmyrd/ ^0. ' W yu\J 
wkb to make l^choelc^E bippy, add not in hi< rii^he*, bitt uikr* 
AWftj irom till dtairtr*.' Hi. *J{i»t A» thoac who arc ferrr- 
tirlcken arc alwayi aihir*!, owing to [hi« trvrrtty of tli^ii dinraii'* 

and desire tbintt* nl Che moit oppuile kinds, to Iboac vrho atr 
lick in auul &IL' always tu nt?t7d o) cvt^rj'lbiug, aoJ fall, ibmojli 
exoeuivo crnTing, into manifold defiirea/ 3^, ' Vi>u inuai 
become a aIa^c Id philosophy in order to gain true freiedom,* 
^ ■Tbo nititt prpcimi* fruti of ind^pend^no^ and plain living; 
U frct^dom.' 34. * lndenrndcnt:c and plain living arc the most 
wealthy at' all ihingc.' 35. 'Nothing ii4<nmigh (orbim to whom 
CQUUgb it loo liltlo,^ 'iC. 'Having bread and water, I revet in 
thp pleaiitre of tlie body, and 1 (pit upon the plr-a«nm nf cn«dj 
livinffT not on their own account, but bocnu»e ot the incon- 
venience* whii-ii tollow ihcm/ ^T. ^Cbrciful |HJveity It an 
honourable ibtng/ 3^. * The wiie man will bo tond ol livini* 
intbe cunnliy.* ^If. ' Do riol live lu pubUcjly/ 4l). ' I have «aiiJ 
tbit not io m^ny pervona, bat to thee, lor wa uro a l^rg* vnouub 
ihealre one Io tbc otb«r/ 

Riff/ttevujunf9t. — 41, ' Lee us completely drive out evil habits 
aA il they were wicked men who have for long wrought ut great 
hann,' <l£- *No tine bvholdin^ evil diooses lE^bol, tieingeniimi 
by tl ad by a bait and bolioving il to contain more ;'ood than evil, 
he Is cninnred/ 43. ' The koowteilar iii »iij i» the beginning 
yf salvation/ 14. * TUe mo>t preciou i'ruil of righteousrieta is 

calm/ 



I^f.-iairui and fiU Sai/infft. 



83 



mAbl' 4^ 'TbiQ ))le of the juat man i« perfeotTj^ tranqml* 
tuit ibf lifu i*r lljt* uiiJuBt j« Imlni wjlh the ittint>tt Uoublc' 
4fi. 'VVli«rc iiitn i> the picaiure of wion^-doxag, if a man 
itQ nairbere rind frt'cdoui (root nnxictv nml p&in, nor tfrt 
iftifr|wmTrnrr« nor itnnqiiilHlVt ^'^f ^uiPt ? ' 47_ ' RpTrrcnc© 
for Ehf wii* tt>ati i« * gtral goutJ lor the rcvcrcr/ 4S, * Wo 
atutacEecl Br>tne ^ituil man :tnil ketrji tii:ii irvrr iHrlLire mir *^yfSf 
1^1 M «• cnny livo M if ho wcm boboldinj; ud, and may do 
etff^tiiui^ tu r iu Uu*i|cbl~* 40. ^ I)l> «r«rjrtliiujf luif Epkuru* 
ttVjou.' [A «nviiipot MpfKHlorui, ) 

Iwi/tt> <rur ^I'eujhliotf — 50- ' Thr Wine mnn, »hrr> brought 
tntD^iitrMi in C(tnip«ri^' with oiIi^tk, nhovri biiii(i*lf a VAJitJiaiii* 
indy ti> ■.-ivr inttier than io receive ; ta great a ireaaurc of iclf* 
rrlinnrv taih he fuonil ! ' [Usenpr Trmind« ii» how durinff ihc 
^vrihlr U'lre of Athent in 2b6 D.C*, wh«n bo many ciicd of 
toiftc, Kptcurut ctip|H>ne«l a numlin of hU frif-nrU l>y sharing 
vilStbrm a ■caxiiy itorc of b^^cLns, coantc^d out daily Ut eac^b. 
{r}aL Dcui. c. 4>4.)] ill. ' h it muEtr blcs&r^d to givo ttuiii lir 
■■Wtre.' r>2, Kpit^unjt la^i tlinl ii ii not only it boblor bat aI(0 
* more bU»3cd thinf to do E^md tbnn to reccire it, (or there it 
Bulbing w) pn>il^iciive of joy a« gTACilod**, 53, *Tht wi*^ inuD 
vili Aol punibb bis aUvc*, but will tnke pity on ihcm, luid will 
^m ronitdrration to any tbni are jrt'aloua.' Ii4. ^ Turn not 
*9\j ffom tbe pnyer of tbinv riiooty wIk^q bn i« ui dittr^M, 
^(VlukR hrrrl in rbyiirlf^ for hr U no belter than n dn^* [tbjit 
■^ ' btf may bite you in th<' v«ry nc'I dI ft^Hlia^ bim '1. 

^rirmtihip. — 55. * Of -ill ibin^i wliikli v^iKh'ui piovt<Ic* fjr lb« 
^piaeuofa liffflimcjby lar thegpmieit i* Eb^)t4.<r(i[]}(i>f Inrnd* 
*tup,' ^ti. ■ The man who ia iioblo of bc&K is most of ail taken 
up with wiadom 4m[ frirnrUhip, of which things one is a oiorral 
"•d the oibcr an immortal it'>'>d.' 57, ' Neilbur those wbo are 
"cr-ffady i»or lbo*p who am i*hj i1i»w lu (mtc-r iiiiif frirniUhip 
■'rto be AppraTcd : one must ei-en ritlc somen'bat for the Bak« 
^ fiinidihip-* 5A. ^ We uu^bL Lo look round for peuple Lu eal 
ami drink wilbi l>^for« wo la^M for aomclbing to 4hai iind drink ; 
l9Di'me >tith€iut A friend U the life of a lion or a wolf/ 
^i. 'Wf «Jo nut BO mucb need to have our need* supplied hy 
*^f (rienda aa to have the fait^i tb^t our necdf will be aupplicd 
bj them/ tVK l'> rhagoratt held ihit the prn|)eEty oi fnenda ia 
'^ikEDoti, but EpicuTUi did not approve of the commuDity of 
fVok; for ao^h nn HrtHii^niiriLt l>L-fiu iho«R who dibiiufLt t-nrli 
^^*f, bnt Iherc ia no diRtratt in trit^ndftbip. t>l. ' Sneet it tl^e 
ry of the {tiMid who is dead.' Gi. * Tlitr wjm nnin 
ao more p^iA when on ibc ruek himwlf tbnn when hia 
fncad ii upon it ; but if on/ man fceU stiapicioa ^f bu friend, 

a 2 bu 




■mi pLiuiJX(P|iLi^ u aiijitni ijisautij buuk^ij^uu 

reinmber ttiui he wiib«d hit disciplei to bi 
ihou^lii* li> the Attainment of practical tttitlo 
Arid decision in the L'onduLn of lilc. Again, Wi 
lo lire as n consistent Ej)if!urcAn jn the ipi 
d<?man<tvil nut onlv^'uzifttant tFlt'-commanJi but i 
<Ic[iial. L>DrJrring on ostxticiam. I'robckbly t 
irnrti of aII Flpicunis's leeching Iny in bis vi 
ambition, ipccklty because of the c&re nod 
go hami in hand whli iL For the ainbidi 
in a i>rrpciual fever white he alrijggli*« iorA 
Hjiit-urut frit ft «iigiilai pity, sueh pity iM 
tW drvnknrd rmd tti« flfniuiliBt; aU chre*, 
xatdf Arc lifting the ^ntni af their lirr*. US 
thift Bubji'ct iniJtt bAv«r comi* hitme t>) iho he 
one in buiy Athena and Koine. Knibodied 
nob1«-it puelry, St cumci hoin« lo men tO'da 
•o while tbi> world tnats. LucrrtitiV» vertex 
have the torn* nS deepi^st prrmnAl rxitiritrncw . 
he plrnda with in^n like a prophet impirvd 
OihiT |ihiliihoph<»rfl midrrimr^il ih^mhrlve* iprci 
lo-do «nd the cultivuCed, biit Epicurus lAk«« a 
fur ihi? jTuor, ihc uniHuglit, ihir buJT('f>N^, lu ft 
Indeed, he •f-emt to hAvo the fornner moAt ii 
aIavca he made IcHow-Atudcnu and ftic^oi]». It 
to cay tbat hff rrgaitded aU int^n ancl w<Mn<in 
whom he would gtadty help. U'e do not wocu 
uf any nhoulof philuwiThy in Atbeni was »olo' 



Mpicunu and hut Sctfin^t^ 



8» 



^pM, ^ThcTc have been, and there »re to thi* ilny, tnnny 
LpjcurpAUK fnicbM in fnrmUtiip/ Hi« lyiCrm of iiHirnl> i^um* 
lulled him to nslucit «ven frivEiiiship iti iti orif^in Ui ihi^ M<lfiBh 
ivindpir, Aft t)«in|; fuunJi^d on niLJiiml nra-iFi; liui, in tpiie of 
T^ii, lui conc^iv^ tbc rflntionK bciwcrn jriontis a.* utterly Ji«* 
tRteminl. 'It i> jnipvskiblr/ L« tays. * to preserve frk'nilaliip 
^"O^ iinleu w(^ lovo our fticnd* as much eu w* l»vr ourtolrej.' 
The oi>mmoa fcit*t» csLftblubcd by Epicurus on tbi? 20tb o\ 
fub month foftlcred h cnnimon UJ> nnd tpiril liini^mg ihoto who 
merUiQcd a romraon «i]cction for ihclj inAtlor ; And ibrte 
>fii|il« r<*air<, krpc up re^ulnrly niVr lilt dmtb, nrf^«trrveil ib« 
amf varm fc-cliug c>f br<)th(-rli<x>d (Lmuiig the bpicurcnn* in 
tml city. Thut Kpktinji Imd llip powrr in rrrate jind La Irave 
Uihiuj bim« aa f^ccro 1<«Ctfi<*B| n bi^h luid liriDj; kleal of Ikumnn 
fTlkwtliip, Kpicuru« cnnx' lu im^acIi iIii> world l^and U J« pr-rhapt 
ih« bij{be«t teston which he uuffbt it) that Iriondibip ii nut a 
■uvi^ bui & EiifceiMity uf uur life ; lUai it itiuki*i Laid uud tlrug- 
£^uig ii*<-4 bright to ihAl fiv<-n <ift[ig<'Ta and priTaliflni ondctcd 
t^fdier become sport, nnd ih? apliit nf iiomradr^bip mako oven 
ihilh lo«e iu (can. ' For \he taiviy vi tiic Iri^nd h in permtued 
utlcbra«<: man to tremble/ How li^'btaoiiK^ ia the pietoro 
>ln»n by Luerettus of the camp^ny enjoying themtelTet in tbo 
'Wiliy <m a day of •prinp I — ' Kedinins m group* on tbc toft 
ipm^ li»*iil« a iirpnm nf water under the boughs of a bi^h tree, 
trwv prirc»b ibeir Ludjcs with joiUtj' on simplr- Jarc, above aJl 
■^ itip wi.-atb4*r ^rriJIft ami iLr [tiwsnnv <^f l\\v vc^i brspnokle 
1^ irccn ginii with tb>ncrs ' : and hn contriula nitb thii tho 
ciitit fFUt in thi? »pl(-ndid banmiftiti^-hjilJ, biUiiaiil with 
^i^bu abd «choioj£ with musie. Tht; apirLt I'f the piciur« U 
i^niiujfhly true to CpicuiuA: it ii barmontoua Tdloiralup that 
nukn the nljuin^tt of Viie^ not ipltndour and turopiuout me. 

No one ciMi fail tt^ tec bow ihoii:iu^hly piuctical Cpiiuru* 
«ak This U *e«n, for initanre, in his plan of pr^putaf 
bandbouks, cuuiainiD)^ al>rjdgm«.-iiU uf his dotuiuca lor tbc um 
«i^ i^h as htid mil limr nr farnliv or pancnco lo inaftcr bu 
''dlju and more rtsbomic works, Four of llicsc abridgiocaU 
«e aHiiio»tH/ anil h^i^^. Tkir^e of ih^iti an> In tbc kffn of 
btint, ftdtb^icJ respectively to Herodoltu, I'ytboclea, a^d 
MuiiTcrus. TllP first I'oiiiains & brief iLelch of bM wbofe 
nMtB^ cxdurlinj- vthies; x\i« second, hit melrovologj or the 
■tuoic nf the hi^vcniy Ixidirs ; tljc ttiird. his rtbtci, Tb» lajf 
n s ibijfi culW^tton ol uiaijtDf, surnmnrisii^ these ssbicct^ 
'he |mclioi) taluc of tbc plan i;an al lULce bt Mrs 
fuilju' with Cpieureao doctrines were thai nmkUd lo 
fbooeboiv the whole system bc^j^c on orj amotitm M 



8< 



Eptcunis and Ais S^rfioffi. 




wllila tbc <sinc-iicnri> ni *tylc tt( thcBR trocta and ibciT 
Iwi^iragcf tnarje tbr-iii e»izlj ipti-lligiblr- iij tbi? unlcvniBM)- ^foi 
crinfiiU^riiuon for tli« uneducated wa« nn uah^Ard-uf Itiii 
bcJoK? Cpicjrus'i ilftj, itnd ii licjf>n(i pniitc- PbUcmpbr 
before liim ilid nol Ordain of aJUrc^ting 'alU Eplcoriu r 
. [ieft;«(JI/ ifCuiuiiitTiida ihe cuiiiuiJtUii;^ iv luiriiMiy of ibe 
>bn<!gm4Mi1s- Thr* Kpicurran, tbut equipped, b»i] M hu vc 

|)i>ni ruadj, and Wik$ prepnir-t] at all potpLa to drfciid hit (ul 
Agnirii ihc mnnlhlv s<ici;il mtr'iingii iiitljtulrd hy l^picomi f 
pUiti part ol iht? lurccM and vitality o( his sjatcm i be did nc 
iikt* FIaK) ^t Aritttrir!**, mi^rt^l^ fonml ai kclionl fnr u fe* ditcipl 
whoH bond wo» in tbcjr common »tudica ; ho founded a. broitt 
houd, nilli fixrd ilajs ol' meetiiifCf and laid duvn a« KpMrlal 
binding on lii« ditciplon tLic dutiea oi ffkridihip \nd nuUO 
help- ThuK iUj^ or^^n ideation nbirU KpktiruK £nund<id «iU«f 
nature to live after Jjim. At M. Marttia s.i\ &» it iraa not po mfli 
li acLcnjI v( pbilu»oplij a> a * avculMi i:tiuicti.' iu tUift v 
EpicuTiu did actually ftioaecd in haniiinjr ditwn difvcttyik 
hu own peTvonal cirvie, Jrom oiw EpitrLircan avciety to aoulb 
for jntiT\y a g«neraiioni a (radiiiiin of lojrallj and g^neroiilj 
frieadibip which Blampcd line Kpicufcuia everywhere^ ft 
wblrh wen the rnemt» uf Epioun-ariKm had 1o idmire. 

Ainon}^ oibcr philMsophora Kpicotus appi^nrs a% tbe ^ practl 
man/ «oiTte)v1iai a» Ehe reviralitl mny hi« rnlled thff*ptactii 
nan * ninocifr ibe prt^iu,'her» ol r<-ii;;ion, Tbe ' practical man' 
invoked in lawiiiiu «i a iv>inplr-i<: inji^r^^r of way* and inMi 
outlay and workmanMhip. yet vut^b ft miin i« not aUofvcd to 
ibe p[a(.« K>( juil^v and tu tettic tht* VV'hjr aa wirll a> tbe tit 
Tho»e whoic aim it, above nil c]*c, to bo pmctical aic in dani 
of takl[i>^ ^b(irt-cut iiirthudB, wbicb* after aJl, may binder the 
and in*.>n.H^Vf'T are liktJy to r»pnl uiber*, TLni tb«ro a>« cool 
dirtioRt in CpUurua which are always cropping up afre«Ji| < 
which, amid all out adminiiian of the mau, J«ave in our nui 
an uneasy feeling of iuconviireucy. lie l» a lhoTougbf<»' 
Maleriblitt, yet he Iwltpvi^i In FrrvwiEl ; he brlierra in th# Gi 
and devoutly iri>r»bip» them, yet bi> liods bav<? nolUing ivliato 
to do wirli th^ wodij ; hn htnu^t ail hiimnn artion on the ael i 
principle. \c\ he hns the very hi jf heat idc^al of friendahip | 

Silitin h(^ advo<.'nt<-i die ulierly oiniempiiblr, mwardly itoUtrj 
iS9e£j^tr4t y<^t TowanU nil in\w rt^lij^iaii bo tbowa hiaueU 
a ltd Inching foe, who will ne¥4.'r fthentbe hi* sword ; be iImiW* 
profouiidest intcreat in scieiior, yet he projec4o« that aciend 
o[ily wuJlh atudj us u vrrj|KiN ai^ailiM iLe jhijmlnr lliculuiify j 
Iajc donn Pleasure as the biKhesc ground and only motive ol' d 
^114''^ ^cl ire Bad such ma&iiQtt as ^ Evcu if ihts itisc tuao U 



EpicuTiu tmd hit Satfirt^t, 



vr 



tbf nek, h» will tliU be- happy.* At oo^ time hit tp^vcli i* « 
Lttlfr low^r tbui Ukftt of thi? iuip?l>, ycl pr««vnt[jr he it abuting 
acto pZkilcMiiphf-n nith tbr i?i)Ar«i<nr<i4 i\t a tlioToujfh rUnrlttan, 
TMOCOnUadivtiuni leave? witti us a pajnlui imprc»aion, vrtijch 
cutnoi be gol rill i>r, of tirjit^-iliir^ lIKv: iik^innfritj. Pn>l>Al)]^ 
quiltf nnftirlj. For iQitnacCf wc rnli^ht vay tbat (be mas [ m lut 
(fauLfd i» »|>oki.'ti itiiii'ly IW il^u^i iuLL'iitlLtl &a liu vuElIivr U» 
cimbtAnu:! iho imprcsiiio^ tbal hii doctrinoa tQnd lo produce 
tflcjDinauy. ThU wuutJ be quUv unjust. Cp^ruiu* bimielf 
«i<h««od of bit \\U> tliowe<l thnc hit cUim lo fomiuJo of irind 
W no DKirc boniL In the l<:ller which be wrote on his il^iith* 
b«l. b? Mvc, 'M_v tiiffV-riiifCf tTV *r> i«ver«> ibal uotbinjc c^ah b« 
iddftl u> th*ir violcnc*, vci *ll thcat *iPictionB arc «r>mbnEciJ 
mil (ljuiiirr&cif-il bv the rhcertulrw-M of mifiil wbith comn fn>in 
<J1D Dwrnor^ of our pntt (]iBCUasif>iiv/ (Did the iQwnrd j'>yt 
OTfimttU'riiig timlilv ft^i>nv> nxne in Liutb fri>m «iub a At^uirr ? 
Hither, turely, did it ■prin^; Irotti the pure and telldenyini; lifd 
>Qjfn>iti lb4? iiiiTiiiurv ol itiLiiij at! elcL ui bt-ti<rv4jK'iii;r aiiJ iciticv.) 
T b« acrdH qQinted thow the inn •Crcn^th of churneter which u 
■fidiuntrd Ijy Ebc cjLUAocilincirj, aIuhibI aaotEk, Iciiipcttkace v{ his 
«hoTo lifo. Hoiv fbcn c^icplAin ch(-i«i iacvDiiit^ttciet? Ptfrhapa 
ittihu yftty. l^picuiUHb 4-»LJijmtr: i^f buiDiui Dtttuic tccaittob*vc 
U>n a verj imprrfecl tod iatome wtyt « tupcHtclkl oac. He 
UJ, it wruuIJ ttpprnr, «(> little of anj Briiiutl oi tclEiAh eleiBent 
U bit own chArnrler, that he did nni lulfiriently tnke into 
'CncttAt the *c)fishiicv» of orditiarv mcD. T\\\x% ric aomctiinci, 
^oofb TjrelT, tw* *ini» mrmhpr nf a family vpry unielfi^h and 
f*^tno», vrhf>, bv ircAtiti^ the othcrt a* if Ihey were an fio^ 
^uin] at liinuelf nnd rr-luiiiig lu luki? into ncroutit tbrir weik- 
'^it »r^ M-U-indLt]^(*ot tpirit, putt in their wAy tcmptAEioflt 

^bich ihcy I'Jkaniti ntiiMt, jet whidi ordinniy men Wi:iu|J iict^t 

*^te Tiul wilbii 



^ 



ite put vitbin their rrncb : |u<;b an tnte mnj 4.<ieii corrupt ui«l 
111 ii h^Jsi'boU). la iht- KAiuo way it l-i>icdrutt d«ic(tnic of 



t«4«urc ju the grett tuUdj; motive of ct>[iduet divngeroM lo (Im 
^^dliurj inau. EpiLiLttia did nut tullicinilly alloir lor the Ctct 
■^M i^eittiJi^ for himself wnn <k;)e tbiti^, and for Ibe arermite 
^«D an entirrlj diUcr^nt thjnif. 

Kpic-unu** thorE romi lo Htpptnf'tt norl Yiitnc hf w&y of 
^ettuie atATidt OD the tame footing as the infAUible pretcripUDa 
^S the old lawjtivrr* for repreiidn^ rriine : Ui BeL« mWB IwtMeC 
*iil Uw-abidizig, it It mci^l'v ii<ice»«ELry to hoof «t«fToiea^ei« 
»e hU oflriirir ntnMl <ir greut- Biitb r^pirumt ftftd ft t nrariuni^ 
^'^v^rrrt medte thipwruL'k on the inhL^reDl ouattjlMMMi of 
^Mifv. Tbe S(4tiv creed, tf' tjinhh jiiid ttem ■ 
Uf bade men detpise l*leuai9 ; m 




68 



£jfieitrus and hi» Satfin^K 




ttiiK, nrbilc KpiniiPfiniiin comUX mmmnml hut a wmi 
Sloicism by ilA butd appval to tbr Doblrst part ol mnn^a b«t 
lij<- M-uhr 'j/ DuU nilliiii, tliui.-k llie uuU' lu whtcL tbe liutT 
he»ri answers and cjtnmft but afiiwcr, and il cojnpelleJ I 
ulUftiancr uf the publc^t spirlu fur m^tiy ap aj^. Stoicii 
nin<]e liulo or no allowanoct tor liijmun w^Aknfea, and it demunj 
tnurh rrooi humnn natUTP, l>ut it clmi^ndcd ii in the? tUttot 
Cons^'ience ; anri it i« pnrt of ihi* vvrv nature of man that, if 
can but rcco);i>uctLiai tir lin* order* i'rotn hti un>ccn Cotnnuac 
on liigli. hi- liAf ilip lipart lo dn nnil rndun* Almost anjlbiE 
Not vvvr\ i-tT tlif priic wf Pltaiurc can he rndurc to be 
Mailrdriiq rrn^Uur?. I^piciirus too innkra lafgr dcmuid* 
uivn, and be tbinKft to djgnily iho »(*tj-dpnial and almoit aii 
ticiam nf bit rulf «>riir«- bj mlling it l^lcavurr, jrt he tbitikil 
mcanlj <tt humm aat^jre vrb«n he iuuum» tbat Eaae U th« 01 
motive wbicb titati i:ami(»t miat. In on? of itir nnjat nicoioral 
DEieranceA of oitr ninolM>ntb cwnturj CnHylc baa apokcn 1 
truth AS to thi», in wi>id> wbicb deiciTc li> he called '»ijr 
p^rpeEUA leuiper digniitima vitin.' 

'It IB Q cahinnny on men to «ny tbut tli'^y aro roa)K>I to bu 
nctiuu bj t'iL»e. hupG nf pluwiirL-, r[*tnimp*!ii»ci, HUgiLT-pluiUB at t 
kIrfT, iti U)U world IT lb- TiF?itI Tn thy riit'ani»»l mnrtnl lb«rt 
0on(ftliLiig uriUJvr^ 'I'bL< }Hjt>r, HM'curiu^ H^tlJivr. biMid li* bo »lii>l, 
Ida "]i;iuoitT «i a pk>Miit." (litluiiEil from drill-rcj^jUiioii* and 
eLllliiig a day. It ih uui bi Inii^Cd hivtti-t LhjititH, biit tu do nobla 1 
iriic things and viiidJnito liini>ik?]f iiridor liod'a IkiWVotl iU a Gti^ni 
Man, tbkt thv p'torudt ana uf Adaia dimly Icng*. Skuw blia tlie ^ 
of duitit^ ibut. iLu dttllcbb day-drudti^u kiudlvH iut« a bcffo. T 
wring mmi griiiit.ly wlm tmy Uo Jii lii l*ti wjdiioeil liy ra»«, PifficU 
iLhn<tgatLoit, nmrtyrlnni, d^Mitb ar« t)in itf/iir^mnlii thai art on 
Jifiiirt of luatt, Eindlo tbo inner gonml Jifo <ff biiOT fuu bava 
tb»t buma up all Uwor coiiaidotatiouEi.' 



ava ^A 
icetiA 



At vfe bavr aaid, RpLcurLi»dviiiandri1 llic »uii:t?»t Cem] 
b^ »itd many ol bit loJIowert practiced an almott aai 
Itut bow ia he to cnalilc ordinary men to do lUia ? Epicur 
wonjf often lotiod at if he did noi riuilixo lb> dif^cmky of 
problem. Tbu» Luc;rpuu) telU ub tbat il i> in i>m powc 
cmdiratr nlmntl i^nlirfly our own ovil tdnpnam^nra, 
very xmaJt/ he nya, * arc the irncci left ot out orttrinal nati 
nljiib leasirn it uiuihU' to i*tjie1 from us, Tliut ivuhinj^ tiini 
u» trom livinjf a lilo worthy of tUn godt.* Uui ivliorci 
Lucivtiita! U ibe moiivi.- power whidi aball ininatnin xu in 
moment of t«mpU(ion wlien tbe i-yes are blinded wllb 
Tniai« of paiaton and we (tt-l our rcaoJvr ftbnkin^^ to prHVr s 
d^niml to icJ f-i nd u igc n ce V Will «cU'inteic«t (Epicunu wo 



i 



EpieumK and hU Sat/injfi. 



«d 



t 



till U *ch» r««ar M losing niir i-nlin of «oul in (}i«< fuiur* ') utitkf 

it* i«£^ miia or the ihicf or thn c»tf nrd or the drunkftrd conqafir 

b" U*ntii)ir »lii? Cerinioly DnU Neiilicr ilip IcJir uf UrK nor 

flif iV^f rif prison nor tbc luor of Ijrokrn IrAltb nrtd iniitrry i* 

Mffidcnt. Kpi<:uruft't crctd coTitptinn noiKing itroa)^ entujgti lo 

lED our Atlp^i>nc?H >u A njfbL V^i EpiouniK provide* Uf 

*'JEh ttmw Lrl|K llir bid» us kvvp cvt^i l/cfoic QLir r^tv tli« 

i/jricgtit of vime good m«D whom vc know and act aliraj's uA 

" bviftw Lu, iatrtidlnjc bj iliia tb«t tJie thoaght uf tt AUinloM 

^uattoipr, prihapi too ib» mftmorv of tuch a mftn'a kindnMa 10 

"<inFjTc«, may help lo comCmin ui to the riifht, if onlj ihat 

"*ntcirrtc^ in«y noi tbnw u» tbe w^ll-loi'j'd fsin* pAtned by our 

''■^IcAi. In ibe Tcvftctiet: *ii bit follownri lor Kpji^Linia L)iin>«]f| 

") ihp rootn^^iori i.ti untplliibntis iiin»n^ bit <U<cipI«i, th(*re laj 

^ o^rUiin coiittmiTiIng |»twr, 

^^o, bow 11 it thAt Kpit^urtjx antl Lucrrtiuf <lwpl| tt^ much 

*>f^oa iti^«riU ol Cuitf and tear i^' Not unly Jo theic otcrMbatJow 

^*>«? life of uiAii, bul crmi iLc woiUl ilMrlfi ' thiuu^Uout JLn Jccjt 

^'vi-viti [ui<l nut moufiUin-rnujrcG, i% Alloc! full of (jukkin^ and 

"fttr,' Urcnusc of ibc bwLa oi pjtj whitb ibc other creature* 

■l>'r>d. Hue i* th'tt fru<* ? Sullerio^ ent^u^h lliirrc< i> nround u«, 

••w alJ e*ii »ee ni^oai^ cje» »rir ttoi bljjijrd t> a bclf^b mid 

^=<k«aidly opiimiim ; but wo turn antX >ik Epii^^aruc, 'l»tbi*r« 

tl:»c(t 10 much of Cnn; auJ Fear in ihr ivuilJ V ^ WnicL iho 

*I»vrDvifi in tbe rit^^^garden, anil %vp rhrir invcrpign cotitpinpr 

'<»r ibtrir ev<!i^tji;filiiiit cn^my, ibc cat. How near <lo tbcj 

^Il*ir bpr 10 rom^j and, vrlir-n %ht* uprin^jt, how i^lmly <io ibry 

1^ III 1 boiiffb a f(^w Icct off t lii> tbcj noL InUKh in her focr, 

*^« il wt-rr? Af^in, In ih*- wi>iHliaoi1» ||i«t jiigr-oti flifn frmn ibr 

'^ttftL, which iJoubloft itvnr on b«r trjkt^k, but, oncti in fthcllc^r in 

^be<nutiiy, «bc b^u »o lasting di*Uc» avt anEicLy. And even 

^vaoaf; men, ambition, w*< admil, brin^t t-nrft with il, but ibii 

*^ 4 kurilen whirb men lay tin tbcir own back>- r>o not 

^VMiMKaili |:t« next door 10 lUirvation, yet for|;ei bow precuioiu 

^^tivuioiiutt's brrai.1? Again* du not n^en builil tb4.'ir LouEtTK 

^*B ibff »ery fringi? o* tb*- vt)l<'flno ? Do noi tbr sailor and th^ 

■**ib« lire in comum peril, ytt ibtr can lit- ilown 10 reil at 

■*ijbE wJtb4>ut ronwfn for xUf dangrm of lo-rnnmiA. The 

**HUket will at any lime face death for her child. No! w« 

^ujiot ailmiE tbai thf* worJii ii filM 10 lull of cnrt* an<l Xt^rr*>r. 

^'habtrer uimj biT tht} CMf> in •pecioJ vnocb* of tyranny and 

*^|»^lliIion, — and in lur.b ppocba bciih Rpimrut ami l,ti<*ri^(iu* 

^jrnl.^ufdiuaTy Di4.<a lu ofdinary litQi*ft are £iul Ibm oitUvwi 

ttaittf. 'Nature tbc blcati?d ' ba> not given twr Hiildmi 

Olftaf. 



M 



fyicumn and his Sayin^t. 




Th^Tf Ki>iiUl 40i>ni (n hiiv^ \v*i*n a oerfain lark of 
jn KpirLiruk'A boiltlv nnd nacntd Embic. 'J'ho»r who ah? rij^rot 
in boilv and innnlv In chara^:ti-r iId m)t convruct a pliilui»|)t] 
ol Ji/c wilh lli<r spevibt mLjtivu i>l~ ticopiii^ tbo itrsin oi aniin 
dftngTTr or tuil, Kpii:uTu», IiliDwir n man of wc^^k phj^uo 
inuacj in said to have disliked ur di«approvc(J of * f:}-mnuclci 
wLat wt' iliuuld cat! 'bpuils^; a vvi^ ttt}!;itiriCftDt fnct. t 
bccDiK int^txHl to hnvff Utkcd antmitl Kpiriu and hculthy vis»]tl 
Hi- did EUit, likt: tbv Stoics, taki? buJd of tbc fatt tbat *|)Iui:l 
chiwrfal cnurtLg^, It i\w hig'li^t liumnn qniiliij", and liiax i 
exercise is ihc hi^ticil humEin h«ppin<-M, tboujEb we loif t 
from fttiviTif^ ibiit lip did noi nMni^nivi* such n vhlU4^ ft« v«b»1ft1 
And ind(;nl lir bJinvcU ^«vc ai^nnt intlnncc 4>l it, Uc actfi 
nut ID hftvi^ known that ibcri.' U a plruurr m buman natuAj 
doiii;; a ditlicull ttiini;* tbat bard bye's ont oftim bappy OM 
ami ici -k pitrr' Am! hf-Aliliv miml air mtiTi- KittUr^'iiig ibnn e4 
and qLiii?t, nnd ih&t to many men diuiK«r aad hard^liip gov 
L>iiiud air eiittcxn^. 

Kpicrurui niwAvi tclU UB tn limit or do tivcny with our dcsin 
A piior KiiTution^ *<^in^ ibat io niauT of tliesc lupirattunt 4i 
dekirr« f^row out ij| wbat in rifjblt^t in uk ! Even if wi> live * ikCCOf 
in^ t^ iiiUuir,' 1'ju;:hL[y ait*} niUniut iccklo-aa Aiabilion, In 4pi 
of lhi(T tt*<? crnvirjr Ibr liuman lovp, for knowted|re, for wid 
(jLjiFiicri<r of lifr and udi4.'E)EiitPt the bnt^in>* (o bripoui fdloi 
mp[) tnaVj OT probiiblv will, tnll Ir^^vc ub uncn<y nnd dji»tit|tr 
EpicuruB KTAAU tbii. 'J^hc human hcuri u atlniijl. be sa^^ ai 
bf*rr* in ftn^ t^ate tb^ ^tvaieni n^ligiout l^Arbor« agrrp vith bii 
from the i'sainii^c Ui I'Jaio and from St. I'aul to John iVesle; 
X\iv heart <>t mnn^ wilb il« inanv unsntiifi^ hinging, it Uki0 
foi^l or Jrukinf; ret»(d» nbiob wntCjri ^^T polluU-a wb&tcT^ !• p 
into it. Rill itill Hpicmui I^IU ut : i on nerd not detpai 
Aimplv vat away tbvsc dmrM, nnd jou will be h«ppj, fi 
thit a nol irue; autAi longin^t atv limply purt of U» uid mi 
bo rtfgulatcd, not destroyed. 'I^bey need to be lilted up iDlo 
higbvr plane when: tbey «:an 6nd free pUy. Tbe ■oul bs« 
own hungor mvinn st th» body hnj<a and no phUoeophical OMtl 
beJiei^es will tfike Lite place of biv-^d. 

Very chnract^riilic oJ Ivpicuntt U hit violent rondt^mnjili 
of education and of all kind* of culture, hi* depre^iatii^n oi I 
■Eudy of tifemttiro and of nil phikiiopby excvpt hii own, LI 
tOflQO of our own 4:i>ntfiinpoT7irit*s who in youth wer« oztromi 
hetertKloi and have ended by hrmmin^ bignU, Rpiccnu, w 
bsKAD Jtle by doubtini; erertlhing accepted by other peop 
ended hy c-atablinhint^ a eflat-irtia type of ortliodoxy wilb fix 
i/t>gma^ liig primer* of science and religion were indetMl 



I\piciirtix and hii Sajfini^r^ 



di 



BihU to bt< f4j!owt»r», not in the hijjliMi »nse of tUe won!, but 

in the Ki»«0 o-f ftQ lof&IIiblc Bi>[>k whit:b admiu <»f no corrccti<>0 

or |rru'E«tlj. AunmpE4 at improrrmfnt Wi*r«! ni'*t l>y «o A^t^« 

«^>/. * Tbc Mnvlcr Ii4i aaid it/ Numcniu* layiUinttbe school of 

Epicorus i«M<tiiljleit » repiiMrr ttvr fmoi partj-fltrifr, 'having 

ontv i>oo mind, one opinion/ and that in it *an initovnciop 

ifotilJ Lave bet-n rv^^rdrO At an iitijjicljr.' Lotrelios «|H.'uki of 

bi mulf ju pouring lonh 'i)r>ckc mortt lir>]y imd iar looro c«ttftia 

UisQ thuiD of tbe Pjrttiiaa proplie^tt^M.* Cicero indcrd laiiffb* 

ftt tb« conAdenc^ of tb« Kpicur«an«, ' wlio anr afraid of nothing 

>0 mocb AA of aecnnin^ io b« Ui dnubt, hei;) >^H-ak a» i\ ihcr bad 

juiHt cr>rn« from ttic attrmblv uf tbc j^oiU.' TbU infallible tono 

avxcii^t^bEidJv o^i:ndb us in l!^|]icuTus« but lr« fO in Lucrctin*, 

ft^ ftmo«f abtnlute coofidmiv in ibr tviwlnin of bU miutrr bai 

*ox&ethinjf palbclic in il. The Bpicurcons mhdc manj «)nv<»ru 

fv«»nt otbur secu, yet no I\piror4fan was rvi-r kntiwn to br 

converted. Wbtn wc rend Kpicurui'a abttw of Ibe ^fioal 

'biukvn and |MiriEi iif Lb<.' pnit, nud bis bifAkt, piliful in ikoy 

'va sia a trioutb, of bcinj* & * solf-iftUf^Lil mun/ we cannot (Ux|iiit 

■^^an cit pTrftumptlon, of oTtrn'iTiMiiiig Krii-tnjiifidtrncc. Nu oibci 

&aK^ biinga bvQVJer pnnUbmont in the t'orm erf blinds ^y** 

^^■n tbiK 

In a famoi» pictagtt of tht fifth bonk LucrHiut frbours tip lh» 
i*«?l*rt* of ib« wodd : — 

' la th* ^tvt pUoe, uf dLI the ti{Hicu wbicU tliu vtist runob of boffltOEi 
^^oven, gTCodjr momiUlMH tiutl finualfl vf wiM bciiiiU tmvv tnkon 
^^^j— wii im nf nUA |aTt, mrkn anrl «inonnntifl iivrani|vi and xt-u* itliiuli 
"<iW viilfl opbft tbo fttorcB ofdiflaroitt landf tftke tip anotbtT. N«xi, 
*^C nearly tvottud» bitniiiii; heat and IIlo oonriant fUl of ttMl rob 

^Afift vrb«ii M> amalJ a part ja loft lit for man to Uv« on, b« gO(*« 
C*ota ukt Why Ja ibii Dvemjn wUii thorna? VVb^ hai man t*> 
Knjan, aa lie toils ov*r Ikh* aoil pUnagb, bi»foro it c*n bo tilled ? 
^ W ia bia Iniiour ao often maUn void bv ilorms, by extreme 
W4r lEf cold? Why- ia b«* in daEi}^T fmin wild bf^ri<tt4, from 
**AHaaf»? VVbv is the wailing lyabj •'> hrlpli;»i, romparcd 
^ilb ibi^ J'>Qng **^ oihrr ntiiinaU? But ^bal a pour lilllo 
*wld Kptomriu noitkl make of it If be had bis way! No 
^ixiiaina for Alpiiw din>t}^(i, nn Arclic: iv-c and tropic vFOStvs 
^t tba 4-iploror, no \icat% nod tigm for tbu aporuinni), 
^ Atlanlio i^itb luddcn aloiuia and inuunuliKfUa itaTca, 
^ *vhar« Dv^bi, UUo r«-giiri«nlj> rltin' Our irorld np|H»ra a vad 
'^lauLc :o KpitarDi, but how poor a ibing tvt^uld life be nitb- 





» 



Spieunti and Ail Sa^finfft, 




rovw thr ifnngfnntion and give it room ! Th« EpicarvtiUt 
wcU-mcAnlng ctinuiFli »horl oi' 9if:lLt» vrouM gladly fl<^n<] NaIutc 
ti> tcho*i\f nut} vt'tufitl h^r to T»ioTtr\ tirr niM AnrI InTifth vnyt. 
No doubt 4Q untiilcil And unitrnppcil corner, where ibc birdi 
can build and ling in busb and trvt ami ib^ jiriiriTritra grow in 
ftTtd out amrjne: tbi: r<tt:kit j» i>ffrn«ivc to th<^ iXrmcr'j ejc, bat 
mnn tiort, not liv<? bv tin^nd alotir. Lrt ui bf? tbankful liial 
OLuther nbuniJanc^ iti corn and win«, n<ir y^i a lil^ of lafftfi 
will taii&fv ihi^ bunmi) b^nrt Tliiii itM i^miiIj i« not Icsi dear la 
u« b(.*ctiu>c evcrywbere on it danger Itirkt. 

K|UL'uruEi lenves out of account two estviiliul faL;u of bllinan 
natUTO, the Lovo of nrlrentUTc and that out of wbicb oai 
love of adTmture sftrin^t, — nnindy. our imaginalire (aev}%ji 
Hi* cot« tbe iinagiDaticin out of lif«, nnd ntir inaitiK^U Hm 
up in rebellion. * Vc>, fnrnda/ Anys Carlylc, * not ooi 
Ln^k'alt Mtrnturatjve I'acultv, buE our Imn^rnaiivv 'tnt* it kin^ 
jOvot t)».' Ttii> hkIkijiI trutb l^iitcoriis to a ^cal catenl 
3|taam- Much of hi* tpftching in in mrnrd^ncc wilU tbc 
hij^hcat truths known to ua, yt^t he aec-mi to n*acb anrb iruibl 
b> » mr^anirr |k»tli, m ttiat Uie Hplemloun^f innny of bit piie»:pt| 
i» tornitbed nnd made sordid. Thus wo find in tb« Go«p«ls,»l 
well as 111 Cpicuiui, the |iri>miH.' o( a |itfai« wlitcb sLall ddirei 
men from care and f<iar, but tb4> pi'Mf^ wbi<^ti tbv formei 
jrtL>[ime U the anUlr onr wliicb can caiat in tb<.' j>rrB«DOQ O 
danger, itir pAiice of thu man wboi** Cable it aprmd in tbi 
presence of bis cnrmica. A§;nin, with th« advice to lire ill 
ob«CDrii)'» not 10 aeek afu^r publicity or bigh plafy, we ma^ 
coiiipai<c ibc Cbriatlan rrcHug aa aeoilt for iofiancc, in tfai 
tablet Mvci«d in memory cifa villAgn pricu ia Brittan/: ^h 

* AinkvJt uoaciri tt J^^J uibilo babcri.' ^H 

V«i bow dinVtent is tb^ tpirit of tbo two doctrice* ! Eptoorui 
rcacbca tbc tuiuv |io»itioii, but on a lowvr jilaiio- Tbc itiourg 
of Epicurus** pn.<vcpt ia chiefly, not wbolJy, cauUcn, with ibt 
aim vt aruidiiif; ibt; baraaaiiivnt and tbe exceisWr oc«upiitton <tj 
a public lilc; tbc motive of ihc oih«r is faumiliiy, ibc wd.1- 
foondrd dread of ihe »piritual danifcrs of Hatt«ry and pubtic 
applanai*. Much that Kpictinit «a^t it nobl^, jtt ve |#t^| w 
litnca s\nii to break nway fn>m bim, ju«1 a» wc feci jclad t« 
rica^H.' from nunc lnw-roitfed mvoin, whrtr we cannot broalbl 
i'xco\y nnd buvr !<► »ti»op a% wc walk. 

As we rcFtil Litcretiua's grnit puptOr it termi a atran^ thinj 
that, tbou);b ha bad smrn all Italy ablaze in tbe Social Wmr 
bt^ olTcrt us no [ucture or cvrn rrilection of tbo^e itimoj 
trm^*, Wt? £iid ounelirta wtabing Uir aojne inilu into thi 

i^gttu 



J^piatriu tiiui hit Saifi/tgt, 



pudB of jiefAuuftl liiiervits I'f ihv Hit of actual I'lL^uta, uf tUe 

busxuti actors on the itaifo of cbo Rcimon ivorUI in ttint 6rir 

ce«st«r¥ befovv Cbmt. Think onljr of one of tbe great crises 

ivlsich I.urTpnin htul s^n. In ll.a 7:?, the poft being tr«>ii a 

jotJti^ tnmtt of ftbout twcnij-lhrcc, « ccrtAJn Tbracian gLadint^r 

fiBirtrrl Sjnn^rui, wbo almi^ tviili iitlit^ri was aw4Jtin|f thv 

tiww%m of tho Ktxnnn g;ftin<-« nt <Jn|>uft, ri>k]sp(] hit c^>mrailift to 

ftell their Ijtu se a biifhrr prirc and r*tht?r die in ntcemptinij^ 

ib«ir frMdom ibsa butcbcr each otL«r Jor th« smosempnt i^t tbt< 

RomAnmub i sevcnlji of eIjcih burttout«ntl fortiiied tbcmM-Ucrs 

in the exlinrt rnler of Vciuviuc ; anU st once, nil over lulj, 

tb«» tisvr*, ips<ld«ne<l by bnrdtbip nnd crachy and aick of liie 

in the Kr^niiuU — tho bugr- sUve-hnmrkt or private privoTii, 

ti**l Is inhere tbey were trrntcd morehko bratei than mva — Hocked 

u» j'>in )ii> lUntUrd, H*<MXN} of llirm Iwfon' ibi^ end. Afr«r id 

V&&II stCempting to pcrsucule bii followcn to crovi the Alps ami 

lonoda kingduui beyond the reacb of Runir, h?parla4;ui abiiridoned 

bis frsad dMign, turnod b&ck, And for mare than twn y*s^n 

b«l«| aII Jtslv si his nitre/, from the ioot of the Alps to the 

Sirtlitn iirmiti. He bnd tlefeate'l imnv n Knrniui %nny under 

cctnial niid praetor; aE Utt he sI^hkI |u:loriously at bat, snd, aft4^r 

killictf; bift wrar-horie in ^ront of bis army^ diet! like Ebe brave 

nan tbat be ivai. Here is an eraption of firfi* ttrrt^-ur than 

thoir sleeping b«rii>w ihr idd ^inr-clad cmter wberc die iinndful 

rf ooilawt m&de their br^c stat]d> Why doM tLL* volcanic out- 

bvrsi of b)«g->uppirsa(.-d furtc^ uiske our bciiits beat? Tbe 

■oble smbiiion ot SpariA^us to right eruel wron^* snd his brsve 

kUcapl lo lead desperate men to a place of aar('tv far anay. 

brre II som<»thin^ itmti* niititf^ing Ei> tbr- hmn-in h^^sri ihsn a 

lifKinc of mere saletr nod rjuicL What il the Blruj:|;le failed 

ontn^l BiTCcrss? ^'ei men ure m> mwie tbnl tbir thuri trjumphani 

□[^iiiag of the oppretsE^d against tboir oppressors largely blois 

Dot aud makes Up for many a yenr of uusery. A career tike tbe 

Intc gUdiaior*s makes us feel that tho 

* Diviuo iTftiniiiillity 
S^Mi^ht afW bj tbo wittOttl vf tho wise/ 

iibat 1 poor thing. Tbe Mr^nquii face and placid breath* may 
^ puivhucd tuu drsir. Be^rcjnd all ijuestmo Epicurus and 
UcTHius vrefe ligbtprs too, aud brsvi» ones, ihoiigh not with the 
tvcnl. But if not the pSiS^Lunaic fcrvoLir with which Lucrotius 
4tUrka the false aud defaasinjf re)]|^ioa of hift dsy utrerly Jncon- 
■lAeaiffitb tbe calm and pasaionlostrAnquillity vrhich tpicurus 
pvradin? Could vre admire Imib Lucreliui and bi« niuTer ils 
vedo, »ere ii9t both of ihem belter than tbeir cr^eJ? 

Au, 




i 




Art- IV. — 1. A Mfrmoir (tf th« Rmi. Jmhui ['utt^. Bj ll» \m 
Chnrlc* Henry Parry, F.RS. EdiUHl hy Sir John E. EArditj- 
VVtliiJOE. Datl. IjnAmi^ 18'^. 

'2. I'vpuMijtfffd MS$. vf Dr. Cakh IlUUcr Parr^, M.D, (l«16- 

~1^<J <-inc onrcd morv to the tnwn-ldk nnd cuual ^MJp «f a 
Xt [vi»( »jr<> than Lrtrrl Mi^jvulny. Mo oiip, if iiis caiiii!< 
criticitin ikf Hoaw^rll may be taken ni a fair «anpl^b wn« ImridtT 
on ihe Ulkrt*, 'A cniunmii ip>, n oommoii laiUpT ' — ipcti arr 
ibe only upitbtrt* ho onn fiiid for Itiv nulhor of tfcir most lifelike 
«k?Urlk nf mrn nnd martncL^ tliAl hn* rvirr l>Mfn i|Hinf'-iLtr<l. 

Ojfham! rcmnrks s^dh us ibU tin* ini^rcly aJdrrttscd Xn tke 
frriIJ<?ij> Thry ciiliii'ly i^nuic Uio tiiftU>iti-^l rjiJjif uf giMiip 
jiiid Ihc EOuip-f«lBilcr- It U ftltnoit pntirdy from «Uiiics told 
at tlic club iir over tbi? diiincr-tablij tba£ biaUirluvmitWri collrc 
ihoio litll^ human imichci of ibffirhrrr>'a|MrrtoD»l jdl-i«> omtin^ 
iViibIc*, pn^judii^rs, crctt absurditio, wHicb comincnd liiiti u 
our tympniby ii4 jl ircin .ittfl n lirotbfr. Morr rtppfriEkltv i 
droJiuj^ v/tib Limes wbrn journal tKii:i vtah stJU unboin ami iW 
immU'Wi^r^s inulv bnrl not ntlaiiif-it tlip tlignitv of a 6fi« 
the chniniHcr of mnnuvrA aniJ clinmclL-r wruuld truly be an s 
pArloLiH piiglit, \trTt^ it not far tbr ttn<y>ni]iJrrr<l irillM, t|ij 
uncapcFt«d •tdrt-li(,'hi«t th^l are prvcorvcd vt hapboimrd in tk.< 
ub]<^ttilk ijf our f{iil]rnri, 

Tbc cigblocntb ccnturyt being pre-ominomly tb^t ftf-« rv/ 
indnidunU* ijf mrii Talb<^t than iiiovcmcnU, Uns th^t^Jinr ji#^ 
f;cceiUncc \\\v liujipy Liintinij; ;;;nj|jiu] of ihi* ^idip [li);;:«r. 
Aujvri^ tbr [botttauil li^urrA upoi> ilk rmwdrd b[A;[:i-, uufr. nud 
hy- no means xhv 1«ait intoniitlt^rablir. ii tbai ul' ibe attocUto of 
Addi>our Slrrki P^pe, 4Swift, IVior, Bolin^brokr — u\ fuc:, afiJl 
t1i« wilt nnit potfts nf the ia-ra||r<d Autni^tan agr — A1b>n, Locd 
Jiklburtt fL^C^-lT75)» the vrould-br Mvoeoat to vrhoni I'om 
ilftlKutH? pprbjtpn thr l^nos: of hit pix^timl ppistf^s,-^* tbe i>m 
i^»T<i Hnlburat, of vrbDm your i'opt^s c^nd SAvilts bnve aunt^ a»d 
cpivk«-n til nnicb/ 'w br jli'if ribi'ii lilmu'lf to Sitrnv in 1767, 
Hia foumrV'M^J^t vvai nockr CironcesErr, and one uf bis ncnrtflt 
nejgbboun «3U tbp Hi?vt-n.'iid Josliun I'nrty, n vrrll-ro-do \on* 
contorrnici [niiiiai«r (1711;t-1776). Tor o«urly tliirty yvftra ttii} 
roupir niKintain^ a ctinitanl and uabrokrti iiiiimacyt Aiiil 
Lont Bat buret's TiiercLT^' and political reminiiccncirt fouad 
«p}iii.'iialavr lisIrncrB in Joabun I'tury and bis ctdrsl aon, 
CaFob Hillicr (175:^1^22]. Peer and clericdird almou in the 
same jrnr. 'Ihc younger I'ariy inj^mted U* Bnttk, nbeie he 
Jwcaine th^ fmbionablp phytirian of ibni then fashlonablo levoit 

or 



of jnJ^tl lx>niti>n«T«, and Iiv<^d on trrm* of close fnc-nililiip with 
tDi^ttj of thr lpn<Iin^ men of thr ilik^.— niiu)n|t il)r>(n tlii* w^ll- 
fcnowp ftciemiiU, Hcrtchcl, BadIci, nnd Jcnnrr, nxul the ^re&t 
Knilcr lords, ItinJucjk and H<iw«f. 

3oEb Jothua Ami CnUb Pnrry (quaint enough lli^ ftain»» 
^^uud DuiT4duj»] wcie biuv inrn. — thr fatltf^r immrrinl in llic 
tlsoolngic^l p)ji]ofo|>hj' lo dcnr tu lau ccnlurr lic<jiili, \hv ion 
vctivcJ^ rmplcrvrd in hit tticdicnl jirij^cMJun ; Lut ihrv I'vjnd 
tltii^ to no<*r down, tnriclv fur the amuipmcnt oi thrir familit'«, 
irftrif>a* rcmJnitcciictri, aomo origidAl, nibcn nE HCond'hftnJi of 
tb«?ir aiwi ^nrrniirkn nnd ihouc ijnmrdiatrlr pmnrriin^— rrrni- 
niBC7«nrM which were oevcr lotcndpii to be dieni^cd int<» 
prim* bui jH-rbnim »fr ii^oe t)w wnne M'adtii^ iin (bat ^ifcouiil. 

(-leFc, for inilcQcc, \% out; of LonI Bnthurtt'a %ii>fic% ftbout 
SttltiF^ GivJulpLiJn, ttiD Patritiii wUb ^ IlU hand unKUijirJ, Eils 
ancorrupiod ^i«9irt, hia compr^b<>n4ivv h^nd/ belauded hy 

Tlio E&rl of Ooflolp^iQ, whoa oil. nwd to Tt«it * poor of 1ii« 

ftntn&LUtiuioe *-buw Ut uLliKr iiifirmili™ of ii^c, ti^'hd mich fi JiTgrm? of 

aiaf&t^S tbfti bif i>i(lbl hi.-nr TiijUiiog vrithoul iLe ftKiUtnn^^Q of tt 

urTaitt| wbo atood bvbiud bt» r^Wr m i>r(lvr W r(^|MMt V> bim Ibo 

fEfnaric* of bi« friopd. Tbo i>1d tjolikiiuu, wtju wut vury atkuliiro kt 

tbo featBToa of tiuin nbo viiiit{:d hirn^ limc^in^ l)inl htj iiftvr tLv lijia 

»f ^ &t«id monrcv turned rouud tc hU wtw&t nad *nii to Lini, 

'Jobn, wlut initl iny Lord of Godolphin?' "XotbinB, my Lctd,' 

■U JcJiB. bowing. After boukt tini'.\ fau^riug lie obsctvcd a Btnii]»r 

bii^iuti, Lu B^iu ihid Ifj Lis Hirviiut^ ' JuLu, irliaL Bi^irl uiy £40td uf 

0>la)|ihiQ?' ' Ni-lhin^, my Tjnrd/ rf^tnrricil John, ajjn[ti Imwing, 

Alovguv ajloiioo nuw cjiiiiuod, nhtiit tiii: uvUl^mi^u n-^atn a Lhirl tiiii# 

«4«ind of bU MrTnnt,' Juho. wh'U uti mj Lord uf Godclpbin?' 

Jm, witli ft bow, tnulu biA uccurtumisi ruply, " Nothing, mj- Lcrrd.' 

M iLjUffb:,* inkrrupbNl biv Ijunlbbjp, * ti^Ht I euw my Lord of 

iMolpkl&'ft lip< Riijvo tlirw tiiu«a/ ^Y<fl, nj Lord/ ai3«if*r«d 

M^'»j Lofd of Uodoljibic opoQo4 hi« montb iliro* liniL-ft. but 

It it Lord Ba1bur«t, too, trbo i* rc«pon»ibIc lor tho following 
vufyof ft£) rUbikrate pnurtujil joki< pUv«l upnn ' Glnriciija John ' 
bj «<»naia Mr. Muvlo, M-P.^ a diBtinguiah^'d ftcbdar: — 

f^Tfiin VM pTfsA^dcftt of a club of vriU (lud pootH. htild at WlIU' 
CwBabunM. At oou of lb«wi mooiiui^ n\wt\ ibu cumpauy h&c 
MatUfl roocid % diiinnr-tiiblo^ Awuliii^ thu arntnl \tt \\u-\t ]irtMi- 
^■■%«Aia<ily «nior«d Mr, Uuyle, and LdfinL^iag l>> lito top of tbt 
^>U^ vith ft romibtk thpt iboro waa k runout plocci a»t iumhlf d>>iTQ 
>* 1^ urcfodcnt's «bair. Mr. JJryil^ju. c*:>aiiiig in soon aftprirtuda, 
<MlU fr*TftT^lt not without tiwxch UiBcuuipiMarvv in a TbuiLUt olialr 
PBJ Ibe lop of the Ciibtet T^Iiidcit cwne m, and was eaten vvitli tin 




J 



96 



Kiqhiffiilh-Ccniur^j RffmitiisccTx^* 



UDiinunI ilftgMt of grfLvitjr. At lonf^tli, tiSier ttio apiriU of lb< oom- 
j>»T)y iiuil bota MScwLmt rniBoi Hy wiuc, ib coiivcreikliun boicua on tb« 
»at.]iiir«t iLii-l littfiary |i£x>duoli''Qi« of tlio tiiiii^^ Moyloi WAuming ^k& 
fttithoriUitiTo timiT, fcuid: 'TbLTfi in tin- fimliioiinblc pUf «f " Aiiruug- 
sobo," ^'UtlomiiD. oftur vhicL all tLc world £« now rumung mA^ Xt 
OontuiUE doiibtlocH Uiu<.^L fu^u of iidnrnctvr, JtiHtouiKi of BMltittiSB^ tf 
miiil diiwiiig T<ir«iGctitioiL- But, tjnf^jitiiiiiitcdy, it4« bfM jiuU ik^re 
borroft'm]. Tliis, f>r uiAiupli^ is thi^ c-jlau wiUi Ihu epeocli of 
Aiir«Dgaebs, tthtch ban beeit so much appknilni : — 

*' Wtion t consider lifej ^tie all a chont ; 
Yet. fjord with hope, aicD fi^vi^ur the duout; 
Trust *m. tLtiil think tn-mcirrim will r«iHij': 
To-toorrort-B fnUrT tfmn the foriiir.-r iluy, 
Li'JB ff{»r»o ; mill wLilo it saya wy obatl bo blf»»l 

Witll SiiEUti liew jojit. Ci}t« off ^tflint wo (MHOMDcl- 

Yst »ll hope ploasnro in what ynt nimniti ; 
And fram tbc droga of tifo tbiak ti> roouivo 
What ttc first ajfHgLtly rutiom^ ouuld not S^vCb 
Fm tin^ wilh wAiliiJi; fur libi« cLutuit; y;old» 
Which fools lis ^onag. mid boggarfl tie wh^o old." 

'ThcBc Ikes, tho bvuutj of which I am prrfeotlj toady to aUo*. 
!iro — sxTinlil y<.vi bli^vv if, g<iiiilom"rL 'f — aliTu^t litenillj Inuudllcd 
frorn tt ^rritvr of the fourth ci^nLurr, llieroDyniug Girftldad, Uierooy' 
ma« Uindius* 1 eay, goittloTneUf « mtjat rit^nrnkme uritt^r, ^rbou 
Aorhs are ai> little knonn that it may roofioi^ably bo doTibrc<l wbolbra 
you ov«r liL^iird hf£ uunfi.* 

The 4'onipuTiy ^tarcHl at eooh nth<>r, and wftU tomu faoaitntioii 
aoknovrJuitged thtil thivy bful iitit ' Well,' piuituoJ Hoylo, ' I will 
aow givo you the <»rigiiifil i>f llioao oolobratod liitoe ;— 

'* Si Titaia (tipoaibia, fixllax ttbl ti't& ildiiliir; 

Spo tikmf^n illujHp fmtidi hidulfjamiiix^ at ilH 
C'onfiBE, BpenLmufi adhuc utira dt^bitn rvfttiuit 
Ctdb di^uatunun, Uriks plus ucuitilur, c| orrat 
t>tiki]iua luce htistorua, Xova guatlLTk iiohia 
DuDi sinkulat^ qufcunqua manont cruittilit^ir anfi^rt! 
Quifi dolua b;c V ViUm «lnpflain reuovnr^ r^oiiMbl 
OmneSf eed tin^iit Bclfttiik niille fntura, 
DelicioAiiiie illiLs AUtioram ci fd?cibug urgent, 
Diilom (|tim uUiirjiiHiu fitdur^ Humito juvctiU. 
Me (DiaeruiD, bsic fliirj cunotatm obtiniau loMat, 
Quic JuvoQi^ etulti>fl, votuloa dimiltit cgenofl," 



yuDr oolobutod 

of HidFOOJTOA 



•Thus, gaol lo moo, ymu se* that tba roreea of 
poet aru UiU oliiioBt litorBi) T6TEiL>n at tbe VMchi 
GiriOiu£.' 

Tbt) ooQipnay >i'Metu|Jefied,bitd Dryd^Q Lim»eH we8 ao vuuluuiiiidd 
tbfttn inthoul iaying a word, he arose froin th« table and went afrajr. 



A* AMD M lut V4« fipiM^ Movla bitTvl odl lalo it At of Ltni^hinfi, uui 
ika> ■ddncHvod tlio coinpAuy : * GoDtlcumn, I n ah T«rf «oU ac- 
wtth Uxo pcfwin <if Ur Drfduu, wkim I prutoiiilt^I iii>t to 
T only wlalM to baT« & little iouooeut |ileiiM»lrj. To Che 
of uj knowWIg* th«f« is ao ftarb trntvt nx blii^roinmiiB 
ii«; kit) I only t>^<n«Ofl tay^dS witti tmniJatiuf; ioto L&tia 
baftutlfiil liiu'jt ijf jLi4ir prmidcnl, ivImui work* will riinflrr hill 
inudftft]/ Knriijg uji thU, ha put ^o«ii bin hair^frown on 
taU«, ftod lofl iho «oiupbiij. 



Of Drrdcn Lord [Jithurst drcloml ihftt it fr^* ccrUml^' true 
Ehat h^ vat nntfsl in a cofTr^- tiouic* in London by Eh« Duke f}f 
Buckini;hAin, wliom he Wl tniinfM under the clianut«T of 
Zimn in bin 'Ahinlnm an*l Arhi«>pJjp|-' Whrn th** thr**hing 
bad btirn odiEitniiU-rvd, thv Ojki* c^ndc&roured t*] hrni tbu 
«oU[mU of lb*- piJTt bj fiLlnHin^ ch*- prrfiirmancp jind by piit- 
■«iiit)«g bim witb & dnft on bU b&nkcr for bOi. 

Hcjc 11 vet aufuber Ant^cdod? fruin the taunc touroe : — 



vito d qiulitj in Cliar]<:a tbc Socond'a titni? boiii^; Tcrjr 
iJlf owr ibftlr wlni\ It vii propooiHl iLaI aitAh nT thtvm Alioitlif w^riUt 
& ■ftut <liati<di, gad tbjit Drrdan, who vu pmant, ■houM docitle 
^^atk ti Ibo ooatcfukicg gcfinmw ootdid bii molv He oponn ^uj 
M ppor : ' Ajo»' auii be. * ihU ii jiiat vrbftt I ciptctod icom Sit 
^^■M Sftdlt^ : ooi^ AuiIh Lin iiwinuiitiTjj^ HroltumB m QTurj: wi>rd. 
Tliticoonil 1 tboald bftT« bnawn by lli-^ lUx^ting brill i»iicti^f Ibo 
■H^ Lord ttaoboatcr B*cd not hav« ALib8fTib«'l luo name.' vlinn bo 
vmk oO| pTkinott tb'^ Dulto of Buckiuglukm and Iho roitt, till ftl 
ImcA bo cttnio U* Ibo 1:^1 uf I)uniob'< i^vrTariiuuLoo. * WcU/ aaid 
bt,*I un ill n npturo at MUaUhmvntH Tbi) HonoM. Uvid«, 
JtiB«kt oU tli« ftneiotkU anvt mi>dort)fl iisitod, havo nut a LbouModtb 
fBt«f Lord DutmVo vii' D|>oq tbo p^^f di«oovomjfE ffio^t oa^ot- 
A<*tobair jfsrLk-ulbni, tho tronspurtctl old jioot road m fullom^ 

' Tit Mr, 0<?f^iham, i**iiW, if Charing Cron^ 

^SOt^Kt m^A flotaa p»y t4> John Dryd^a, £oq., or ordoTi Firo 
Htolrcd PoDndflr Mid pUoo tho aud «am to tbo acoaUDt of yoUf 

T^ oonp&ny vcnc nticfiod wttb Drydfirit do^^ieioD, And noflilj 
fi*\hd to bio nobl« boMboCar tbo pftim of viotooy, 

Tb» oboT4>.oi«-n(ioTk^d T>nkff of niiHin^ltnin — Mhat tife of 
Amuo Ami fbAi tout of w^im/ tts 1'ojh? lAbt^lfcd bitD— it tbc 
Qtloof wiotbrr of Litnl It^ilhtinl't tttoripi : — 

1^ Dnkfu A tall Bth1>)tJo niui, vitb o dtwp voioc, bk4 omployod^ 
iht M flu ond mpotiatoadoDOO of aomo odtfioc^ tbo fnmomt arabi* 
^MtBir CbtuWpb«r Wron, wbo nm abort, uiJ b*d » n4oo ntbor 
^UD mI (ioiiaiiw. ' Tbiji oportmoni, Sir ObtuU>rb<r,' Mid lh« 
Mi, 'b &at wOeioatty lufij/ 

V«L 195.— .Vo. 169. II 'Ob 



n 




99 



Hig h rr^n th - Ve af u ry Rt mim9Ctii<tAt 




*Oh %«•«' Mpliod Sir ChriHtophef, *1 think it le quite ^ 

'wbj. 7«k/ HAid the Duk«, imtlfttmg tfc« HliriU fame «l 5 
riiHstuj^liOT-H voice, v>n'\ lookJnff u|»w«rrlH. wUik^ lie ttoofind hiftbM 
till il cfimo oti n Icvd svith Uiat of Itio •foliitoot: '^lij, JX^G 
Cliristop]^er, J Ibiiilc it is q^ilc LtgL eiHtiigk.' 

Frujn Dr^tltfii lir AtJdJbOJi, fjum Wjlla*CufTfX'-Luuw tij Duttou 
The mf?re unmf ol Buiton's rrcalh a tncdlejr of wvll-Lnoii 
rigui»— UuMc, AilcllioD, Steele, I'ljpu. Ttiia » Lord Ufithun 
vpraion of a s£i>rv About th« firGi-nitiiLPt^r whiob, JU taXii 
Johnson 'a * LiviM,' oa I'cpe's nuthnnty, In^ci half iti poim. 

Fava^ vho 1i4j1 Jtlwayn Hpnken if nnt wrilUin nair-aiinjruiltr of Lo 
Oxford, wfts nt IdD^rth induced to pay bia cavtri to liim. Ar«i>rduig 
bo atloudod hiA leri^ea vilh euch widduity tbrbt th« UiniitVir M l<n|E 
&Dtic(xl hint, nud ijiic^tioced biiu lu to thu ohjcot uf LIa attcDdAW 
Mr. lti>vH nrpliM by eiprricAiii^ hin tttruDg 'Inirt- tu itcToto wll 1 
tnkjiU lo the support <jI Gv^'CirniDOuL Lot^l Diforrl looked at bi 
witli Iho laoflC grnriauM lonilo, ntid uiid to hinnt ' A thought ll 
iiLittant i^trikcH sao. Do you ULdentjuid SjianiBli ? ^ 

•Nf*, my Lord," rc-pliyd Mr. Hou-e, 'biil 7 ttitilc T conld «iri 
kom tt,' 

' Wby thfii df> BO by &U m^iiTia.' replied the Uiniiter ia 
tirjfMit tuna of luiur^. 

Air. Ttnyvn Tftm\% nnd for n roTLjiidfEni}>l« timit ImrtAl himwlf 
iliit coutitry. to an to bo at )K>rfcct loisurc for Ihlt Cliit1«riag ptUMO 
All hU fricantH were wotidvriii]:; vrhai vnii btroomo of the yotL 
iLfl cEitt c}f tix iQtj&tiA Mr, Ituvrc ivluincd, uid loou loadD hi» Bp|«« 
unvia «t Lrird Oiforrl'* Tevee. 

' WoU, Mr. Kow4^; nniil Lord Oxford, f&TODring him vitb MJ 
QOiiCD, 'bo<fo yon takon my fldTion? have you Uaml 9pfcai <fc t* 

' 1 bftvo, iLiy Lord/ replied the poot. 

■ tint t\o yuu undt-rHULiid it pcrftctly. Tilr. Rowq? ' 

* I oAuuot yot apt^hk it. my X.<ird|' rttpliod Ur. Jtowc. Mb 
wboM oycs at U^aAt a t^i-crctar^ahip of Letcatiott proffcntod it^tdf 
u«v uid (NLbilnratinic jmiriptvt, * but I huvv no di:iiibl. uiy L<.iftl. th 
A abart rciddonco In tSpain won!d nnabla can to uprak it with aa tpi^ 
flnoiicy » J road it' 

'TL«]i« Mr- Row, 1 trnry yuv. Von cojof a ploavurc I akt 
uoTiir pcuMTnv, that cf rvudiui; *^ Duu Qiuioltr ^ in lit bri^jJuiL' 

Of AildiniDp Juftbua Parr^^on ibe nutbonly of Kurd Barhur 
tolU thi^ Rillowing rcmjoiaconce, which wuutd haw bcea gt 
nud womiw^Mx] lc> ihr pun^Latiug Johiinjo] : — 

Dexmis faappcniDg U» have a little in<in«j, and bftTJng aomo pi 
pOMW to ttBewCEr bj cftJolin|E t^ poohi whow works ha bad cemmii 
■lid vrbkiM^ jK-jiHjiL* La Lntoil a* hi? J id iLt rtvil, Pirpv, aad Pmfnfcdi 
^fi^i JtiHud th« inid pcictn to partake cd > liillv «iilev1aiMfnMk| vri 

b 



Ki^hU€nih-V^niikry Rtmittitc^ncM. 



n 



tim a: A iHTum. Two windows of thi> dimii^ noEa lookuil ii\U> twci 
iiBcmit fIrtctK Bo«« H^t in otic, Ilonnib to tbo oth«r. Tbo <3oor 
<1cuil cj^t], * 6m, 1>vd[iU/ ahM Ail<liai>u, crjiutuf; lip hUiih. williuj^ 
Lu nUj tbu duplicilT cif thn old cHtln, and knikwlno itt ttu^ Ni^mtt limib 
btft moHftl ftTanioin la a pna : * So, Doanis, 7011 look oeio wa^ tnl 
Rovo toother' 

Diffiti!, Dicky Ste-clc, related i*> Cnleb I'arr^ b^ Mr, Hufth, an 

-UilcnQui of Batb, wU» dii^tl aboul the Ye4r IT^O at ihe 

i|t of nin#i^-fiiir- ; — 
Obr dftj iw Afr BiiJtli wdH riding dnwn Olnvi^rtriii TTill with Sir 

iU«hwd StooU, Sir Kichi.rd sftid to him, * Vonug man^do you c«o 
Ait b(^« in Iho road Ucforo mi 9 You arc yoouKoi tbjm 1 ; ftot off 
T^r liufiw, «4id lil) it «itli that fltimfi nmr jt. wKJch ocuma ciiaotly to 
^1 jL' Mr. Btuli did m. huJ vrbpu hi* bwl dniit<, 8ir Hiobimt 
^4>Mn#d (0 bba, ' Nov, ^oiiDg iriMii.y^ii mtiy baTti t)i9 Mimrtotion 
tofedfrol tiiAt you rn^y ha^ mvoJ ibu lmib« or life uf olic t^f yijur 
Uloiv-crcftlmvA,' 

Tb# bervM of il]« fort^titff *tr>rk« bfttl ntl p^Med aiv«jr b«ff>T^ 

■foahuft Ptrn's d&r^ but thf^ir crmfccr. I'opci he frcqucntlj 

in« at Lrril Bcithcr*t"f hntir, Anil hr nnd hii inn have ipvpral 

tftLei to icll of thtr 5bnrf>-t<inj{U(-(t littlr putrl, Acccirdlnj; to 

uird Huhunr, \\->^ wak murh ihr moM rnpki rt^rAifi'^r .inmng 

tbc ooinlcnipoTarj poct«. * HU vcrvc-iniJl/ •'Lid hi* Lordtbip, 

' «ua1«r3jrs j^>i[ig/ Hut he Wiift iin walker. H« pmpoW Ui 

boiU a flirat in n Ekarticulitr pjiri of Li>ril HcitUurti a park, al>out 

» iLile ami a bnlf frnui ihi- buiiH.-, U'ht'Ei it wn fiiiiibtd. Lt 

'Hvrvtd, ■ Now voii bav« bailt il^ mj L'>rd, no initri will vwt 

I* title Ifl WHik In it.' In t'ncli, he nalkeil sn »]t}vrlv himkcll 

>^«hen in couipo&v wicb Swift, ibi> Utior wa« conttintly in 

lUbahil orftmutini; liimwif bv walkinj; rounj bim. 

Tbe potft'c ewlv Iot* ind lubieejutnt bitrrd of Lulv Moiv 
^^anJcy Mi>ntsguc — th^ Sappho ofbia bittrr sketch of'^^umea ■ 
^^tunrien* — jre mnru-fs *)f hittorv A-jp-opat of ihU labjo-ci 
^1 BatbuTst iiicrd Id 1«ll the lollottin;; ator^' ; — - 

lAdy Morr vont r^e day to Lord ISurliiigtoni'if in fioi^O'lillT, And 
'^oirvd if bia Lt^rdahip vw »l buiat;* Tbu sorfuut rr^ptitd tfaut he 
*^iuil, but thai Mr. Vii\i^ wi«8ftbofr; In oue i^f Ibd ilraAi:ig>riiuujb. 
Oh,' m\A T.ady Mary^ 'T ahoald winb to snfl him; *hi>ff mn thrt 
'fonx' Tlia AcrraDt ikocord it^^ljr Kbowd bor upiloii^, <i|?<iii«d tbn 
diMiAg.roosa door, vid lx(VTuif{ anuottnood bcr uamc, rotirod^ After 
*ii«t tuae^ huw«rflt, hctknut; tb« droTriiignjcui btll ring, he tv- 
^NMiled Lh« BUin »i»d met \Ai\y Mitry, who Imil jn«t left tlio 
W%«aL 'T«ni told mi>,^ Jiiiul 4bo, * that Mr. P<kpii wm in lb« 
"viaTi^-iiMO ; 1 aa^ notbini( tbrrc but a fiiit^t bnl^ooTi mJocp \u ^vk 
•TQ^huj/ 



^ 



J^i^ftternt/t'Ceatunf RfmiutjemtTe*. 



101 



«inj, I tMd to LoH IIoliDKbrQlEc thftt I wu aoro our friend mm tint 
<q»U« of fonuiug nucli n Bjatcrm. UjrLiii aLioIj, kuoiriug vth^i I 
it, lilt «bIi1, ** 1 l)I(I f^ivi' fti^rnA liifiU, Iftail UiaI, intl K'tJira It to 



'oo Icfl it widi r^p^ Mid E tctioTc f[«vo liim Ic^ro W l>i]nb iti 
ll loft Dcvtr ap|]ciircd unoe, uii ]>&rbapH I am tlio only uifta now 
kllvtf nliu liut rrud it.' 

Dr. Ji^lmnin h%% iikucb to tay abduC Dallogbfuke'a attiL-k «in 
Pope afi»r tbo po#t*N d<>nth, Namaroui onpi^^t nf hi« > letter oa 
tbrU^aof a iSuliH Kinic^ vri^tr fcmnd at Pnpi;'» printcn. At 
tlu( lapprkwd <li4coT«r^ BolingbTol;^ r*?]|, of prfti^nJ**! to feel, 
PUX JnaignAtiDn, hml prrfiicj w iiii crlitioD of th(? ifimr ivorkt 
lAmnnli pubJikbcd, a pTvfnc« in which h« acciitf^J Pom in 
^ b]|tf:rctl irrmi of having priuLcd thev iuiprcMiou without 
hit knowMgf*, Am! with the* inimtian of publUhing It nflrr 
Boliipbrokc's Jc-fliti- 

'Tbi* accuB^liou.' tuid Mr* Allen's ntecfi '^rma fthvoltjlulf FaIac. 
TW inapruiHiou AUH| to my ktiowleJj^i.'. |juiil for by Mr. All>.'ii, who 
*!■ • mut nf finish fntj>OTlly Anil prin^IimfUy Ihnt hi> wouM nnTer 
hivt^ofio «> hni tindor Iho clfAroAt conviction that it vm atooatod 
^ Ebe oipTom nrdort of Lord B^linghrokv^ himnnlf It vm cAiiy t« 
*^Um Ihu roft»oQ of thin nuuicnuvm^ Thifi ieiaii, nho iuid bcjcn Rim* 
'leloi of tTMAOE, md wui oonMo^Qontly bkuithcrl from bin oir>i]uCxj 
■^^MfnTOd oi hifi tLtlu &iid uBtat<7Bf hul Bt tbikt tinitk good ruiiAoua 
w not ccGMp«nliD|^ Go?Driiuitiiit« fruiu wLuui bu fluUomd biuiftcJf 
tt iDi|^ obUiB & rii»lJtut{ot] <tf bl« botiourji nitd paLriiikciny- ITo 
TOAorftfoTft rcwdjr nnnngh Ui throw the wholn wtipbt of odium oa 
fe. Papo, wb4> ^M no lonRcr livinn to rtiutcr tho cttlnumy/ 

Oi Ponc'ji conU'mporsry ftnd survivor, ihc rjacc-inmoQi author 
of ihr '\ight TboEighti/ terrral rnri{>ui bIoHcm toe rclnfiN] on 
Urd BaVbunt'a authority. Or Voun];, ha >oiid| wn», in iho 
**t]j pntt of hit lifi-, A inAii of vrry lax momU, Tlw o]<I 
^4bilant« of Fatrtord, in Gloucccl«r>hirc, lorm^'lj did not 
*np]c U> i»j iLal be wua aiurr ih&u ou<:f: *«ca W run nok^^d 
■W: the ttr«<lB wiib tonn> of the HilUborough lamily, who 
•*p? ibca propnrtore oi" lh<i great Loumt there, ami were iho 
*>*panionB of hit rnvcli, 

w ADothcr Dccuion, some of hu iriendt ndios i^'^i' ^1^^^ 
I^Aitp w(»rik nlnrmpd nv ih^ rrW of a ]>»r«on in <tiqiTf*M wh.hin a 
^W >rAj|^s;<^n which ihcj mot on the rood. On itfipping ^hc 
^tpfoit, thejTt to thi*LT Olio nil hit] ml, found the &u]Ti-ri*r to Im 
'^1h Vojni^, nhom the wn^^^onor wna boAUitg ; who, ijcing lukod 
^ n^HJti of this nutmgp, rcplin), *T!it^ ftfytundrri would kicf 
Vj gnnd mother.* 

Al iht gt-nfiinl ricclion in Mwich 1721, the Duic of \VK*nnft 



102 Eiifhttteutk-Cthturif JUtaiuiKftte^. 

^vn Dr. Vming 1,1K)()/. lo go in CUencpiit«r to oppose the 
cnndidDtc lupporttnj bv Lord Hnlburil. i'bc electors, con- 
ftiTitiubl^r to lUelt t->Uiljliaht*il tmium of rcwtviug their voi« 
for n thiril ninn, c-fim^ fnrwaril on hii LtiUaU in acich numbcTh 
tki to promUe a fiiToanble iuur lo tbi; oiolriL Lunl Bntbuni 
wjift ftlHriTiciil, nnd brinf* » vomfwhut bell4<r pi>litiHnn ihtD hii 
onponcnl, invited l)r» Voung, wbofti be wdl knew, to dinr At 
bii huEiii* wilh ft if*lect panj- of Irient^i, ot wborn tb«* candlfUtp 
aupportcd by Lord BatUurBt vras ov^. Tbc uiiiuipeciin^ iiucl 
feu intn lliR «narr*, nnd Acrrpini the inrilntion ; but in tliv 
rnidet of bit 4M>nvtviaL]ty n mcaia^p «as bnmf^bt to Jijm tbal hi$ 
p4rt^, ci>avijj<;i:d hy his dliiiu^ wllb Lojd Uatbuiat iLal be bad 
fuTmc'd a coalitioa with hi* »pponont, wtre vioiontly inceotftil 
ftgftinat hiiU| auJ that they bna auvmblcd ja great uumbctti 
Arouml ihn pArh gnie, :hrvj\t<intng lo teiLf him in pircif?* *« Mon 
04 be should taokc his oppcaraacc. In tcaliiy Lard tl»thnnt 
WAS obliged 10 provide » Urge number of bis owfi AdheT^nu In 
order to escort the Poctor to his inn And protect him oj^Ainst hi* 
fntinds, Thtae ftiendi, bowevrr, wt^re ttoi so emilv ap^wMcd. 
Thoy Afmrwarda broke bv violence into llii> ctiawdiM in wbicb 
Dr. Yojni; wus in (mtJ, and, hendc<I b^ n coi>j>Rr armed with bis 
adx^, so furiously invnaccKl tlie ■pontati* tbat, iii Lord Bsthunt'i 
ova wordit 

' " t wiw obliged/' sntd Dr Yomi(£, " to Itnuul iri my idiul. and iwe 
All tho rh«toiio of whieti 1 wilh iuuHiv>r, to unvo my hfOb Ob, t^l 
ooop&rl '' Thi« fanjishi^L tbo iiiifurtuLiitb> noot with a now oomplaiutt 
or Bi^Af thou<)?it. for the rentsiudor i>f his L».* 

In this context some interest aUaclies lo n mcmorandDm by 
Jijthua Parry 4if one day's eipendilun* during m poll at the 
same place, nlnio$i hjitf a century later:— 

MrWniTMii£i>('rbe lUu), Msrch 20, 17G8^ 

223 gallon* of fltron^ boor. SO do£bu »f bnuidj. 

76 ditto ofportor. 1 pipo of pnrL. 

368 bcittJcB of a|(»- 1 hatt of icouotain. 

44 do£vn of rufn. 3D dcijcun huttliA of cidor. 

Dr. Young's backer at the 1721 oloctjon bas boenMusned to 
everl«sliag fame ' in Pojic's vigt^rous diatribe against— 

' WhnrtoOj the sooru and wondnr of onr day% 
Whose ruling psBaion tvas the last of praiao.' 

Tho apeeial grudge he b'>re aguinst Lord Ifathurat was due, ' 
ftCConling to the tnttrr, to an incidenc wbrrh hail bippeoed 
ahortly before tbo election ; — 




Ei^ttX^tRifi-Ctnturif fUmimscancot. 



iO^ 



Orto^jt *Asr ft il«lia1ii of moro tb^o tuiiHl riTacllv, wliila ridoDfl 

av«re w&^tixiii for Iheir curiaK^ io t^ Jobby of tin HociflQ of 
,itbftppeaeJ lh*( tbc Duku (i^if Wharton) Jiiid Laii:l B&Uiarst 
bPLol near acIi utiusr bf Uio firo. The Duku, rufirtriag in titc put 
J«1at», ft^jcl to th« uaifona a«joriti«« wLiob Uovuruuieut bk'i «■> bog 
Wi «bU U ORTTj in Uio Room •gnixwl tbo 0|hp<>Mitioi;, c^iuiUil to 
Wd BuLur^t oerteio luiaa from tho fAmotia spi>voh of Uiynf^OA in ibo 
i34li Bouk uf (>rtl'» HroLauiiir|ihn*cH. Ijofiinoinfi ' S'.^n ttiunt boo Aju,' 
Mill OdJIq^ ' QuJdm dcimitai fcrti* dL^iisc, Dini itodooui, Buau/ 

'JHy dfir Duko,' roplioJ Lord JJatbunt. *rDur Uricj ift ulnra^fl 
^hofcjbc liii«« frvia (bu roltiplctutu (Jvid, Wbo evcniM ti be jouj 
wVoortto aaibor, T <un r«f«r ytiij to a «eiiitinjorii pf^feotly«irlEeftbl4< 
*> lb* fiTvtotal oof»«ioa from a wriUr much tupwior to OTid. 

* ^'Ut ia Uwt^ my Lori ? ' wud tho Duke. 

CTl ^ooiiua bibftt «t Snrnkuu iukluriujnt luLro/* * 

* TbvD I viU tntiulflto tbcim fnr yoAi,' nud Lord Bi^tbarjit, t«kiti^ 
^'^Iclof ihc aJccvc of tba Duko> Tolrot ooat: — 

**^Tbia Kictoli doooiTon hit frioodt, iK^trars tbo tiUtVt 
To ilnSi iu t0]t«I Mid Ui out i^u pLntv/" 

" 1 irbh/ aaltf^ tlie Date, witti mti i^Er of HMHum^l [^4>LJlll4H«, ' tbat T 
*^^ tliTftys ftbU t«> dr*M tn v^lTi^t ftnil to «nt on pUt«.' 

^ * Wlifltl do<'e tbat tmnMluti^n dlwntidy your Qrooc? TboQ I wiU 
^^0 jtiD anoibej, ivbicb mny bo roora n.|ipHjjftbIo :— * 

"'Tliui wivt'^li dcoeivcB Ilia frittuJs. bcL-aja tb« 9UUi, 
T«t ji&vrufl tiiA v«Lv4»t coal aoil eo11« liia plfttw/' ' 

fV bitter bi>ifttfTbna«i at liir aiirridtUnft and llceiiliuua Jaf-'cvbitit. 

• I i« not »orpri«^n^ ihut^ tot otic^, tho 'calloui impud(»nc«^ on 

^fvlikh Mncaulay coininenu, fnilrd bUn. \\b luincd ^wrj 

wii^^ut rcroly, and irjimvdiat^^l^ qiiiilJ>Ll tbn lobby of tbv Houtc- 

To Ltjfd Ujtlburtt TiijicT U aa (onipliuicnUry a* he waa iLf 

rtivne lo tfa« Ditke of Wbartun. From P^irry*! account tbo 

■^ntfcnarian pr<i eccma to bavc bccA a notable typc^ of the 

TahiiBLnl and ptttrartive Epicurrnn. At an earl/ peri oil of hit 

Ue LcnJ Bathuitt voqciircd uf nn old HUiiop ol Elj^ wbat was 

tiivcrec for inauHng likngprity. 

'¥o(v qMatiuu ia too ^uuoral. luy Lord,' ropticd Ihn prelato ; ' but 
^fui irtt) oak mo any piuticukr ijiu>9it!on, I will givu you a i-pooIAc 

TUa aa U catiug, my Lord ? ' uid Lord B. 
^ky^ lay Luid, 1 euL nbut 1 Uko aud aa luucb fta I likift* 
Xnt Alt tA\ jlhnbin^ V ' 

Wby, witb rcflt^ i*/ 'Jrinkins, my Ivotd, 1 obfiurfo procisoly Ui<j 
t^ ; I diuSi wbal I llko and aa muck an L lilu.' 







.' propter hoc ; but lie lived 



itf wuii his tiff*. la ibo ftutomtt 

:^«n«ii in one i>f fciia kncrca, anil 

uM^p«> a ttop to ht« Ekrr-i>bmm«) rj 

^ Ob lite lltli of Scplrmbrr of tbnt \ 

ii^ Jiiwd with him. He aer» nn'l dr»r:^Hnfa 

4 vnsiinff anccdotca; but ihut mi "iiJ 



Pm«, '<m aMonziC of hi« kncA, to UIm b^^^* 
Lte UMi ftiTi and Iii-olI i>r ui cxivtoDCc nki '^oJt 
t MM MHOS, lie dek^mii}wl. like AltJciiA, ^*> 

y ill! 11 J sin king «ipirad or tha Tbund^iX 
iMtfviJ of unc? Mcijk from that dft^ on whio J' 
mriTnllud bla^u of litoi^turc ftni bocaaI 



rJ BaEhursl'A amlL'mporarj^ Lord Chrttri* 
.ti.r* (icrur* m a l*tlprio Jn^huii ParrT ffoxn 
i^ >IJ'., Lord Ha(hurs:'s son^in-lftW ; — 

fc ■» •■"• *tf lo*i hi* eld friend, F.onl OliAHl^tflUU, wto, 

^^A.«tfk*"^ to b* vritij till m fow hifiir« bof&r« bi« dmtL 

^ naVw^M^ IhVnirin aont |>artioularlj to know liotv h« did. 

.^^T^a— 1 1^ ag— ergpr iui|;hl bv fvLrticularljr ukcd huvv Sir 

y_^^ l^ ^^ ^«v««il liuU bo wa« laUoiudy tit, ujc] dfin^ bf 

LuJ m'H'""^ ^1* concani for vhut ^ Tiiof&u miiM 

IM who bod niad« bun of » lowdr slaAank' 

W J^buu Pirry, vrrilt«-ri ia 176$ bj hi* 

a^«d fifi«en, coniain* a dcIighLfully rhAjMoiJIrsl 

^jj «ftMb«r figbTMntb-ocnrory bppo— Paoli, ib^ 

Uf ri*Allfld even Dr. Jobaton la BuswellV 



I Lmj* ««tf bus — 1 baTo Bcou bim^bd bu b«<qi fc<m — th« noble, 
rVk^ W« bnn bcro. Four hour* fi|^ I nw him. mucw 



»ill 



I ^1 l yu more Cftlm — my n^pbim ih a )iul<> fmbaid^. 

^ AiMriW U™ — *^^ or<itrdK — Iboy gsit^ oft him witii 
•Tirfrt W«4aw«r*lbiia wilhouruyttL 1 "iU, if po««iblo^ ip,^ 
^(yl "(^^v*** *■' ^•'•' BqbwtjU'b <tu>cnFtiou of bu pctsuu «iiibi 
f^ ^-lyn. PM Ite |irinli gf Litu anr wliidk ooliku. lU In uU, 
?^l^hi T'* tM •ItmifoO'" — !>'> Uirv» aKbdo gitial \mn of Uiftt 
Sl^^fhirb wrf *• •"**• ^*''**' ''^^ ^^ •«w«1«iL SdcIi an ftir of 
^SiJL amI wmIwwmoa, and Mmtlbg fntilnl* for tLc kOuaUaQift 
"^^ lb*l 



Rffhtamtth-^CarttMnf NtminuamrxM. 



Wh 



ttiti yn f»il him, Jif ijscd ilnlf nrnr hi* wlinlif muritcmflt^flfi, ttml it 

«u iLUpn^bl^ nlinoHt to bohoM liim witlioot iirloration. Bnlvflf^n 

r<rlLti11<l Cvu lhi» mrUrrji.i'.iii W6 wi'tc told bv wa( ut^nr tli4 WoiU- Wo 

FA Aatyn, fcdr m wo k«4 'iiptfCtc^J hiun iu the lor^ruiu^, w« bud Mai 1o 

fin-^okfurd to cuniA thr^ mijmi^nt *|in IjaJ diarul; anil in? foimd 

TfTjllUlo (vrnipKny in the Pnmp Room (nt Clifton hot «-qU*): bol 

\o ttborl tini« wo woro infcrtixHl by ori^vrdu vi people that hci waa 

joitlt Uio dcKir When ho Qiitcrt<l, ovt^ryoiio ftrotfc la ailcat ndioirA' 

tun; liu taa^ a ^luouful buw* tijokttig uU uruuud bim. auJ ttb Uiift 

EiKinLiiut. whffft fnj4iynfl i?flr« rivoicril i>n tli^t ^/nn'oru' man, I hud ii«t 

<KU rivh «xaapt thu, tbot ycu, mj dcbr Ptp^, hft^L partaktm of m? 

jAovorG. Ho wzblkf4 up iho ror>m, foUL>iTcd,a« v-<i irorc told, tbongb 

iw flit n oortuiily, by Boawell, bjf ■ prieil, and t*[f atlum trbom 

nuWt bnfuir ; \vy i.h^^r nir I tooJf thorn fcr ror«igti«M. Mtnaeriuonlly 

r<jn:r?«Q^ M<j 0Ani4 ic a oooob Aod pftir, t^ro Ntir^fttit* in bJuri uid 

■jJvtj btnind il. flo irrb* dreewd In a plain Mint of dnrb-liloc or 

P*7t with o vtrj vumll qamtet Itu liatr jl lltLli: ikiwder{jd. Ho ttajod 

^i in tliQ room, bat WL>]it ^1um^'i!&tvt5 to tho Pump- Mri&. Stnitb 

Hffrod bim u cIujsk of wat^ir; Lc duoltiio'L lI b/ a g«ntJv uiolion 

(■■ bit batLd. Ho BTiEtpuifvd, ua wi> imu^fiuud, tbftt oulj' poopJo wEio 

*crt ill dtiiJik <ff ibii WLiUim. A ^Hiitlntijitii iif hiti tratit Kpi^kn tu bim 

Ul FrrDcb, on nbiob hA Htp]i«d pntt of ■ glaiw. Uf thpii ii«nt oot (tl 

^ Uok doaa-f And whoa hn »«w lh« niooblroiiA rooks ho Liflod ap bii 

^dft m utoniiibincat at vooing tbcu ao f^r from tbo ma. Ai the 

■ii* mu gctit onl, tbe wnltir whk viitj biw, iiud bw cimld liiirdlj ba 

H>vB*JU4 lb»1 shipt flo Ittfgo 1^ tboi*f btk Btiw at tbo c^mkjr rould 

f<V*iblj oouo op bor«> Wbilo Iju nut, lui>1iiog At tbu niukd wo 

^Icd ftt Ibo door to fruiit uf tbo plie:j|j rooiu, cxpcctjnjf t^at bo 

^^d Tjiit iinvti FTTtHrofiil tbrougb 11»t imoiu Ui tbo cuincb. bLit buvu 

^iieoT«r tho p^vomctLL Hovoror, bo xtai «o obltgiug lu to r'/turu 

Ib^MVO "fry h« wout. A< 1 Bt'jod in tbo d^xtriruy wJiau ho 4Nkir]o up 

'^Oan lo mo, uul stood etill aa if bo nnulol to go oat, I movod lo fiuo 

"bl^ uid iw ho pftNMcl mo tio uimjIi: ■ bow uf tbunkn. I wam boforo Jn 

^^tett«, but n^ev I oonld with difilRLiliy rsntrain myitnlf frum oatt^b- 

^ tbo bftii4 of tijc omiftblc boro aod Idwriag it. Ho tbou wont on 

Itticb M Lo oooM Itrougb tbo urotrd to his oftirbza^ TLongb Lo 

^l^pnfB «4AU»«r>bt«lur^, ^pt btr in ntremt^lv fair] W WKh oldw Uiun 

^^(virdtng to Bovveir* Accoont hn viially u, bot tha ftniiolijw wbiob 

^Unt hftvo liMb fell by IbiH r/uj/m-iid ore jKifficinnt to mako ooa 

"^Qodor bo dtxm ttnt ioak nornR. Wbuu 1 ^Lucd cm bim nitli oyu 

^^orflovrifig with joy, I uk^id mynulf, " Wuubl ihiM imm ittll bi^ 

^OUDlr/T'* No« icipottibt«; bin IiX)kH. tb« uM* openneiM of liU 

StkiBteM<io<S b»t* DoAvinood mo, ivitbont a dcubt, iIloI it ja a ^'ibi 

I niool AOTT itiro a|i tbo pea, bill I ftluii noTiii bftvo wiil 

jb of Pnoli : I bujii, I viph tvatnHj, that yju luiiy moo tiioi. 

isn.* 

CoJob F^rry b^t recortl^ a coarcrMtion wUb bu sivtrr^A 






^d. 





I ><i< fH\nn ll*iiii| lo iMr in r^Mtaf 

.. M nil ii-W.jotholLoi^ik 

* <'■ m |iaiiii^l to «t«iid vbAv 

ok fnir I'LOir/, which «maftU 

I itMi lit k-iigt^lTOi llt# mknm npMi 




« 



fppoao J 
7^1 




^^^ Kiuiw iliftt be WJ4 ti> l»»o mftmoil a y<itiiig Icwly <jf ft frn^ 
Maij^ (Sit Jjiuttvt Lu* tIjur'H usUir} ua uiuu ma luj uuiia Lumv.. I am 
^**W ibe w iDCLinsuUblw njion bin Ion*.' 

' ■>*lieTff,' adds Cal^b Pftrrj, *ibfi wftiild never wntty afier- 
.^^'^i;' and he lellft another cCor;*, which h<f h«*ard from Lord 

' Duriag tho Sftv«ii Ycftn^' Waf, ftl tho aic^e of Louiebourg, in tbo 
5**Mni «[ C^po Braton^ r conacil of war w^s^ nt sonao pnrtical&i 
i^^ncUn, heldp In nrdAT to deciilo ns to th^ best tnethAd of |)n)4^edmg 
Vritli 1^0 fiftgo. At thiE covboil nerc prceuttt Uiyor-GiMiurul Wutfo. 
■A.4icif4l H^uoy, ntid macj v^tT diiuf offiooja. Tho cwgiuoor wbo 

lul not Fcrnpli (pmtly tn eumplaiQ. " My nnoini," said the 
r, " ia »low »d4 iuru/' " And mine/ infltatitancoualy replied 

BoiKem th« dft^a of Wolfe and Wellington England hid but 

fc^r Jcadm i»ho c«uld be callcil great oa Und. liy wsj' of com- 

pttfitttion *be had many great at «ca. Not the leut inmont of 

thet w Lord Kodncj^, irho df-intcd the SpttriiBL G«tft ofl'Cap<; 

Bl* Viacv^cit in Janunrj ITKO^ nnd (he Krencb, ondrr ihe 

Ootti^ <lo GraiBe, off Uomiaica in April ITS^J, In allcr-ttlo 

tbc old AdnijiHl l>fCJiii»f very intirnaC? wiiL Cnleb I'flfrjr, wlio 

Attended him in several lonj; illnesses, lie spoke, sajs I'arry, 

with fTflat eucr^ on all uccjulan^t and in his cuDvcmliou hod 

ft certain amanncas which was net to be enoeeded. He always 

*p<M&Fd as if he WA» reciting. 

* WLc& I ncBl out 6nit to tbo Wett Indies/ bo said oa one 
on. 'I foaud Luri HimkI thort. Hu uniud to isiy tu hh?. "1 
;lt vt anit «i\" Hbd I iiniii'.^iliaUly ansivi.-ri.\l bint, *^ Th6 painfnl 
ta^k of iLiuking is latan ; ii js joiir bimiuvH^ lo bskn and ohny" 
vV bm I went uut I fi>iijjd ilu rentcl vrhakiV<ir to apprise mc nliore 
^lo4J vai, mi Ujbl I voM ubliycJ to ^u £rf<l ttf Barbadnrfl liafuro 
' voidil ^ anyvrltdrif rW. In t}ie harbucir of St f^hriat'iphcT I 
'oucd that tw had I^ft all hu anchorN and cut all faie cabltia. This is 
*lku I voaU Dovtr hsivu d>jnu Akilu I livo^, 

^4h Ihc Ut (¥ Utl:) uf Ai-ril wu Lud llio gooil furtune U> defeat 
^ Pruck. Man/ pnoplo Ibmk it Rtrango that 1 should bftTe 
f^Md tha aodou aa early km 1 did- It was uigbt wh^^n tho battle 
"^tonir, and 1 well rocaembcr^d what a nii;;bt b&ttlG woh, 1 rciinom' 
""^ Iho ftCtlou on thu cuu»t of Spam wilh the Spauiah doet, ^heu I 
^■■Uiiuiat a liiA^iLii abiiKil uf lh>j iv«t of luy Hwil, and I hail too 
ItttI appTohAUsioa that I ahocild bo doMaricd by ihen. As soon as 
It Waos dorl^ no4 a ainKlo ship wits token poEc«fieioD of. It vua 
^ Aral daj of tbe mooD* ao tist it wjk« ai dork as possible. If I 
'HgooB iluun lu louward. 1 should hsto tuht all the i^Li^ia thai I bod 
Thnn |>'<<^jLle woold Lave said, "Thia man buowa how to gntu 

a Ticlofy, 



^. 







lC^^^iernt/t'(^J^lHl-J/ ftfaiitiiiaenei*^ 



10i» 



I 



■(^tmrli ho lofl Uio oofVoR'briwo ; bill vLnt tvaa liU flur|>xieo ivletj, 
"it&in i(^lil-anil-fi^rt; liaun, Iju wwi pent f<>r bj Mr. Pilt» who thiaa 

' YonDg gimtJccaKii. i aiutaralaiid iht.i, in suoh il coQbo iiotijia, o«t 
■woh ad«jr. joo w»iJ tLiklx^" *»>ol'l «"ip»gc Wtly to Uud lu Fx^moB 
■«> nuirrWuf tcE>opa fr^iin Kni-kucl. U ttifit Inui? ' 

CftpUin Hoiri^ flomdwbtt iib»H>ici^, aUoirnrl ihtit h-i had ^implnyorl 
* ii oao vord* i vhi<:li, bonxvor, bo might powibly uot Iiato 4li>na niUi 
«o UbcIi pofitiTcqfAs faod be HUBp4?«tAil tJiBt tbc^ iToiild bavo cijiuo ti> 
l^onmof Mr PilL 

* %V«U/ uiti Mr. Pitt, ' Dotf Umt yoti dM vitb mo, tnJ Lato h little 
iBOn opportttuity for roflcotiOD. oro you ctitl of tlio suno O|ftuioi>, 
Uiftt jro« oouM nfoly l*Qd truopa Id Fnoicc ? ' 

'Iftin, 8ir/AiiI bo. 

' Why ifcon.' roplioi Mr. Pilt, ■ you Jiill ilc no ; bni yon oftanot 
condor thftt 1 •booL'L vriab to liiAm tli« dmuuia that yt>ii propudo to 
«ttploy tvr tbat |»tupw«.' 

'Tbe7 ve llw«\ ntr," mhiiI nh|>iHm IToiac. " Tb^ Uniling cif Iruoi^B 
liu tiKDAlly iMon aitomptod in moa'of-w»r'K loait^boaU, an uawioldy 
^UM& of Tooiol 4rbicb ro<|Tiir«G to bo toirod by otfaor boiLU ia order to 
"»n»oy it to any pcinlv Nti«, I pruptMw lo «iJiploj for Ihia purpooo 
w m&ii'Of'Hmr H iHUiJcb^ wbiclj. with % aligbt blterntiiiti. may iia w» 
^^nk<tr«ot^ u lo iuf>VL> by moonw **f rowvra plAO^t on «>ob itido of 
lU«s of •oUioi^. lit lbi<«« i:r(Mkt Dtimborri of truopt- nay liu Uana- 
PMtfd ftt lliu 4»m<i tiujo witb «nfuty Jtn J colority. vbllu iWr [jLuJiuk( 
tt^ bo prcilflictnd by arini*ii nloi^ir* und utbef Hmnll vubihiIh, whinb 
b« niD mJiotc al lulflido with thoir broAdBidiM oppoBUd to tba 

Vr. FiU grvfttly Aupruroit of bUi« pro,ii«:lt vliiob wan stKCaohially 
^z^KSdtad by r<*imooilor*^ Hon'a to Cotii^Llfl Buy, allbonRh fmm nthi*r 
civoinDrtAaaii the objoc?t of tb« trj^q^riBo Hab*cqiioiitly failod, 

•Afleewftrda, in AiDcrio*/ said Lord Ilowo, *wo aaocoodod BtiU 
*Htcr, p4jd f>org ttblo to dubiuk &t tUt> Miiiv iiuo fivo or six 
Ukouiud m«n.' 

$pcaJ(iD)c of Lord Hftwke^* cIcJcftt of the Hrcit Bed off 
^^UiU-run in 17i9, Lord tluwt' sfilil iLut llit- FTeiicb Aduiiml 
^onfiftAt frat ' A very untkiUuL havaI otficorj wbo, doriring hi* 
"^oiioiia of na?a1 Iacuci from ihc inilitary lervicr, fincifHl tbftt 
^U B«ct w&i incapftblv of b^in^ mcc^ufLjIIy attookod vfttca his 
^%ii tad rr^r wt-TC ^ujiriitsl by rni^k« 4od hbLmUn' In tbla acCIou 
*'*owe comnaodiMl tb« * MagnaniiTie* ' : 

' %adwlica,' fiurl hu. 'i[i Ibo guuorfti diiMV* I b»d fliad upon my bird, 
* Qd«rfd my Jbffi iip on tba qnArtor-ftfioVt i^ad hod one of tlio gun* 
PoiolM M flUob b level thikt, vrhon it waa firod, tbo wholo orow *b«r 
pi*b«n«triko tbo Hoa at tbo divlAocc of not moro tliAQ tbu sbtp's 
^^uUi^ Hkviiig tioi* ord'^rad all tho gnaa to ha pointrfl nrcoriiog 
to tt« iuiw Ut«], I flhowtfd thu cKW hovr umImm it w^TiLi h^ \a t&^ 



^ 



no 



Ei^hi^nth'Vent^rti Ncniiniitccucet^ 



Mrluil^^H 



tili wo n<ao d»N to Uj* <iotarij. Ordoricff tb^ tavh to 
thoir qimrtori. I jftro dir^otinnn tb&t crerr mftu BtnnM lie dof*& ttiS 
nut liru litl I filriu:k U[ii>ii tliu cimciij a Ihjw, TL«H! i-filen Wtto 
rriTK^ltiHlly (if*«cTil*vl, nnl with aiicli etTrfwI. tViflt tlip Frendi «hlp, "Lft 
Hi::r(>ti," «triiok uSUit Iwo or Uiroa broaiiHidon. On ftoconnl of Ifao 
▼iokul Bi^lfr aud Itio Inf? f>)ioTi^, Kit were not Mc V> Uke poafcwoa of 
the prisii', liut cnmo ti^ mt t^anhitr nlci*o ttU»ngKtdo nf hor. la tba nigLt 
tho griMtoKt p^rt of h<jr vrvw contrivisii in TTi«ku thi^fr «iN»pft; in con- 
a«iluorj(!43 of ^lvhicb 1 v%a ioou afUTW4r>l'i stmt hy L^rd Hitttke tm 
tthoret Lj fi ooiuu in the viciTittjf, coiDUirtnilnl \ty « ir^uetml offi«(r, in 
k)ri)f[r li> ilfiiEkAncI tho prlwDuw. TUo flrMt liiiutiinniil IJuatcrad m g^iod 
ilnftl, ftncl mii, "Tf yoa took hb, why A\A yun not keep n*?" I 
roplicd* thut tiotbii^g onuld buve bov& moro c^kay tiiui for mo to Iatg 
aiiiik t^i! VQuul Ekiid dostroyo^ QYory soul on bonr<J ; tUftt I hvA «pftrec 
lljHui iiu liii^ faiLh fif theif liuvini^ Aurrr^tnlt^ml tlittii;MdTMH jirieoTiun^ 
nviii that, if tliia pl&k of Ih^? liculonnnt v/fiTc anoji t.dcijitl«d eTer"* 
tTanqiioror Liinlcr i^y oiroiimetaaooi of Jiltioolty ironH iuffllliU 
lUjuLMCfo hi* prlitoQcra in oold Mood. Tito goneniJ vraa oonTiiiccd t^ 
my Uf^iimei^ts, iind agrwd tliut tht* ght^* i>f "Lu H£n» "ftboaJdtn 
(^ciufiidLTud tK prisoneffc of ivuf." 

Hovte 4|tiot«d ftnuthcT proof of Conflani* untkilftilii*!*. Tfc 
Inttcr^s flA^ship, the ^ Solril IWal,* wat lo pWifil ai «ach.-4 
ihflit it ivodM bTivo boon JmpotRiblo for iwj' pan i>f ou r flwt | 
have prevented hrr c>cnpr. V ct 




'iroMLw Iii^/ utid bo» ^ dolibcTbtol J ^voii^b let anobon ftnr 
aU bor Bfiiiis, run right uu hLt^ru ; iu cvuAcquonou «f wliicK *U ls> 
niAftts vr«nl hy tTm !»»ii-i1 with a trfTirinniJtruf. ora«h, and Ibo nblp in 
afl«tffUilq da«lr>yQLl.' 

It wa* Hons who in 17B2 lianlly rfflicvoil Gibmltftr. Th«n1 
Ui Etiiois mpiiicimhb dcfnicc-. th.itiks to bl» red-hot caon^l 
bil]«, and (ili*«|ii(o tbi^ n]i^1iiJi?«t efTiirU of two grv«t monardilA 
' rvf r upLfn ihtr topmost roeh nor bniincr of Kngljtnil hlc^ 
Hvn U a nirioUK noiv of Parry '« nhout the ^rvax t'wf;^'.— 

'OIHoor* uid laGn killed and woondcd »t (iibnUtar, frt-m ibo L3t 
of April. 17i*l, to the 30tb of Notemlicr, ITtfa:— 





k>iii«i, 


WHflvM. 


MtdhTWiMUA 


I I iJfflcera 
1 iV^nrgfaQti. 


31 Offl«r«. 
I A Drummt**. 


lOfltcer. ^1 


T*Ul 


- so: 


1123 


91 



Aty fttttn'fi' V4U t u rj/ fleminiset nrra. 



Ill 



frontfm l-^lhof AprU, 17H1, Ui lL« :^Oth of Xxr^^tnlier, ITS'i :' 





AW- 


lOifttlt 




121,519 


M,«00 
3.1M 


B T«kl 




(I£,T13 


" TrtiT nf flhiil anilSli*lU ,- .. 


94ff,!«74 





' N-D, — Th« grroleal part of thtj fiiipg iu Scptembw wjm fjoui thn 

V Ktot, &«v in ft nimat£.' 

H^rv, ^kgfrin, i< «oinf^ Arconnt of tbe ' f-1r>rir>tu Fint of Jud«/ 
^78^ MS par»ieil to Patij b/ Lord ni>wc tiimiirir. [( luuat bt- 
pretniied tb^t on iliU occaiicin tL« FroncU floct, wbicb vai 
*Upcfkir in nuuiber* Lo tlic BnLi»b, waa ucfmmaadcd by 
^<IiBir»l VilUrot in ibo * Montunc^/ a (Mj> of enormou* 
*) iiQciuboiu, baTiEk^ on bcMrd tbc r reach ComiRmioiuirt * tli»c 
**^ib!* Cn|itain/ J**»n Hon St, Andre, 

' Id fiill coii£dofic<r cf t1ic:r oim ntrotiii^h ftud of tiio diMfloctiou cf 
*^*3 Rujflif^/ said Uovo. ^ Uio thrm d^yi of battle wLicIt [Kititir^ w«re 
*4io Qoly iiirtiDcv* inriug rny lung iiKvnl lifo iti nrlucb tho Fronch 
''•^UrmtiHyi to ligbt. Oa tbv l/Utb uf Uay, Uio Fronolj tioot bdiD^r to 
^^Mwnl. uid Qlo two flcot* boJnjE oa ibu euinti Uck, I cuuLe tbc 
r'ffual to th« " (V«fir/* CBptoin Moltoy, the lo&ding sLip, to Uck aiul 
"^i^k thfr fmomj'n liiuv GApUin KoDoy xa^At^ a ii^fll nf inibih;^, 
^''^t ituAoad of bukiDff. vtova. AfWrwiirdt pi»<m|f tltrDUp[h uur 
*'tjc bo reguaoi bU nUlio[i, but uoth ubcje^i mj order, Ibuagb. 
^" (bo feels wtm? U'^irlj ijuiuIIqI to oaob otli4.«r, lli« mmv wind wbioh 
^^Tioii Ltd (hruu^h ^'iir lino voTibl a^*,a bavtk nurl^d bEm tlirou^b 
^«tftt of th*) <iiioiny. 1 lad not Uiiv faot iLf^iuit ('Aptain Moltify boou 
**^'Ii[iTC<oc I ftl bii conrt-iiuutUl, it tn^ii Imrc bcoc ratal to Ijim/ 

Tbc EoglUU bowcvcr, obliiincii tbe wcatlior-gAgc ; iiLfinilli- 
^t^ndin^ vbicb the Fronuh mif^bT, if ibt-y hnd obo«*ii, caaily 
*Mkirc aroUed ftiubi^iienl rcnc^L^dlrc. in co[kiirt:)U<-n<:c uf tUc thick 
**»g which ramp io Ihr next dny aud loiallv hid tbrt boililn 
■*^*eU fro» «Acb other. On the 1 »t of Juno the curmj w** fouad 
^%|)^Ctiii^ tbp biitlr, uid, HH KiKkn ai ihn HritJiFi At'^r. had 
'ftpproftcfaed that n4 (bf? Frcocb, Lord Howe onIcr«d bii mulei, 
'^fnnn, to bijr the '(Jui^^^ji OiHrlntte ' on tlitr «t«r[L of Live 




u% 



Ei^filefnUi'CeHtiirff R&minuceBCfft 



^MoiiU^nr/ tbua brF«kiiij( lite rttvntj\ line iwiwr^n thnt M\ 
oDtl tde 'JbCobio^; vrhicli latter, tMitertainioj;; soiiuf apprvboi' 
tiofit r>r bcr nwn ^reij, <c:ci^clc<l (or a »bi>it diiduivr out of tlM 
Urn?, Thii pnstUon on tbu tl«Tn of th** ^MontnjEfto* Lon 
ilonr (ii«iiKaiiiriI for itbouc iwt^iitv mmutrB, duriug mUioU cifiM 
hr fakrf! hor with tn irpmrrndout ci firr ihntj acooHing; (o tht 
IM^count publUboil jiftcnvnrJs at Brtnt by Jenn Bon St. Aodn 
(■ which,* unyn \^nnj, nnrrtnuHounly imJinting M'^txlofiift, ■ 
h&vc mjriclt rtnd '), the 'MDntn^^iic' bad, during that ihor 

yi-rioci, llir^e huridr^l rnen kil]4<(l ^ir dangft-niusij wi>uimI«I 
uti, bownvrr, ni tho * Qucnn Chorii^tui,' unabLo any loDgvr U 
iiiuitilajn her iUUdii, tvui pi»in^ r»um] In ibr starboard %liU 
of ibn < Moniagni>,' in itrtivr to accouipliih (be d«aiructioD a 
CA|»lurc f)f ibat ihijit a %\itil Imm ihc- *Jncobin^ cnrrird aw^ 
b«r lopiriAil ; in coiitetjiit'nci- of wlik'h tlie 'MonUgDC,' wbi<s 
wpit «C4irc<-ly ii)jurr<] In brr niruu and ti'i^inj;. wna able f 

Lb4 Ibe power of annoytnic ber. 

PnTr^ otldi tliaT, in hi« ftnt intrrviftw wliich Hom« bftd nil 
tbc Kini; after bi« return to bnj£]aa<J, the Kin^ i«id lo bim: 

'I liareliofrtd.niylAriidfaBnlidb Admirnl ^Ho, etc ■ day of bfttlil 
in wbicb bis lifo was of tb« nlmuat importauc^ to tbf^ wtilfaro of Ail 
CLiuiiU^t I'lacul biiitbtilf ou ibu ]xk>[> uf biA tlijfi wLcm Lr ttiiTnrctv- 
snrily ^tprik<Ml hintErlf Ut Xhf gri^alfct ji(<rnii>iial rlnng^r. I ibodd 
liko t<i kIlf>^v the rt^naon af that Aclmiial'R coDduoL' 

*I placed tnyavU in tbjit fittmtti>>lit Sir,' t«pHocl Lorl llimf* 
' bfiunutw I ibonubL it tbut iu t* hii;]i i vaM Lttbt n^giikU iho mnie; 
tueuU of your McLje^ty^s lliwt, anil abnay tbat of th« eucmiy.' 



I 



Tbr Kiii^ bovrod and was silent. 

*In CUM of my altcndatic** on Lord Howe,' w*y« Pwry, ' 
E-itidcVtod tQ bim for a piece of adviec nbicb has Lnd a uiuit iwiwfblaJ 
«flVflt upon tbu whala c>f my ■ulifu.Hpjifljt mf\1i<iaJ eondtii?! In ^ 
niidit of a most Bevcii^ wititor be hiul liikt<u on bonclLck <ino itf Iboii 
long uid fllmv r]4<i« which ponona uro apt fe dignify vrjib tbi 
ApMllstioL of salutary Dicreiifo. He wa8 in uotutaqniBoe tbtuudj 
Cbt11»d, and in thci murno of twn nr thtv-ty dnyt iriui wIvmI wilb M«1t 
ibflaitunatian in ajDiu»t ilI) bi« joiutu, nccc4apiuti»J iritb t«toiwa 
fovor. Affef tbrofi or ft>iir <Jn;fB of the bent traelico vbie^ iIh 
modioiuo of (111 day. in a cutibtitutiun lou^' didj^uud to atlaeki 4 
gont, vrodd oiIiLiil, th«: puin eii^udwl ItiteTf to Iht* nla anJ vij 
aacfiinpanlEV^ irith rniigb, dtfflcoliy of tivathing, and eKpoe4o>ratka 
tit hkcd, Ea^riHy uvnUinft myitAU of ihcac new BynpioiLtf, I pro 
ponod a rcmody wliicb, though at bKat timo nfiw Ut t^ihcn in Kb 
Irruihmnt <kf iiL-M^r itilliJiouiatury grtut, had long hwjt ompkiytd t 
Umi ouJk^ with tbo gi'^atsst jnoows by tDymlL Tltk watf blo«d 

lotliog 



Jl 



^ffhttmlh'Cciiiarf/ flfimrurcfitcfji, 115 

%iug ; ftl tie Tory lUroitioQ of which «ll tlic fouiaIcA of i\n> r^wily. 
Bawifomubly tn my psjuTiitiili'm, ^InrUid bM'k with Lormr. A( Ungtb, 
r>u nj nipFHoiitiiig to tht^tn tbt* iUiig(<ri.HiTi ttii'lono^ of tliti pkiiricio 
VTTOplOau, wbt«h it wiM iii(iij««iLr/ kt ilU ov4>uU U* rtimovu, tiit.'j ufter 

L^i^lj uk>^n u^vny from thn lu-w. Thu jjlmiritit^ >^ym|tU>aix wi^rc 
■Imcvt inimoHiatf^lT wflnovod, wii ibt fov*>r iktid ■nicHlftt pttin* were 
» imeb ftJiorthl thikt tbo tidtt Jay, whon 1 «iu alono with Lord 
UovRAi be oaIcciI mc whotlior 1 tLou^lil any Wuolic vruoli be dorivod 
fn^ui rvpeUuig Lb» upamtiuu ; uid uhtiu 1 iiui^nviud iu tLe □egative, 
W K4U Ui mo : *" T haA jt^tenUiy no di^iuhl t)iai your pnipoaal vaa 
li^hl, uul (i)0 «vont hiu iJiovrn (hut it v,-ik.i no. Xow tot mo gii^ you 
OHO piece of ftdrittx DoHbomto woU bofaro ymi doddo om any con- 
iaot ; viil nbcu you luvo dcculvd, go airiiiigUt uu. nutl ocror (uiu tu 
tk«* rig^t hand or tu tht> \eti" ' 

Boi Calpb Purr/* reininiirf-noe* am not tfTc1u«ivdy nnutirftl. 
llcrt, fof iii»Unco> iv an IntcrCTting &I]uiion to Ireluiit'* 
r>'nnoith4>np« : — 

*iX Jlr. Burko 1 skw a grti^t d^hL dTirin^ a Itnig miMljoaL attend- 
HkOCb Btf WIS ffCd^pa tha gr«at<^ man ihin world i>v^r jtKir. Si^ 
tlo^mo* VM like a hirmnt, nr like n lUmi: whidi biiinh ahiI (Wtr<iy8 
■11 It tiAckttL In mtnmon Cfinvunuitiori bif ii.pTiku for hom^ tog^tkor 
ttifluLftdcArcfally utuik^d ovary tyilMv. Not a lv^»^d vttua mia- 
fltli^attJ yon could uoTur tiii<i <iuo equ^l to tLut ihLltJi bu iHloL:t4>d, 
vbdW tbv Uluatriuun hiubauiliufiu d<TtcuUo<l on 1£jo vuixjiior cxool* 
bumof • rrop nf ^jiimtii, or ilnbatnd in thn Sfmnti> tb<i hnppinMs of 
m mtira poopLo^^With regard to Mr Pitt lia reiiuLtkcd ; •* Mr. Pitt 
AHTiery eWiIyi but tbooo nho auo to u dhi^rt <LiaUai» ^Inayi MO 
dmiU." Ho Addod. '* Mr. Titt tbick^ bu hu d^uc wjtb k nubjcct, 
ul liuTii he dtrivH to drin) il frutii bifl iiiiutl, iiol r«flirOtiiig tbftt 
<*v)lLi&g ID iuUu» &« conoectfld with <iTt^ry ntbor thing/' Ho di«d 
iMiL«ftttr, in tiio boiu« at Bcudod^ii^iI wban> Wiill«r di«d boforc 
1^ His dJACMO irot A cATicoroTis offfjatiDU of th<] ntonuioh.* 

Of the biotbcT* llunlrr. rAmous namci in the annals of the 
AHiiW profc««i<{a. Parry lt<n< tw^ tiieodoto* ■ — 

* Dr. WiltUrD Huntor,' bo taya, ' wim nn clcj^AOt Lcc^Curor, nin] mado 
b Wl«tT# TiTy ontf-rUiuiug with the DUmb« i>f auccdolo* which bu 
QlraliirBd. Btit I n-tin-nibfr otjl'v whou h»- huh Kbnwiug round n 
tn^foted pMfATiLtiou. wturh ^JUS ut t>fniitifiil aw an ^viiiM makg it, it 
^iUiikfztally tbrowu do«nt^ Ncthinr:: nm ^id iih<>Lit it till it got 
^lU Doctor ; bul ivL<tn he mw it. it v-^ iluI pn^^iMc 1^> ox^vrnsB tho 
h*i» h* Ml- AftAT luiviug Moldcil uiid Hworu, ha sitiJ, ** 1 only 
vIditW wbooT«t did it^ woald tak>.i bin moTi'.'y utid go aboai bi« 
bi^tfft ItfVt tnc ocrer mv vr htt»r th^t iiuv)i k tuonetor Oiii«ls.'^ 
Kl bMl^r, Joba Hunter, wm of » «ouurwLat dilT^roat tdopor, 
«r «1 loavt bsri thu ut of biding bia feetingd. Onv dty I vw 

Vol l«4,— AU 5tfi#, 1 w*lfcing 



. 



114 Eitfhffenth-Cnnturfj R^minhreuceu 

uiklhiut; iji<iiLGcf tlio iviin!l« iii St. G&LirL'u'fe I]i«j*iUl, wlicu ft >IU*A 
wa(9 brL>iig1it ID who hiul f*llnn flnnii on hia linA*!. ThiTn ^rcre flflj 
Of aiity pupUs |irtKnt. Ho bcRaii lecturinpf upon tho vomk. "Wli"' 
ii tbo use." eoid Iii-s " of thu miui^hiof Imppomng, nliuii <:<&« cumot KC*' 
vrhv it dhoulj tiafifKii uud doiitk nat kuuw wby it li^injitiivd f Koi^< 
if I hwl idhjIp jiiHit, I wimM linve iniy\» him bt<ttor. I b(«id bi0> 
aay this ruyself/ F^rry adda^ ' ur I ghoiild huTo beon votj ftViifM t^ 
gino bcLiflf to it NoTthcr Lnd lio tho morit of dngindity, for tb^ 
aouo tbin^ wj^e said ItJiLg trcforo him/ 

Nn TEmiQiftc^Dces of the Iftst comury would bfl cmmpltt^ 
without lomc mcnlioo of iu grtat nctor — 

' The ido! of oar worgkip while he lived, 
The gud of our idolatry nnoo laoro.' 

a« Cowper protaicftlly ftings, 

■ Lorrl lifttlmrBl,' liiys Cftlob I'.vrr^, * wwa old mjotigh to hawa «Ma 
^cCtcrtna net In iiamjinrieoii with Gorriok, he tboucht tho UUer 
tiiwi^ eupvrior to tho farmer, la rcalit)^, it in ftbaur-l i-'t imy oiw to 
thmk thiLt nuy B^U»r wlio ovci liwj, iroui thu ^n^L^rtil K»uibl« down 
to tho vulgur K«an, i.tfiiihl bo, in Hny ut hia ^nAnito niimbor of 
choratrtoret oampuod vdth H-xrvlck. 

*1 ^viifi i>ace/ ho A^lfis ' vfitneas trr ii droll icciw in t/OmlciiL 
Oiirrii'k wofi i^oiiig to |ierforju '^ HamlLjC probcildy for tki: l«*l tiiui\ uil 
thd throDgof peopluwnH trniLDiiclniifl- TwDliourxljL^foretbuplajrbrgaD, 
the ac^jfti^ont Btreuts vit^ (jruiit'ded t> tho vor)r uliiiovt ludf-tray lo th« 
TniJdlo of Oathuriuo Stri;ot. I wnul l^-> Iho pit Aii hfrur iLftorw4rd« tbo 
ouUir duur o|iouod. Tha ciiuruoion t\ml look plftco wwtbtu Amanag -, 
nnnibflre of people vretc llirown down, and n grtutt maay f jmfcl** ven 
■cirioualy hurt. When we hcid been »uitUd for *[>nio luuo in tbo 

fiUiBoge* all of Ok BdddoD a man stftuJing nonr mo uatleil out, "0 
j(>n], I huvci )'-isl iiiy ivig ] ^' A nuisc \vm uiLtiicitiakly :uii4d fur tbe 
gfintl^nuui'M ivj^, mid thu iNf<i[d4 ftUiii««d th«iiiMidvuH u Jlb 1iring{ji|; it 
on thv «D(l <if n stji;k cloae b> hiia, nnd then ehoviog ii nwny kgvAii. 
In ftu lioiir tbo inner dc^or npeced^ and iho poor tn^n ^viu ^U^ Co ^ 
lo llkc Jilt mtb a hondkarohief ti(Hl nmnd hia lioJid, orjd thua to Mt oat 
tb<» ivhitle ijf ihu ptrfuriua^L'o,* 

One of the ninn dnjt' wonder* of London ^o^irty in Iho ^mj 
3 77'1 vfas Omai, & native of tb« Fnenfily hla^ndi^ brought to 
EogUniJ by Cnptnin Ciiok— thp ' gmtln aAvag«,' tung by 
Cow[t«TB painted by Sir Joibaa, and, >tran|:cjt of all, hifbly 
cotnintfndtfd b^ Dr. Jobnsijn, Herv li what Cnl^l) Parry bu to 
■»y of biin I — 

' Tbo PftntliccEL in London vas \ moM bonutifitl bnildtDi^ It bid 
fllglii tliunArkud lamps in the donjo, oLd wvr>t1iint; olic in projxjrlion ; 
bnt it wriH biimt to ihu gnjiind, I iw thrm at a mtiiiiimd^i, wbAn 
T Tut/i A mnit with uhom I uqe Tory iDtituKlc, Thit wm Omai, Uio 
nihliTo cf UbdioiU*, droMod in all the ptiraplicniaUa vhiab the fonu 




EiffhUenik*CiTnturtj RrmiHitcenci'*. 



lis 



3iO M m tj of Uii« cou&try vronld pormit, Uo hftd booa brought otof 
uii^qIIis hvtoiv hy Ctplaiti (!(K>k m Lis neoouJ vo^aga ; uotnitU- 
kng vfiii^Ji he spcike Kngliihli vi^ry inclirTnTi^ntly. H'* fiAil iickti6 
Utfit prciilmrity fif riuif^A ivliic^li chkfux^icn k4>« -xU Uie Ddgr>^ 
irttom vc Mxi in England. Hla hkiu nus k wry clnop c{>pptir-c<jlmir. 
II9 ■wmtnl Tcrj fiood-leinpor«il iiiid mucli gitcu to laughing, nliioli 
1m dill tmj rcAdiJj cm niany ticcasious. He whs very iituch atru^k 

M> BMi, in the b«flt numeo' be ooald, Im p-uat ^'Imitniiou, WhJlo b« 

fu ilk Kht^Ufiil li)C wMlliW VAA OJitrcinrjly oijlcl, luid tie WBtt«r ia 
Iffdc Fferk iLhriEiLiUil with Nliders and skftterh- Omni was Ihrjn, 
Ub^iQ^ tho r«| — no very iuitablcr niDiisemetit. coniiidEHap tfao 
flumth pf hait lutitu oliiiiiLto< Bat be wculd bu tb^rv, njid you woqid 
terv Ibungbt tbo plenty of fidla whidb be got would bkro eicikciicd 
}a3n uf tbi» i lI*«i)A[ited DLiTn^ixt^ Hv rvtnnieiil niUi Gujitaiji r^uiik ou 
til Mxt tvijAflo, imjiptind Tiib avDrything vbicb mmatlori oonld 
poiUoiil tot bifl aoGommodiitioii.' 

Aaotb«r wiJil bin! uf pELin^ tUnt bail vi»ii«d tbU ci>untry a 
Winn prcvioiisiv^ WAS itjc Ktqulmnui wom^n Mico. Th* 
folbffiag dcvcTtption of bci occurs in a letter l^ram Lord 
BtLhnm 10 Jo«bnh P*ny, wrin*»n id 1765^:— 

■ Tbfr^ U no miti.li to bn uliiI {;i r^^lntiita to tb« Et^nlmftui Iftdv, 
ibl I ib^U not tKi abl« to p> tbrongb vntli it S^ie bM ah fidninkbU 
uJonbndkDj^ $1jo hanbonn Iffitxi with tht? PHncieM. wbi> It* m fond 
<f bcr u I UQ ; twt(M3 »bt ban dliiud witlt nm, nud tlioiigb 1 btui tctj 
fDoJdi&n^rft, Kbb ttuuld i<*t notbirig but mlmrm. .Stif^ tiAlrt] d liltla 
vpvwu* cmt uf <!urioinfy» and vhjj with difficulty |^er«uAdud lo tako 
Ao ri^ ead i bat, upoo trying bc/tti, ajiTowl vory wilHn^ly. Lndj 
^UctfTBTO |.r»To bvrft T«ry b»uil4unto ijuwu, |juttJco«it> luiJ LiutbiivM, 
ittdUcb thn a;>p<uri*L] Tory wAl. tat from bnndmmn, bat tolimbloi 
■flMftred hcTwlf dcooutly. 

'TV PrJo««A o£ WttloH nrduvd mc to bring hor toCirlton Jioiwo, 
od UMei would b&To B^oiVtiiiug baitdsuuif iiudt? up fur Ltrr iu b«r 
vttvouBtty fttbioD. ] vnM Ui imdMrtJi.ktt it. «^itb tk« HHvihLfluuo of 
AiMt ottMT who bronchi hnr on^r, and witb whom shA livns. 

') mt r^ and wbilo toatbor far hor biyito, btaok toItcI for und«r- 
■■KDai.aftd nhito thag for upper. All tbcso eb« would make ap 
^nUfDDi ■uflcring any Qian W tuucb bm*^ We tbeu gut n dulib 
4ki vu mhHit ou tho outaiiU and blue witbin l'bj« wtM AdaIj 
Wl with ^Id UoOi tnd ft poak Iwforo ^hi<ib euoe down to hn 
W^ with * |to14 fHn^^ Bo^jind tbcrv ww * large cape, wbi<^ 
*Ul EOVKt OTi^ tltu boad, but wan fur auolher um, viz. Ut carry a 
<ul ia ; tbry qui hrtit^ tbo c^bild ronEid to give it lu^k, and than 
4^ ft behind on Iboir bork. Trum theAhooldori down to tbo ground 
ta|«ia a tail, not unlike a fioli'fi tail ; tliie ii wbat distinguiiibQe 
W WcoKi from tliu man. Wu addud Siio cuibroiJury u|H>n tbq 
MBit ml tall, and iihr wan much ploaAcd with it 1 carrieil bnr to 
ffnooo Sba would go iu a chair, that with cuitaiod drawn 

1 a 4te 




lis 



Ev/fit6mth*Qtrdun/ JtfminUctiices^ 




$ha iiiLjfht Qot Iw Rocti. &1i« IfBviM jiictuniH ncd aumc 
thinki it in^LH^out to km tli« pioturtK of DiLofl mon uii] womoi. 
^Whciii ifho wu oomia;: nvAy from tbc> l^inottn, tbe t^lc^ 

tUAti i\i TAiu,\AJtd vho doopt ; fi»r it is th^t GrcoEtlaiiu, not lli« li 
laiignago. Sha fooiiMd TtnnMj. The PHuccbb f-nniLirrtil vlmt 
Ibo raattor. Shc> uiiii nho unntcd to go hatuo ojid oauigo bor d: 
for oho could not diDc atmvWuu iu ttmtilrr» villi cocipuijtM 
■LVTi ]jy ptrrvuiilH. Sbi? ui>t]|ri xuii U^nr I'l be? Ihii|;1)v<1 mL AM m 
h«r<i vi*Tv |>«lti<iOAt4, Ur»>n tliii^ tlm i'duo^fis loak hrv iato uii 
TWia, fmt nil hor a hoibJtlrt^rt, a iLkinoak }K»ttioi>atj aad * manll* 
(Jio i^Aiiio oul very well Mtiylii^d, tttnl dliii^ at laj hiiiwe- Tlic i 
with (mi li*d [MiiiMi [lifliuiiUj I'* niuku lic't nljiiW btir ciwd Jtfw*. 1 
joa havo twcti told ik truu nu lo tbu EMqutmuiti» vtliich mtko I 
niuro oxluordiuary tliul tLidWiiuui abuoll diMivor tuch tnmr] 
K^«r. dliij Lim Lor soli witb licjr, wLo ie talrciucly liko bcr. 
ahfjat i^iglit yeire »liL Aimthor Ijcj lit jimt (^uinn ovor, vlio 
brodfflit ia uiother sliip. Lai lakea priionor at ibc Muno tioio. ' 
ft?c DpTj to Lo oani biLok in Hay« ELiid it in hoped tbcy maj' bo um 
ia making nome ti«nty with lLom |«oplcw >uid &ptai n trvla for « 
Anbury, Ac." 

Ilair a CL-r>tury Uter, Caleb Parij'* inilor^vm wa> to ' 
Mico'a countTymeu nmon^ the ' antr^ vut and d*<«rtt idh 
bjpcrborrao »DniT>. Tbc traditional Britiib pluck wbioh 
carrinl hi* ra(b«-rV oM Ulvtidt, K'XlrK'j and Hou4% tnuflip 
through (be itormi of war, cnatlc^J CWtain I'avrv in llS 

i»laiil hift ci>untrj-"i fliff n^ftrvr to the Po!p ihin any eipl 
tad ever jiC(i(7lmt«d bviurc, and nearer iban any buvcovM 
hU nlt»iinnl Icir lifty yram, df*4j)iir thr aid nf sTrnin. Rj 
bi^ib the CuTDccetcr mintalcr &ml ihc Bath dDcti>r had g«iT 
ibvir long home* ; bui to have bn-ri m|K*cuvely ^j^randfadifr 
fatb^r or the Arctic nnvifrator, itill rcJkcia a poatbui 
iu(«itat i*u tUeir meuiuij. 



( 117 ) 



AltT-V.^'^1- An £iuiiy hmyunh a TiifAAfraptticiil Drficrripttcm 
^f NirrfM' By Fnncii Hlomefidd :iad CliiLrl^K PovkkD, 
L«Etdon, l!507. 

1 A nut^rv o/y^fcUt. By VVaJt«r Ry<, London. 1*^65- 
i GraU yttrmaiah ajirf L^vxstcft, By JoIid (jreayo NalL 

ib Ontf (VcTRcra/^'tfR ^' a NifrJolA Hotu^, liy AufTLiitiu 

J«K»I.|>, n.D. Nyrwicb, ld7i^. 
6l Amziiij for Ufftt^r jW H'orH, By the Same, l^ndnci, 

imi. ' 

7 GUcninga <imong th$ Caatki and Conv^ntg tf Nor/^. By 

Henry ilArrod. London, 1867. 
tL Vecai^tdary c/ £(i$t AnyUa. By the lUv. RolsMt Forby. 

Louden, 1^30. 
Sl OA#rri^/umj on fA^ ^ai/^rd of Norfolk, By the late Rev. 

Htchnrd Lubbock. Norwich. 187U. 
in ^ar/iffk UrAiidt and HitcrK By il. (Jhrittophnr Diviei^ 

£<]inburKb And Lfindon, lti!^4, 

ICrORFOLK, uiilike iu Etbttr county of StilTdk, i*. if aii>-> 
-Ll thinCa too rich in hifllciriqAl m&uiri&U. Thu volunwi 4»t 
the brad m onr article du []l>1 rcptt-ftcni a inilh pan of th^ 
^ntlintiiivf titat might bsv^ bi^^n qi)oti*r] To illuclratt? our tuhjecl. 
Tbr aoDumcnii and nn:iquiitc«, a» well m th<r hittorv &iid tolk' 
W of ctii* m<JsL inl^mtin^ county, bave b(?eii morv r>r leat 
'tbftiMtiTely trailed by & long »<'tjcs of wnttrrg, from Pfrtrr Lc 
A«i«, ih# rantnuH anti^juary d \\\e Stunri ppriotl, m |>r, J^««opn 
*ftl Mr. Wnltcr Hyc of the preactii day.' BjI the first work 
*bicb ike cor)«clontii>n9 atudrni naiufally conaullt, is the superb 
^f ef Blomc^ctd's ■ NorlDlk/ in thirty folio roluine*, prc- 
"t^ftl in llip Pfim Koiiiii of xhv Jlrjiiab Muirum. Il is inirr- 
^■od with •r>cQ tliouinnd uLcIctiet, prints and vngrafin|,fB, 
^liJitmin^ fllmLifti every object of :intii|uuiian interest Ui Uf. 
^artd in tlie coimty. ri>r tbt> mafjintm oj/ttt — a liiumpU oS 
i^rugcr't Alt — wc «c indcblni to the iiidfUu^ablr labour of & 
^ttt ftnticjuaTinn, the Jaie Mp, Dawfion Turner, wbn waa for 
^uj j^r> a partner in Giiraey'a Bank at Varmontb. After 
^itefttb ihebr Tolnm^i wer^ purrhnsed nt a conaiderhble tjoi 
^oar National Library; aekI ibou^h il is poaiible that tbc 
vitaici^ wbirh arp chi^tly thp work nt D^iwiiirt Tum^r^s facoil 

,^ Idyt anartio rohinx^ ity J. J. C«1iuimi. l^a* r^oimLly bnvii prCikU^I, tralltW 
BliGUhMa SforlOlclflula,' h tl^l of wrliord und «i>rk« «oaa«t«d vLtb >w»C«Ut. 



ua 



NifT/olk. 




Catnifti) nml olhn loritl aiiiAirurd, hnvr rto ^rrait ftriiirtic nwril i 
Iheii own, tbeir (^ncrjU interctt and value are uo(^ae«(t<ip&bl 
a4 rrprvii'iitalicjiiit uf aet^iirs aiii) uiunuuiouU uufmrttuitttEly u)t 
loo liAble to change; OT diiitppf^Arnncc. 

in am ta»c, Bliimerielil'* (liiiotj, thoutjl] Vji1ua1>)c a> a btn 
of rcffrenco, can biritly he piirkinl wiihin ih« limit* nf a iMtrpi 
b&g; And th^ tourist — or, Tor itir cnnltrr of Eliat, the Xorfo 
mnn who wiihei to know coniMbinjjr of the inonufneiilt ftrui i 
trcnsurcs of bia count}' — ivHl profrr iLc farnlHAT «nd convftDK 
re<l-cbv«reii ^HAnflbonk Ift ibi* E»fit«n (tminliei,' nrtitrb ii 
perfect iDincf of intortiting nntl Aocurntc intormalion. lnd*4 
llirrr i« bsirillv n dniftii north mrkrcling-^whelhrr il bonrburf 
a celubrali^d picturcr, or n hiilorkal ev^nt — tbnt hft* rtoftped C 
ubtquitouft ibflervmion of lh<* i^diti.(r ; anJ oul^ tbow who ba 
|£on(! ov^cr Ibo irtmo gTound cad ApprcciatA thif labour inrolv 
III lucb a couipjirttjon, or lliv dimculljr of iclectins appiuprtj 
matter from tbe alixiott too abundant tloTO of ina(4»riati. 

For the ftludcnc vrlio ivi»bc« to alud> the history of tl 
county in greater detail, thpre \% the'HiitoT}' of Norfolk M 
Mr. VValter Ktc — a tUorouK^bly icadablr aud jutriCBlifif voluiDt 
nnd ihifl %gftin may l>e iLipploiTifni'^fl h_v Or. J^tsopp's * OifK^eia 
History/ by his cxcHlcni pjcturrs of raral Hie io * Arcady,^ tr 
by bu monograph fil" thai b* the term) on l-Mward Watpole, i 
bis *OnE Geretalion of a Xorfolk Mouir/ "I'hc l-'a«it» 
Norfolk havi< b^en rihuusiivelv treated b[)Eli in Steveniun 
c]ns£i<-aj work and in a volume compiliHl b^ ■ form«t Hfct 
of Booles, Mr, Kicbard Lubbork, n mo«t intrlli^Rnt ami palie 
obftcrvcT of wild life — who haa prACtjcntly don« for tbe diairi 
<i\ cbe RroAdi whul (lilbert U'hile did for bi* own belon 
Selbome. The archrrologitt Again may viiit Ibe ruiiw <il I 
castles iLud convents under the guidance uf Mr HanoiJ* OT ta 
OTcf the pages of Nail anc) Forby, if hn wisbc* to Mndjt 
language and local Er«dicion» ; and lastly, if be needs rat ai 
wfreshment for mind and body, hi* cannot di? lieiter than bi 
a yacht at WroahAOi oi Ci^lEialjuM and (riiplore the Bare ai 
Waveney, with thHr rontiKiioui \^u\aiU^ aur.fiive Trucr&^-mX 
Air. Chnstopber Daviea ab hit i^uidr and piloc. 

h iq the • vAriecy " of Noriolk tcf nrry, as ilrserilud by Fall 
in an often'quotc<l passage, whic^b malces it so attniictir* 
a ftrnng^f, for it i-i-rtKinly bns none <%i tbn bold and minasi 
piclurecinueneu of Nofih Wales, the lli^blands, or the coar:t 
of the VcttV. Bui, though mountains are wantinj^t tborr 
hardly any other pbA&t- of on Hu|-ljftb hind^rapct ibat may n 
be found in thij^ hLitil of Cruiiir und ConatMbfc. To the norl 

jiJoj}^ Ibti t>^l^eEy heights Dcar Cromti and TriiEiaungbaiD, tlM 



J 



Norfolk, 



11» 



hwatoi Uie finm coMt K^ntry in Kngland, vArled hj trnci* 
ofinlJ im4 brokcQ ground sbndcfl with dump* r^l' bccoh nnd 
«ib trvTA, wiiL All umlrr^njwLb uf ferni nnJ ivjlti IiyaiL'ititlis, 
tndi u mny Im* i4mn lo p^rlVclinn noAr th« fnmoui * H(^w4»r ' lit 
SluiTUiglutB- Further iiiUnil, near Avlihnm and Dvtcit^im, 
fiMcb tlw richly tiinb#rpd pnwcuiv*, with dwp lAnet nii<l 
Mscri>w», the ftrcouL'v, pArkt, inil nmiii>r-bi>UK-i, wtuch luvc; 
ftin^ for thic pari of iKe ftusvty tli^ litlr of * thc^ |iar«I<?Ei *4 
jSorfoIlL' Townnls thv railrrn short' Ilea ibc rr^tiia <if lixc 
Eltxwili — &n Kn^lUh HnlUnd — with their ilu^i^tih iirrnm* 
Irii^ad by lioc> of polUrd oaks, j^ccn pastuivB, mi-liliil 
CDtti^Ri, uttfi hmr ;in(i thfxr n tnUiitry Inkf yi\0\ wondt ilopin^ 
ui tho vrator'a o<t|CC, To the >ouib and ■outfa-weftt, near 
lodfanl niLiJ Siv«frb:iiu, tin* ' llii* Urmrkv/— a vuHt rxp»i»(!r of 
BXKvlubd, cnT«rod With gof«c nnd brooiiif thn tatctt haant o^ 
t^ecnoc and bti»t«r<I- And» U»llj, in «omc of Ibc icm»tcr 
cntmri rf ihfl coumv, tb* f«>nt|jrr>it of ih* lnn<U(;Apo Viav* aUon^d 
Hctif »iftce ihe days o( ihc Pi^niu^rnrt* ; there nrc lAndbilU, 
boiLr <lelli, and pJiU-li^i of primeval lurest, wbpr» gipAii^i itill 
f"tk< tb«ir cftmping-^rouod jtntil where Lvvcngro tatiy hnfc 
Icvnwl tba Imp- of lhi» Romany. N<ir mn« w«» forgwt lhf> o!d- 
*i>tIi1 a«pect of ibc county towni, auch u Lyfin, Varmojtb. and 
JHiti nf N'orntrh Ut«>ir, with ibf<ir nnrrow «iTrif>u hut little 
rbiii|pHi lincc the firieentb ecntiirv, wi:h their many {fnblet 
*Ati bj^h-ptirh^d rrd^lilcd nxit'Sn ami ht^nr and ibert? uti old 
"^wbiog inn with iu *iun ol' wr^nghc-iron work, tnd it* couTt- 
Jvi uul vtooileii gallery itandinx n^ il iUmhI vrhcn vrent/ 
<>aiCii«4 & liny poMed alotif; tb? hif^ii rond, 

Eudi «rc a few oDl of ibe muny ntpi^cl* of a Norfolk land- 
^Qp«,a|Kl an artitt mual iodc^d be wnntinfp in imagination who 
l^d not find in *mc uiad all v( tb«m woitbv aubjrctft for hit 

At a tnittcr cf fact, the three ^leat Ln^liili Undic^npo 

Itcrt, who rank next to'Iutner, are all of Ibctn cnDiioci^d 

^Itb Vmi An^Iia. Tno of them, nainRboroagh and ('nntiable, 

^»B>e from the adjoininj^ county, and the third, ■ oW Crotne— 

tbrbal^ dark man wieU the brown mm and top-lxKUa' — wai 

^foander of the famaiu Norfolk School. Vear after ytnr, ho 

^iht hi* puptU ami paiiued ime «*utf after anutber arnoinf 

It And Tall4>y» of hit native county, with thai painilAkln^ 

ity which i% Deil door to genJuK — dignifying und iJ«jil- 

b« faiaUiar ah>p«i of MouttL^liold H«nlb, or jutding a fn^nh 

to ibff Mialifihi glftncing tbrnugh the trcca in tbe wvil- 

bmaT^oe of tb« 'Chapel Field* 'at Norwjch. Fiumina 

^^mmhat^tie iittfleritu might hare been Croonc't motio: for 

llvu not mntl Ibc winter exhibition of IHIS^ when twcnt^- 



ISO m^j/at. 

ftnvcti of hU works ucre exhibttMl al th« Rovtil Acadcmjr^ 
that any notice was tahcn Ljf thu Norfolk School outajtle lli«-ir 
nntivp citv ; ami it is cbiLraclerittir of ihr griMTal nrglrci 
Ibftl Cromo'* name h not wvn mcnticnoJ in 'Modern Pninicrc,' 
nm\ yei Mr. Ruakiii woulit [inve iMrrn itK-< ftr»t Ui H])pr4H;UE«< tlic 
iiniural gmre and skill as \vc)t as the niinuto and I«bonoci» 
uccuracv wltti whkh Ccoine r^fproducra ever; detail in a 
JjiTid»cape, until (aft has be^n snid) bis very o>k-tre*« wi^lB 

Koemi vibratiog with liftr. Of recent jrcars itic works of ihe 
Norfolk School of ArTi^fls an* eagerly cougbl for and barv a 
hiffh onarkel vduc ; tut, at the Eiiitor ol tho Handbook jtutlj 
n? marks : — 

' Thdr wDll-dctturvud Tauo hutt couio two kt& Hul it breti earlj. 
It had lieen kind — a tillie nf thii retvi^nitlon tlieir labonni h%re 
l^elT«d of i-ticent ;«iir« vroiiM havd gladdtfocd tL« hearts of tbi4« 
AuUifol etiid'^ntM '»f nfttiiTo, hnd it 1>eea ocoordod l>of«Ti> tlt«irhaiidi 
vreiealill iu dcAlk' 

It if impoiaible within lh« limits of xhe%e pag«i lo do mofr 
than glancr at a icvi of tlic iikorcBtrJking fc-itliirr^ of the History 
flf Norfolk. Tboir wlm «iih fnr fuller druils mu»t rrf«r i« 
the third volume of Hloxnchold, to Mr. Walter H>c's UijiOT^, 
and 10 iinr t^xv-fWeni Miitiu\My In the HnndboDk. 

Norfolk in Dtimca^ia.y Boak had a larger population tljon uiy 
olher English cuuiil)-'! fatiL wLiub ^aplaiiifi the biiiall nrva i^f the 
* handrctls' nnd the unuauvltv Lir^e number of parith oburdjr*. 
Of the 1300 lordship* or manors iato which the cout^i^ wm 
then divided, no ji'ss thnn 1ST were hold hy Hugh Biirod, wboiP 
dcsccndanUi ibc EarEa of Norfolk, proved the hiu^blicst and 
tno« turbulent baron* of [he frudnl ages, Thej were praciieally 
kini^p i[] their oivn roanty, with th^ rigbts of *frc« warren, 
AMtir.i^f nnd ^llnm,' and from their castlci of \orwieli, 
Framliiif^tiam, and Bunp-aj set ihv rojul authority openly ai 
dertuure. Thff tild <;LronicJv» Bif: full of aduiltin; uiUjtn tu 
their penonnl cbnrno^er — 'w> itmffjtit^' *vir triauniJitU4t 'w 
l^IhoMta* and po forth ^ nod BlomcMd. in hii tkCtxmnX oi 
F>irnefit, ihrir principal InnUhtp, givev aiory aftiir •lory to 
illiutralc their pride and independence. The title «n<j lands 
pasted from the Bi^dn to i\u* Eiro[bi>rtont, from the llratbotcnns 
to the Mowbraya; and finally ^^ir Robert Howard ruarrieit ibe 
heiieis of the last-nnmtrd fainU^* and Uiui ' roic suildimly ^«r 
taitum from &tmplv chivaliy to (iucci] po*tlion/ It it fmm UiU 
gallnitt Siddier that ihc present Duke [ruix-^a his deicent ; a»d 
though (we be}i<;Te) his Gtiice does tioi own a singk acT« iv 
the county from which ho (ak<-a hit title, be quarters in bis I 

- -^-w^ shield j 



Norfolk, 121 

*hiel«l the Krmr>nAl IxAring* of lb? four JUuttriou* fARuli^t of 
wbtcb br \% t« 4 c-rruin rjtmi ih*^ lincM rrprrsrnuiliTr- 

Norfolk Wit n«ll rvprttr'ntf-U tn Itic French wara, and m^nj 

<lutt1i^Uhvd kni£;htit| fmiliiwnl by llirii immhU lun) Tr-tniEirm^ 

foQgM under EJward HI, ind loinccl Hcnrv V. in x\xaX vicEo> 

lout cnui(iajgn wliidi brgaii wild tlif- m'^ vf HarBeur and 

nLil«d vilh ihc mnrf h info Pftri^, Ttjf ir nitmei, luch as Hnhun, 

^ Boil, Braiipru, UcAmrhnmp. C^ltborpc, WabicgrriTc, Postim. 

■Ufhan, Knollra of Snilthorp. npjmnr ftpqii^ntl v jn t!ip {'hro' 

llicloi of the limr?. Sir ThomA* l'>pin|:1iEtm, who built ihc 

l&tDiKu ^iilp Al N'urttlc'b. tvju pn^iriii jli A^itii^ouru anO 'his 

jF^o] whilft h^stil ' ti in<iMiioii«<l in SLirtki^speArti's pUy i nnd itio 

tUlelicit majtumc-nt nni) uue of ibt fineat brotses in Norfolk 

Jir»*prve tlie memory of Lord Morlev and Sir Sim^^a F«lbri|-g:, 

lAe tUniiATd^beftreT U> RichftTt] 11. Loid KiinbcHej's artceaitir. 

Sir JoliD VVulehouie, aIih fought ai Ajfincourt ; the silver hilt 

«f bis avrord is atitl pmorrrd at Kimbeilej Hall» and lb« 

fiuiilj mtiEZn — * FrQpjtr Jort^ yjyiflcc^wr/ '— ct>mmpmor»:e» \\\% 

v^iptemcnL But even more dibtin^aished than anv of the 

firrcciluL^ WHS Sif Jubn pHslfilf) v%hi>, i( Is needlesa to sa/i 

TM not the prototvpe of Shakespeare's Ut kniffht. No ftoldier 

fki Uic ttme could »hciv a longer Hit »r diaitngui^bed lervico. 

lU fi>aghi at i InrUfvur and Agincourt ; he wits mad* a 

Kttieti of the CaartEr Tor his ^Allnm comluct in the capture 

of Uranvillfl; \\v »*oril*^il ■ llie brave Ounois" at the bnttlfl 

oi Herring; and linalJv he tefved unrlor ib(^ Rr^rnt B<^dford, 

■od «ai uuc of tlmnf whii ilr^! ni Pnlnv bi^fore the MilkI »f 

OiWni, At hotne btr lived at Caister Castle Jtke a grand 

>c:{ilrur of the period ; and we air told, a* an initariRe of hit 

fiutpiuous sljle of life, tbal his ^idd and ailTer plaie weij^bed 

^ a ton, and that tber« wcic fratbi^r-brda nnd down pilUitri 

v^nia the portpn' bpdrciomi, Wc are nlin told rhat be ruled 

MboaMbold in the most despotic lashLun^ and ttOA accuBtoincd 

WW' by Rlurkberd or Wbvi^'hprd ■ thnr vato«ay, hv God or [be 

br^D/ that so man or wrnnnn in it tbnald disobey his ordcii. 

la co(un|ueDLP uf mfme dlspulr oa tu the lerma \}\ Sir John 

^MtuLf's will, Caistet waa besieged and taken by Iho Duke of 

■^urfulk in XiXiiK with aa -trEny of three thousand nicn, bended 

^ ill lh« pnneipiLl nobleinpn of the county, who appear ti> 

utt regarded tbc lawful brtrs (tbe pA>ton») ii^ upstarts and 

Vti^ueis. A fiei tbe Diikr's dt-ntb^ however, Coister reverird 

**Sir John Paston, and thrrt^ bis family rrmaincd till the rod 

^\ lie siiirrnih nenmry, whrrt tb*-y r^rmnvnl to Omcad. It 

VMUCaistcr and at Paiton Hallf near AlundesJey^ Ebat moat 

>f tke famoss ■ Pfulun Lrtlrrs* wer« wiitien^ wbli-b ibnm aucb 

a curious 




d 



}2Z 



Ntft/otk. 




n rurliiut li^lit {>n tlip haTrbcirlmnf? rhntnrtrr i>f the timi 
Irudtf the Jawsuil*, ami cIk* bitter patty spirit ol tb« i^reat bai 
will) diJ iiirl Ki:i ujilr lo riirKn; ihcir clAiUit bjr tin; tifOTf!. 
TLftnks, however, lo lh« utiliivd wwiliun of tb« coont^, Norfolk 
look no Aclire psrt eitbiT la ihc UAruna' War ox in iLc Wan of 
ihf Roses. No pnrliam^ni* werr Imkl hpiv io th^ce trocibUil 
time*; ni> bKUtea yrerc i'oufbl in tbe confioca of b^cut AqbI^** 
And ilif cnurkty wjl« ipir^ ih« pIllA||^ nnt\ flpTntlfttton whu^h 
marked fhe track of s loudal nrmy, 

Dut a more (eirible viBitor iIjam wux Jtsi^lf nna iLal TJrulnit 
foim of an Oriental plijfUG knrtwn na t\w Black l>^a(h, wtkicb 
swept nWAy linlf tlie pojiuljiliuii ifj the ix^unty in 1348. Two* 
tliirds at leftBl of The Norl'olk p«riih«* vi#Uf va«al«d hy tti«tr 
recton in thi* fatal yeiu- ; Iwenty-onc rdieioua bouie* Icmt lb«tr 
Tulera ; and a record preserveil in thi> Guildhill fltal<>« ibal 
57,000 persons died In Norwich nlon«. VarmoutU and Lynn 
tulTered in proportinn, ant] throughout the eouniy prnt-hn*i»e« 
yicre buitt| and hu^o pits nravatpd to bury 1h« dMid. Af^ri- 
culture wjis at a filAndaliJI, U.it Undtords aiul tenants wrj« 
suiitlcn <iown alike ; the harvest rotted on the ground ; * sboifp 
fttid caldo Atrayeil thruugb xhr fields, and tbere wm pooe lull 
who eould driv'^ them/ An indirect consi*qiiencr^ ttf ihia awful 
Tuitation uras the scarcity of Ubour aod the ^ncrai porcrty 
itm] disfontent, ng^ravnri'd by Eh^ ifnpoaition of rh^ polUtai. 
it was ool lon^ belore * a tianie of rebellion spread lfaroufl;h ibc 
tcfutb iuvl eiut of Fiiglniid fmm Kent to Kelii Anglla^ ; atiiJi in 
Norfolk, Wat Tykr touod his counterpart In John Lit^M«r, a 
dyer of Noiwich. The story of litis abortive rising of iLc 
pemianta is told by Froissarl, hut at grt^nter length by Tbopia4 
lie VValsiogban], himself n Nifrfolk mnn, Litesler and bis mob 
ol peasnois, nrmecl wiih scjcZifi and bi!Uboj>ka, werr viEron}Ui]y 
attacked on North Walaham Heath bj Henry de Spenser, the 
warlike Hi^hop of Norwich, who had ridden nvrr with a few 
archers from Stamford, gathering troop* as be went aloD{C> 
The Dishop spurred on in front of bis men, uud was the firat 
to leap the banirode behind which tbe rebels bad enirvnchcd 
tbemselvcs, ^grinding hi* t^cth like a wild b<iar, and spnnnf 
neither blms^ir nor hi* enei]itf>s — stabbing one, wonading 
another, and knocking down a thinl.' I'bc rebels were scat* 
terod and vui down, and Liretin was buoff upon lh« xpoK 
from the nearest trre. *Tbe Bishop heard bla conf^Mlon, and 
by virtue of his od^ce abaotrett him, nnfl, l<i show «i)iiie pUy 
for tbo man's misJorlunes, went witb him to the gallows,*' 
Kelt's trb«llii»n — a far mom fofinidablr imt^if^uk — which tonit 
plao« nearly two centuries later, is told at great kngtb bi 

tJoliusI 








Holinsbcvl, bv BloTnertRli], itm! by Frnuflc; bat thia epboJo^ 
Moogt mor* ptop^^rlj to ib« biBtoi7 ot Norwkb, and n*«d« M9 
/artbcr nif^DtiOD bcfr. 

In >j>ii« of the *tron|r wav« of Proto«tnnlism wliit^h awept 

Nojfolk bt ili« Itfrfoniiaiiuti, ibc majciriEv trf tbr county 

Ktiil irmainrtl tnir xn th* lailh of thp'ir for^f!ithi*ri. In 

iiH?ni> thp JorninelLATnt, ib« lli*<lirigrii*l<lf. Ttit> Townthm<1f, rlin 
V«<lver1ofu, tbe Fetre*, the VV'odeUouac«, kxw\ tbc He Grcvs of 
Mf^rlon rrmai^eJ devoid Hotnan Caihnlica. Their iMni«tf 
figor* lare«»ly on tb« li»l of * rccuvanti ' ; ami tbcra u 1*0 
<l»ubt tbjo, rvrn Utr in iKp SiiiArf cimf*<, irant wat trrtvtly 
d^brtt^d JD many of thr oM Nuilulk mcLELiJani, which* indtfifdi 
utncT-cd m mti*l nrsp<-cu (<i tbir Jiracri|ni<in given by Ganlciie 
lo Jaiifto Peveril, 

' Horc m oa Miciant bjdl within four milc^, vribb an old knigUtlf 
nuuluuu fur iIa lunl. an ull^bcii^lHcd Diluid Biirlum for thi^ bit^y 
|»y, a Jr.flrU tti a bnlUi'w bnbil to ft*y grHoe, uri ulii tiib* of F.i.lg*hiU 
^ AVoraltr d^bt^ tu roU^li ■ <^M vciiitii<>u iiii^l/i ft lla«k of oktrot 
iBftutkij vrilh oobwebt, ft bvd fur yoti ui ibv |>ric*i*« biduag^bolc/ 

Sccrel (tairciLM') nnd chnmbt^rt, conr^oftlcd iik ibc rnof ^i^| 
inanity >, abnundrd in Ibe iili] innnnr-tiuuivs, :ttid Jesuit 
^Tnioftriit* w«w comtuntly patcidK iv Hiid fro boiwecn NoTr^lle 
A^ir) Doiiai. Jiihn Gi-Turd wnt IjATboLiml both nt C»i»cy and 
l^iirbfrJcy to lSe8. SoatLiwell, tbp ion of a Ni>rfolk «qaifP, 
*J*<i lb« mci«t tender and jjr»iUctii; (ii> Bc>mc think) «f bU llic 
^^mbclbnn potu, after being foriured Iblrlpeii titii", *fti 
^tto^ At T;bum ip 15d4 ; ftnd &D almost wddcr c^ftt^ waa 
dikt Af ThAiunt Turtiiall, nnother vountf mUiionary |iTi<-4i, who 
b*d ijUEen rcluire At Lynn, nbcn Lady fo SirunKo ^hyltcicd bim 
W • tini*-. Ifrr hiithHmt, bowni-r, hw\ bitn (^i^«-0 up to 
i^^itiec ; he irn» condemned nn the cvidi'nc^ of n iinftlr *rl(n<^*, 
*iij wv PKeL'ntr-d at NurwSth In IGlt.V Few c»n r<:ad wUbuut 
"octlon Kroudo't deacription of the d«»alh of Cani]iiaw> Tb^^ 
r*u4ge csijncludcs i*^ ^H 

' Di? OM ibou (luarlenid. A -Irop of WockI ipiHcd OB fctt^ 
^t<\H ot ft yniith nnmud Hfinry Wilpuli^. W wbina it OfttD* «« « 
^^*io» ountnftud. WnliJolu, couvcrto't f>n thcT ii^K>t, bixAUto ft Jesuit, 
■^«>»a after mol iho miuc fate uo tht^ aftin^ tput/ 

*^tt ibia bare l«t, thii meaKro itntemenl of fac*. Dr. JcMopn 
^M built up tthat i>i»y be- tt(:»rded »> the mn^f^'m ^u« itf l|f, 
lif', for* A# b« tclU nn, it rri>r*'*pni» fiff-cn ycftra of ivin- 
*»fttinu« litbouT, entictcd 'One Cicneralioo of ■ N.vrltdk 
■HtBia- but it u tio« roeiclj- * narraiire ot ihn UifV^tv wtA 

ft\iU«x\nt 



134 



Norfolk. 




inffr'rings »f tlir anirni yoiin^ finihuvinAt, wlto bad bcvti tbiu 
tprinklod l>v th^ blood ot itc rsiArivrod Campian ; bat ii » 
alau titi vibdiutivv a»d liiglilv ink'icEilIog acxxfunt of ike 
d^batrftj tb« uph^^ATfll »nd general diiiolution of «i>ciHr ibil 
folluwtfd tbe vuppTt-»»IifU [>f ihc monaittiioi mid tlie ipouAtintl 
of ihe Cbiircb. FroiifW alio cieeoribflB in hu own muinei 
tbe aaarcbv and profnnatton of relig^ion, eaped&llj' «t tb* 
UnivpriiliM, wlifrp * mlamli were rh'>j»ped tt* pi**c'^ witk 
hnl{?het3 ; coJleg<! Hbntri^* wfre plundrrcd tirui burnt; tbi 
divinir^ scbodlt were plnnK^l wirli mbbjiges, mid Oiri>nl l^iin 
dreiao« dried their IJiK^n in ibo Sdiools of Art.' Dr Jcstftopf 
fiU« in the druils nt ihr pirmir with ipt-nial nirrvttcc la hii 
0«rn coLinly, nnd lelU ua bow n twentieth part d tba best lasd 
in Noifiilk ^iiH girrn to c-rcrttuies uf ihrr Cuuit And ^icrdj 
iDfeignc-ri ; han the cburchci wrre ruined ftnd d«i?cral«il i 
UciiT ibe chutititi^s uf ihcr itadc {{uUdH, ^hrrc maHsTB bul brm 
ftung ami nlma <x>1Ucted fur t\w p4>or since th« dft^M of tbc 
Flail lAgcnct», were dokcd and nbAiidonc<] ; how the atuddtt* 
Wf-rr* flrkv^n fnim ib^ir cloSNTcri ; and men of birth and 
education protcHbcd juid turned adrUt. If we atc to belief^ 
Sir Henry SprlmAn, it w»b ii'>t long bpfnre ihs jmlgm«*t id 
l^lertirri] (dJ upon these dnpojlers oj Church propertr ; and be 
^vr« n liitt nf thr * Utp nwn«>r» * '>f H-btvj-lsinilR in Xordilk, 
who ■ aru extinct or decnjcd or thrown out by nii>lortun«* aud 
grievoa» AcniiLMli.' 

AllhoUKh !hey clung imitciouvTr to th(^i^ old religion, tbft 
UmnAEI Calbotic fmnilieK in N'uifiilk ■howrrd nci dUpuMtloo tQ 
lAitip^r ivith Spnin, und tl)«^ re»[ioiided ai n^ndil)' to ibe call mvU 
upou thcni in \'>^\5 for the n^tion^d dcfritci? At thrir Pintetuiut 
nt-iifLbcturt. The trnin'bundi were called out and pradiH^d 
inmnanil/ ; UJXH) uhlr-btnU^'d men were ready to inke up srmf 
at n imiinenrK notice ^ ftirt* jmtc- creeled at Ljchj Yarmouth, 
ftiul cviTV harbour along the coaat« fur there was a bdjcf fdunded 
on KXi idd tradition thai WVyhoiiine, wh^^ri^ rnHn'-of-wnr t^tild 
;,rid(9 at anchor do»e to ibrjre, might probablj be chosen as tbc 
itace of lamling ; aud guns were mounted and beacoita erected 
on every commandtn^r hi-ight. Hut before July wiu over, ihf 
duiiger bbd pabtted aivuj ; and all that Norfolk »aw of th( 
Aroiivda wai the »caU«re(;1 M'jnnant of Ihw great flpot fijlDg 
Duithwarda Lo the OThnevjt, with Dinke in hoi purtuiL 

Norfolk, like (h^ rvit of England, vtoutly refused to pij 
ahip money in lOJH, allbuugb it waj (jatuaubl/ iiuacd tt 
provide frtr the defence of the Eastern coast; and *wbcn lb« 
Ktorm broke, bardly & hand was held up for tbe king/ OoJ* 
l»o of the twelve Norfolk mcinberc of I'ailt«Bieiti wen 







Rli^qIisU^ knd it wmM a XaHolk mnn — S^ir Mik« Hnbnrl — wh9^l 
|iKk.r<l thu liuof in Oil- face cif tbe <:a|)taiiL (jf the GLio-nl wIiDtn 
ftfr ki»g hiid ti>n1 Co cair_y off tho Speitkn-'t msc«<. In Itii^ 
orfolk jranc<i ihc other asatJciatcd couiklics ; xrui Lyan vtut 
tbtfr tf^ly town th«t inod« a itaiid siffalnic the Rtrliamcnt- It 
wi^m gmtMorted by Sir I JAiiion L l:^>iiAn^r, buc wai soon 
mlucedio aiibmUtton by Ih^ Bail of Maucrljoitcr-— Cramvrcll 
birrt«c^|f (ilrccttu^ the firr of the aTtillrrv— iQ apiic of the 
Bo^alie boiut thm *MAnrhr«ii^r rnl^hi ju vnoa gui hiio 
U^vcTi u into Lynn.' VonnouEti was ifarrUoni^cl by Faiifai, 
«ho le«i#i] ci>niribii[iont or ihi^ Iiiwti, nikil ibTf* ivf>r4- rr»|Lii^rit 
Bi^Gtmi:* ^f the I'untnn Jcodcri in n hoiicc «u]l stanil ini; on tbc 
•ouih unnr, which llicn bp|uug<r<l lu Job" Caiter^ Ihr Utbcr nf 
Irc!-ton'ft s<hii'in-likw; buE the iindillon vhicb p4>ints out an 
olil pH^nrllrd mim nt the scene? of n Inns «nd pri>tract<'d (lit* 
cmittioo, whcrn thf* kinj;'* <li>slh wai leitkHl, hoA no tounilntion 
io fttct. Milc« CurlicI, who«r oAriLc App<-a(« liLtt on \hv lUl uf 
rv^lodcs, wa4 % Norfolk tnon ot' coniiJerabtt* rciiilutioa nnd 
''bilitr- He li«! cacapf^ to Holliiii<L after th« HeMoralion* 
hut woM Trracherooilv nrrrstetl at Di*lft, with two oth*^ fn^nchf 
^^m broD^ht to Londan, &nd coDdcmneil to n irAiior'* dcntb 
't» 16^2. Th* cooiny icpnif tn hfiv<» HuJigi^il lule* with Cflin- 
'^^iicJable |iroii^piitLi<lc- at the Henii^nitioii ; ior wv fintl thM 
^hUe in llS.^ti a fuliome aildrrti, which nirimelitfld cnlti a piL-c« 
^'' MDCtiArd cant, wu« acnt ti> Ktcliurd CruuiwcU bv th« Uor- 
P^i^EJon of Nornricb> only twii jcnn Inter th« town council cx- 
l**^odcd 1,000/. in ontertnininK CliarlM IL, and i: wm decid^l 
tl^j *thtf addre« uiadu Lu ttiu \nltr prL-iriidrd Protector h^H 
^ttfHy diiclftimcd, obliic-ratMS, and made roid.* ^| 

There is lildr wuith recoidiii;; Ja ihc later bifttory of the 
DIJ, except ttw* itubbom eharAecfr of it* com««(ed eirclioiii 
the ujibtuihinx briber/ that prc^v&iled throa^hi>ut the 
^iXbTemth ottiniry. ThP conniy f/kmilif*fl, ihr C>)kcs and ibc 
*Vod«houflf^9« tbc Aitlnyi and I)e Cireyi, speiiC fabuk^UM tami 
Upcin thf? rotrrt: and th«* eleelion af 1734 nionc ii iUlrd 
<thou;;b omomuwhat doubtfal Auiborilj) tohare coit Sir Robert 
>%\|pn1n i^O,IK>0;. Cuih< Riling 'ibciri^d witb Old 8/iiun^ ibu 
rt iu-cputAbJc notoriety ol bi<in^' tfie r-jin-nwit ot rjtten bfirimpb*/ 
»»»fpl »*»aj by the Ri^fornr Hill. Tbc ftft^y orieii^'^l burgiiBP^ 
'"*d been 'jiidiciou»!v rt'duccd to two/ wbo eadi h'turriM ^ 
^^piwcnutiv* Ui Pailument; and on one oceanic n a wnitrr wa* 
"O'' of the rspTuwnuiives ibu» *il*ctrd. f SmU Vannonth wiu 
* ^ojiclrwl/ corrupt boroueb, and wa» tnoat dewri-edly di*rr»u. 
^Uvd al n UtCTdnff-. 

The cx«n(n«cift3 iaLporCaace of Xorfolk ii t\of» id",nnT\ tt 










NarfiiU. 



of the put ; arul Norwicl <rin no l<>rgf'r l»c HtyltTtl, as in tlie 
«€Vcni(M^nih century, ' tb«i chief centra of the vhid ntanufacture 
in ihe Lihgiloni.' KiwrpUug itB ui&^uiGufiil cliurcli — buill by 
thc grcftt mercUftnCft — ih«r(} » nothing in thi* pri^oitl mpc^ of 
Wnnlou) (as \ou pu> it l>ciw(?cn \i:irwich ahO Cioiaer) lo tliow 
tfint it WAS once the heHcj-quarcen r>f th4» vf<H>lli^n irs.<t4', and in 
fdct ijAvc its nAfiie lo ibf mi«cri*l iuc^lf. Kvrn bo Ut btck^ 
m tlie ff^ign of H^nrv 1,, Flt*mtcU wcQveri nre taEd to htvp M^ 
up lUcir looms at VVofitoail^ and to hat*e lopplicil biut An^lil^ 
with rlothinr knnwn umlf^r mnny nnrnt^iT 'uch its i&Tr ■"^-^ 
CAmkt^ and fustian— tlie last named bcinf? itn cspeci&lLj >tn>Q^^ 
nnii (lurnblt? fHbrir. All (luouis'h PUnPig'nirt tin^<-4 th«rr wm^ 
n conilnni intorcounc bctrtcon .Norfolk and Flonder* ; FicmiaL^ 
inenvtiiiiit^s, BriilfiiiiiL-iB aud \\'±\\*jou:t. «v<rrt* eniploveJ by KIii^p 
John ru wrll a» through the Barons^ Wnrv ; and a ii«t«^- 
Lcnainff tide of immigriinu pDurrd in to the harbours vf Lravi 
and \arinouih ai w^ll ns to the now dliui^d xnd nlmi^t f4>«-^ 
gotten M'A-ports of Cli^y an<l DUkenc^- Cilward l[l.*i nt&^T- 
itn^e 4'ilh Philippn of Hninniitt naturaJLy inrrieaied the friendly 
fecdng bctnecu t^Ofland and Flanders; aaJ it wa* ihcm 
thM tho rloth trnde fully deve]o|>pit itficlf aid Norwii^h 
became a staple for wooJIen goods. The fine worsted eaf>«- 
rinllT, 'olmcMt likr tilk/ had a grcnt and Hrfwrved rrputnlion ; 
muL in 146^ wo have a fetter front Sir John Paston, dennmg 
his ulecr* to inid hint seven or eight shillings' worth of tliiA 
rontcrial^ ' for 1 would uxnkc my doblet nil wonted, for tb**' 
worship of NorfTolk/ The trailo in troollcn goods rcocivrci 
a still lurth«r d^i'0i]o|imei[it in Etixaheth's nipi when Lar^^ 
Dumbcrs of Fit^mish v»fi»vcr» wcfo drit^tn from ibcir home* &J 
the persccutioni of Alva and settUd in \orwtcb. Tboj- becairw 
C2Ce]|n;t and industrious citijrcris, Intermairied wtth the fttmill^^* 
of wonlthy burgnitri;, nnd soon outlived ihi* natorni jeittousy wi^»^ 
which Norfolk weavers at first regarded these fugitire alir»^*- 
Ijitff in ih<- la^i rfiniury, Anhur I'nung ilescrili^fl th? tnr^^* 
export trade in crapes aud camlets na well as damasks ar^^^ 
■■tins with thi> Wedt Irdirs, Flanders, and the l^llic; akT^ 
tbonly hcfore this period we find ^jir Robert Walpoie^ with * 
U-nder fctitinK towards his fuvourite county, ordcrring lb' !■■ ** 
of' Norwich i^rapes' — &llk and worsted ^on occasions of ptjb ^i^ 
mourning. Fvrn nnw ihia pnrticuUr fabric has a c^^itsin fc| -^^' 
tation in the market^ though its manufacture hu long jic^^-^** 
pas>ed away to the north of England. 

The grcnier numbpr of the Nurfolk monailarira w«r» fovin' 



in the two C4.'nturics which followed the Conquest bv ibc 
tioblPM nf thp mutkty — thp Higods^ Warrant, Albmis, P* 



Porto-^o; 



NorfolL 127 

'■td GJanvillcB. Bi>1if>p M<-rb«-Tl dc Lr»In£« rt>iindcd the ilirore 
ltT*»l priori« of Lvnn, Vnrmoutb, and Norwich. Twcmy* 
^■**ii out of cight_v-t«o founiijitiiHis IjL'-loii^'d to ihc' BcncdlctiDfl 
^rt]« ; but, mntifUnng thrir numbor und imprirtanrn, ihrir 
'^^viiuna, as wc sc« ihrm nt>xv, arc ioMf^ificant and disap* 
pointia^. nromlitdmr, Tticifnnl, Hud Cfit:]e A<-re cannoi he 
^^^Mtip^Ttd with Tintc-m, FocntninK, or Molroio. Of St. Bonct's 

^t ll^Jnte, said Ut bavr b«.-n ftrundptl hy CnnLtU?, unL^ tlw 

lounclitioDt ftnd a pititway r^mnin. Of ibfi grnat priori «t 

^C«t4 DcTcbain, probably built br the Sjtxon kin^ Ilaao, 

nothing U l^-fi ex<:«p( ili^ »i>-r^Hil4»(l w&\\ of Siiint Wicb> 

^urgtia, once frnrona far its mtrtumloD* virEuc*. iX'ot « Uncc 

renuuoa of Horning Abbt'j-, whidi, nrrordin^ to Rlomeficld, 

^woc<l lordsbipv in luoro iNah titiy towns and villa|;^B. Of 

VValcinghAin-^oncr thr larji^cfti aiul ftCjiicliesE of ihem all — -tlicre 

is little left but ibe ]^le»av, tli« fraj^monis <jF the cliEincel arcb, 

And ptut of tlir w»lU of clic rv(t^cuny^ FLr lisJUjr wh^ (fujcm 

<*n thffw mouldering and jvv-grown ruini in the indent Clou 

fiod^ it difficult to rcaliKr tbal licrr fonncrlj stood tbe f^imou* 

shrfifi^ of Odt l-utV} In which pilgrima ihri>ng«<d Along *i\ie 

Patmer'i \Wy ' in vlmoit fuentcr nuipbcr« tbkn tt> Uant^rburj 

iueir. WaUinglmui Pri()r)r wftB cnricbtnl by a iuL-(.<evsLi>n of 

|>riiicely ben^lactor*, and was endowed by on<^. king aflet 

itoolbri witb inai)»r« and taiida. Tbe atatur of itic Virgin 

blajc«d with »fFmn|^R mortr prdciout |»o A«chani thouj^bt) than 

tbuMT lit \Ur fftmouM nani'liiary o( cbc Thrc^c Kiti^a at Cnlu^ne, 

ftiid diuaJed ib(? ey^i i>f (^vi>n thf vr^pricnl Eratmui — ^ It so 

(Littered with j^rwclj, g:oId, and lilrer thnl it »ccincd to be the 

«t«l ci the gTHli*' No tesft than eight of our ktngt came here at 

Tttriom limcB to pray for aid aad doiiverance. Henry lU. 

■odgbt ibe Virgin'a jntcrcrMinn during ihe Haron>' VVara; 

HeOfJ VIL seal bis burner and a Biiver imo-f-e iif bijnsdf to 

■dora tbe felMiue ; Queru Cstbetiue ufTirtt^i up tbaiiki before 

lb* altar after the viclory of FloiMei) ; and (ac<xkrding to Sir 

llcarj Spclioaii) Henry VUI. bimaclf walked bcrc barefooted 

from Eaat Baraham and hung a chain of jjold round lb» 

Virgia't ncr,k. Hut all these benelactiona and acta of piety 

roubi not sive Waltingbain from the fart- of the other nuinn* 

tferic* at the Ueformatinn, The prirtry wn* dJaa^dved, and the 

fintoot ima^c, wbicb bad wtuu^bl so iniiny iniraculoua cum, 

ttas publicly burnt at Srniibtield by order of Cromwell. 

It is a LtatUFHl trAnaition to turn fr^rji tbe monaatericr^ tu ibe 
diorcb**, of which Xorfolk potteises no leu than 73£i, baring, 
in fftctt 113 more than Vorkahirc, altbougbi tbo area of the latter 
DoilotT la cbrrr limei as grieaL. It ii ubviouslj' tmpoBiible to do 

more 



J 



1£S 



N^rfoVi, 



more than glancr at k few of ihcir cLtiructcristic fratum ; bnl ^ 
may be noticed Ihnt w1l]lr^ th^re ftrc^ *i>v<Trftl Fin« «xft«ipUt <q 
Noricnn and Earlv Kr;;;lish work (notablj m Nonvicb Catb^ 
dnki, Vftrmooth, nrd VV'yrnondbnni), ihn lar^r«t number u w^l 
» the itatclicil ^l)fu-r?5 bcloitg to the Perpend icuiar pcf ukI* &T^ 
y/fvtf btttll \>y vrifultby friprctuinii s\\\\\ Trnrlt* Ouildt. In mar^ 
of then) npfKUkra ihnt curiooi ombioution of Hint nod ttota 
ktinwn lu * tluib work/ wrutighl and <:]usp|lFd into LrauijCut Hri 
YAried d^Btj^nt. Tli« round Ukwnri, of wbicli tb«rc are ilfd ii 
tbU county, Ate nl»i peculiar in East Anglia ; thrm ar* fort} 
in SutTolk, but only filEevn in all the reil ot Eii;;^Iand. \ 

NovrliL-rfT, ngHin, U ihcrr »urh a prvifuaiua of fiuo wuudworA 
fti in ibe Nkirl'olk churoUtM. Even in remote villiifin, sach is 
CawiUin and ^ailr, wc find opru ruofs suppiircrd bj angcUi 
with ouiaprt^Dit win^ft nnd r]ahornlp|y>cari'4vi boMW AkI 
4talli. tiamclimiM, as ckt StralThnmt the un^^li cany tktf 

Smbol* of th» Paaiicin ; iir nomptlmfa, at at FincfaAm ara 
talwdl, they alternate witb fiendi or monkk witb tbc bcM od 
drtnoni ^rinnii}^ horribly, tis if in dt^ri^ton of iLv ttacrwl edifitr. 
The Ritnibnr ot wood acrccna ia anothop Dotiofnblc fealutr. 
Thi<JV tiavfr usually tbcir l(»wer paiirU painted wlcli xhf li^ri^t 
of lainla or mnrtyrB, or thv four doctors ol the Latin Cburcb. 
The fii^ureB arr boldly di^Lwn nml pAtnird iu |;rvto and red vi 
Vftiioua abulcs on ft dull brown ^ound. The most curiooa 
and tlaburate of all la ibo acreen of Ranwiiitb, diirjdc4 
into nuirL«roi)ft pnnf^li with tbo figurtrs of Apoailei and Saiatia 
each wLlh \\\% Qjipropriate emblem^ a,j\A 4?vidmlly the work ol 
Gormnti ariisiw, pr.-ibahly of ihn school of Alhrrt Diir^r. St- 
Kdmund, with hij arrows, in naiumlly a frcquctii nnd ftunilial 
fieurn > And (in inorr \\m\\\ ont* wTi^f^n appears thr liken^^ift cd 
Sir John .Scborni who tin'i a ihrintr fit North Mantoa, neol 
WiniUor, thoii|>h it mjiy Ih- dimbLrd \i ht? wili v\tx n^noniard b^ 
a Pope. He ia ropnMPnt4*d jl» holding u bout under bit amfl 
inlu which (or Uotu which) he Ii »i|urcv.ing a i)Tol^d-^<d Im[^ 
auppoaed X\-i bu (he demon of f^out or af*ae. 

On the walla ol" ninny t-hurchrs Eu^y be aeen the tmoES «d 
mural paintings — hx\i obliteratpd by titnc or dcfacf^d aod aiaca 
laied by ilUcanfe, Many of them have brcn deicribcd ari 
iltattiated in ihf Vorfolk ' Arrhirjilo^in/ aa wpII nain Mr« Da 
Tarncr'a auprrb copy of Blomclieid*i 'Norfolk'; and er«Q 
ihfir preaent forlorn condition they are often aingnlarly inle 
in^ both in tbrtr lubj^ct* and dcaign* Ac Wcat ^merton, £ 
inatancr, the friiole of thr %\JMCe hrlwi^m two of the 40caK 
windows (abont tw^Evt* fei^t) Iw filled by 9a\ elaborate palntinc 
the Hmy of Judgment, wiib Our Lord seated in clii.- fitviveai, m^% 

on 



■"g^ 



^b blowing trvcnpeu bfforr Him. And the dead riling front 
thi^^ir ^ravp«- At C^^iliMd, ngnln, th^i^ Ii rhv u-liei^l i^( ft^rtune, 
ihx^s ttvc al tUc vrYcn deadly ■ini «nd ciir<]inrL| virtdcti tbic acvcn 
■fci^iimwaU, Jtad llir marljidotiis df 8l L.iiirPtico, St, CatlipriiU!, 
ftK»«l St. Joho. At MUinjjf tU<^rc art kmr curtoUB taNdaujr^ repro- 
t^Mitiaa Hervxliiu ilftDcing before Herutl, and the triAl ctnd 
b«»luidiDg r>r Jobo the Baplisl. The nuiAcrou* figure* &rQ all 
iv% tW drcM of the foar^enlh ccnturj. 

Xvra tbe mo»t onobwrvani l*>iimt lo tbi« rnutilj' e&nnot fail 

Ic^ bo Miuclc bj tiic number of wbully or hair-mineil churt:lie» 

v^fturb bA pAv«e«— *of(rii three or four in n ^IngT'^ 4^av'a jniirnt^y, 

S^Tfwi c*u»ej ci^ntribuicd to this apparerni ne^lccl ftnd dcic- 

c>-««iii>n. TbertT li wt dtmUl tbcil, .ifttr ilie (errible viiiUtion 4»f 

tft&« Bljick DcAtb And th« <!onAn(]uon( dccronso c>r populftltont 

maxij cbunrbc* (twemj in Nurnkh abmc) weri? allont^ ti> fnll 

irttn ruin* And duHppenr. Agnjn, ftft^r ihe RelWuintion, the 

svkiJill Ioca] tbrinci *ind chnpcis, uiuiilljr aup|N^strd bj tbe Trede 

C^utltli, ]{>tt thrir pilffnmi Mnd wirli chf>in llirir rc!trenue«. A 

r^attlifr and very prubftblr rewon, ptvrn bj Dr. Jrsftopp, li that 

Ukany Romctn (.ntholir Inndftwneri purnoiel^ nlljiwnl thpir 

E>^>b cburchee to ^i Vt rum, that tbe^' iniiibt not be compelled 

t«» nttend a Prot«ktAnt srrvii^ in ibi*in. Vot unfr^qtiontly, boir- 

*Vfr,tbi^»c mini were tbe effect of wan ion deitruetion, Al Altle- 

'>oiui4jb, fur invtAQCc, in tLe liinr of Uvm/ VIII,, the cboit was 

pttllvd di^vni bintilv 1>y chc Karl oi Susnax, ^ho nArri^d ofT (h^ 

■■•■leriaU, in^ctbcT vritb tl^e marble gravc»tnnei of bii aficealnn, 

tn order to pave the hntl itnd kiirhen nf hit new bctuw. Tbe 

0>^fid cbancel of Cromer cborch wai blown up wiih ^unpovrdcr, 

'^-onl by Cromwell, &■ the )oml Tntiiiiinn wouTd hnve it, but hy 

5*** Rector of tbe jwnab in llW.\ii> Avoid tb<.*ejipento<if keeping 

^^ la repmir ; white the c^|anlly grand Lady CbA[iel of Norvitcb 

^tbedral bud iu leaden ntof eiripped off and irai dlimanlled in 

1^* rei^ of CEtxabctli, Tbt- ivotk of destruction, bt-^un al the 

'**foirraAiioa, wai Ttoewed during; the Civil Wnri ; nnd the 

■**ae 'fufioui locTilcjre' perpetrated aX Norwich CatUedrnJ, U)d 

7^«cHbe<d by BUti'ip Hall in bit ' Hard Mnaaiirf*,' vtai rvpmtiH) 

^ ^moit every church in the conaty- A special commiatioti 

*^<Mef the F^rl of NTnnHii-iriT wjia Appiiioted, nnd the nutcH 

'^^i Wiitiam Di>waing riiiicd eburrb aflf-r ebUTx:h with scru- 

HUtoui fualij^ity, dt-itroyin^ all that yvixi moil prr?cioijs and 

^^v^oUIdI in their d»C0T«tion, and tporirig wi oven tbv ho1> 

*^t«r fooia or tbe crawes on the iteeple*, So tborou^hly did 

'J>la icoQorlast and \ut follower* do ibelr woik that fifty 

^c^mand brnMM arc mud to have been broken up and aold to 

^Oken or copwrunitba, and only a tew uninuiflnted fMgmenta 



J 



IBO 



Ncr/oih. 




now reatAm of the couotlcat wmdowi ahc^r filled with puDt«*i 

The raoit lAicrcAtin^ * iinii<)iiUic«* of Niirfolk — ibc rctnaim 
of the 'Cftitlti and ConvcniJt' — btn'r brpn tbomugMf i-ramzniNi 

Lvnrit IS omi of \hc i.hrro ^ii-n^ r^?L»i]es buili ntxtiil i|i« ttinv 
dftlc and an the wmc plan, ami ii encircled by prrttr^liDit 
f-artbworha, bimilar tv tbuse roiiud ibc ^iral Kv^trji fit Niimicb' 
Then cotncH a iao%l, and in ihtf ccnlro Han u maatim NtrroiDn 
kcrp wjtii VfalU tlitcc yarUa ja lluckno*. It U latrrrfliaf 
hJvtnncally ■« hnving b**n ih* rbief rptidenci* for iw**ntv-wwn 
}cnra of Queen liahclln. the ' Shr U'oU of Fr*ncr/ after ihff 
(li'ath of hi>r paramour^ Mortimer. EtuT it ii cvriain thia ^lum 
WM not kept X cloic prisoner (ti* is genrially sujipokird), for w<» 
tipar al her viKiriii^ ^indir>r^ Berkhnitiptir<a<l, Pr>ntefTnct,uxl 
oX\n-T plucofl ; unJ abe tinallv died at Hertford Cattle, &nd v*a 
burird in ihc ohRpel f>f thr (<rny Friani in NeHgatP, wberC 
Che remain* of Mortimer had been oarried twentj-eif;lit jMr# 
previoaaly. Tlir Arrk^nvhoii of Cuiilerbury olfirlHtni, Aod itrfr 
king hinucU WhU prcaciu nt the ftinoml of ' bii denrvat motlwr. 
&a he cUuac to term her. Caille Riainjc was lormerly a plard 
vl tuongCh and importance, but at rhf? preaent day it il 
A pir.turrwiue ruin, and noiluiif; iiicuc i no Inice ia left *» 
ibe numeruui buililingfi— the h»Ua, ibe galleries the ebipi^l 
&ad the gu<rata' loUgioga — which once filled tlir courtyaKl 
There i« only the empty shell of iho great keep ittelf, whici 
ineicly contained the guard'room or armoury on the upper flo<x 
and the kilchnn and dungeona hi^npnth. , 

Nf>r]olk baa icw caatcllated manaions of rhc aiktecdth Cenlvr? 
remaining, but Oiburgb is a perfect eEnmple iif ihf peiiod 
It datca lr«m the roign of Kdward IV~,, and atill twiong* tf 
ibe BeditJi^Gelds, n% it did when Qiiei?[i RlUahptb waa the I 
anc0«U>r'a priaoner. tt ii itirrounded by a moat 50 fr4 
broadf and traver«ei! by a diHwbrId|c;e wliicEi lotuU lo a grad 
entranc'e tt>ivpr ^Ll feet hi|«h, with oeta^nai turreta and g>t:^ 
wHja on botit hidca. Only lliree >idea ui the court, round >>hi4 
the home wni built, are standing, for the line o}d GoIIh 
ban<^uetjng'bil| whicb filled the aoulh aide was palled doira . 
\ I'ib. The interior of this fine n\i\ building ii aa >ntf*rpating 
the OQtaide, for there ia a pneil*A hiding-hole concealed in t-J 
lliickneta of the walli, a king's room nliove the ;{nleway hu I 
vfiili aneieni l^peatry, and a mArvdloua nuitt of grccrt Vl^M 
AEid lialii, told to hni'e iMwn wprkrti by Mary Quern of Sc^ 
and *Beaa of Hardfvick.' But lew bouaea bate been ao ^4 
wntiU! as Oxburglk, and it is to be regrrtied th»t ihe na^ 

anoi' ~ 




oof nificent old libnvi^ ' fltricTilji^d bv Dibdin, irbu ro^lol 
among Ihr sUtoly folif« rollticrird hy Matmirr, 

Abojt tbo some <lat« lu HUckliaj; m&f be m«iDlioocd 
RnjrihAni HaII^ fi«&r Fa]it*n1i«t», the Aoctviit liouMt ot lb* 
Townshendfl, It is one of the fiiwrbt etUml «XAiapl<4 oS 
Ini^o Juiirs' lutvr Mj'k, Aiiiuiig thE< VBrliTU* ^M Ut^oaur^ oL 
Xhe unnoKion ia the fftinous ■ BeljsjLriui ' of ^viilvAtor Hik«»— 
^jobably his ^entrst work; while the long (Irftwiog-Toom u 
hua^ vfixh ixj\\-]cr\gth ponmitB ot s-jldier^, moti of them bdofif- 
iD^ to well-known Noriolk f&uiilic« — AalLcj\ V'cre, Corlicl, 
Gntet — whfi l"i>ltnw«l ih<* rortun» of L(irc! Wn? to the Xetb*r* 
Undv in thv rct^n t>f Hliiftbothi 

Hntighion it tmv n( thir ahnw plncrft at Ni>rfol1i, bi3l man 
itoxn ita ii3EiocJation» with the paat ihan Srtun any merit in the 
huuir ic»i-]t, wlitdi 18 a ghkomy vCiH^r^ Imtldin^, with jiitLlizn^ 
nttrnctivc in it* v&st roomi and gnllcrirs except iho cx<|uiait« 
carvings by Giiuliu^ GJhbuuH. But tC wzls bttm thiit Sir 
Robert Wntpole pjui«d evory hfiur ihai h«* could aparc ficoi 
(ifBce, keeping open house far ntoatba toother And enCrrt«inti>^ 
reUy« of viiitora M hi» r&iuous huntlni^ (xJiij^rvct^t. Hit 
Wisteious mauners, bis scrcni^ guod teiDjirr, niiJ, it ma»t be 
Added, his cMiarse wii and unboEinded drinking cnp&rities, 
endeared him lo tlie Sfjuire WrBfoma of the neigbbciurho^jd ; 
and ihe lueroory of their rnnvivijtl in4^ungH w atlll pn-terwd 
br the huge punch i:lftsses in the china cIomI nnd by m «lrjvii^ 
Utile nnfui Al the W'k i>f thr M-rvaiits' hrdl ralW 'the SotTa 
Hole/ wheie the drunken footmen were left till thcv were vobcr 
rnough to attend Li|win llieir inuLeri, Sir Hohr-rt w»i npi"ni-" 
h&ppier ibaii wh«n tbue acting th» cliaratoi^r ibul becai&t 
him Iteat — the jovijd cfjunlij sjuin^— 'chmiking his tmaiitt 
accounts in the agent'* roi>m ou the ground -dour, where ntay 
Ettilt seen a map vi ihc csUle diAwn b}' hi» uwu Uamls, fic 
looking a^er hifi beech groves And comparing tboir |p-i>wtt> 
with the uicieot trcHW in * Sir Jrfin^'n Walic.' or driTinK «botit 
the ci3umr> in a ponderous gig^ ttiU proBttrtntd in a Tumberv 
room above the atabtca. 

It wju thr prHj'i>r of Sir Rohprt, ftB rprordi*d on lh« fixmdt- 
ticin atonv oi hJs house, thni * alter its master had long enjo^ 
it ic> |ierbM:tioD And t^i a mature oEd Ag<-, Uii diildrrn'4 ctiU* 
dren and thov« wli^j came After them might tatdy posecaa ii to 
ihe eod of limr.' Suicly never wni a foanfI*r*« hopp moit 
Btmngely falsiiz«d b}' vveoU, or tbd vanitj of human wiilies 
more signallj illuMial.rd Uiau in the >uLaei|uriil hUuirf at 
Houghloi), His eldcRi ttiti Robert died niE v^ars After liii 
>alhi*r; bi« gtundsou Geurge — the ihiid LarJ — uhow; ' vhoir 

pietmtrv' 



yor/M. 



188 



pl«aiirc^ (ta wrote bis ondc Honc«) * wiu outr\irrou« cxcrcUcw' 
mnf*\ blmseiron Thf* turf, nnd «o1(t ih« nlmfHt prtc^leu rollcc-- 
IWQ of pLclurei, which •hoajil have been ttcirloon)« of tbc 

fuuilj. tu jiav hii gnmblin^ ttrlili. They wcrrp purvbunl by 
Ifat tnprcia Oilharinf* in i7iU, raid tho visitor who wi&hcB to 
•R ihem inuvt travM, not ro N»Hblk, hue to St P^rirmburg. 
Of Ebtir raJuf* nt the |>rcEC(il tiuiv it it impatvibl^ c^trn t*^ 
Duarl « cuiijrcturvi ; but it inHv bu ilouhlciJ 1/ tni Itiuui tbe 
ttiitotj ihva pnid Tot tbvtn (40,'MJO/.) ci>uid now rcpuTchihto tbo 
^wdjcktt, tiiv Carlo M&mtti*, tUr ParmirKt'itius, Uir work* b> 
Rubens iml Snlrnlfir Hoafl, and, Abovw aU, Goi<!o'« ' r>r>cl^r* of 
ibt CbbTch '-^pTicrd crcn Ihrn nt 3,500/. — whii:b nctf viUl by 
tkiili««nl«u fp^ndthrift and loaT Ittr wvr to lh« nation. 

Homoc VPalpclc him*df dcl^»ird HouglitoiJ, Ami r»rc!_v wcnl 
octribp p1n<r4.' em-pi to vjiU hit n»n«itupnti « Lj^nn. Even 
In hit tAtu^'s tim«, tho aocicty of tbo country 9C|uiret — -^ mcnifi- 
t«iiu nf Toxtl l^rf ronghly hi^wn into ihn onr.TinAi nf thf- hnmiin 
'wa' — were odIj Ictt distiut^ful to him th^n the inquiBitivc 
cmuaily of bia * uiidt-nt Aunt llnnuuii).' Aflt^r Sir ltijb#^rt't 
4i*«ih bii vi»iu na^turiUlr hconnne moro infrcqu4>ni thnn ovcrr to 
* plut full of lach hitter [nrnLorica nf thr pait find prr^tent. 
TioaHlo b;id cri>wde<I upcm tioubli< in thi>*v Ealcr yi>un, for 
Gtoric U'^lpolea CArccr of trchlrui ritravu^ttiio; hiul ciided in 
UHinlly, ami the ruin uid cxtinctioa bf the lamily Mcmcd 
mminont. It waa from Houj^hton that Horace Wuljwltf dated 
tLi merit pathnlic of all hi« ifitora in 17^1 ; nnd twf^lvd yaart 
Ubet b« auntj up the alntc of nffiiin in tcrnii «« omijioua oa tbe 
ouoptof birda in iMI« Flitp** avUrj, *Ei<*pt ihi* pictorot 
Uid the wooda,' bi.* wrote,' the reaC ia ri;i]n,de4'ilitt>>ni contuaion, 
iunnl«T, debUf mcjngrijfrs, &ti]f»B, pillngp, viElitur, wi^are, folly, 
•Ad naijncu.' In ]7*J7, the Innnh Earl of UrtWl, tiio chtl<llM« 
nxjtf, wu ccurrird in hia liut madng-plnm m Hnitghlnn^ «nd 
itiekiiuJy Tiiah wu eloacd for over. 

Bat wc h«vr liu^rrinj Uw \in\^ (iver Hou|i;htifn. I^t ua paaa 
)oi more ilaiciv building ^nd a more; fortunate family — tbe 
Ojktt tti HotkhacD^ la their caac, *t aJl eveut», the a^yiikK of 
^1 illuitrioufi aneestori tbo Cbt^f Jiikticf^, lift* hnM g'VHl that 
'tbr Ufuipig of ilcAven apcclAlly deacenda on the ritnily of a 
pes: ixwj^r,* for eher« ii no preieni Imit of iheit title hceomiog 
fUiiLCt or of their Unda paaaing to cv atranf^er. Ilolkhain owra 
itafam^aDd altnoit Jta nxiatenon to that prineeof farm era. Coke 
'■f Notfolk, the firat Kai\ of Leicf^ater; for hla irntrgy and 
^ennpnuirr ttanafoTfr*(i the bi^rrpn waati^i round Hnlhlmm^ 
' '.b* rabbit nnd rve country ' — inlti rich poalure lands and hclda 
heailQ^ abuiatant i:foj.w. Almint e«rr^ uiij^ttivemevtl \uuMi^«ivi 




134 




N<frfcih, 



fi^ricultLir? ■^nKinntc^d jn hii Norfolk funns : top fti««tin|r, dd 
suwiiig, lliiirttugb drniniigp* fr™ u«« "i" mafhiiiMj, «di1 aborea 
itie fourcoane ty»t4^in, which U rlgtitlv caII»H UEio buii a 
Niirfolk rnrmiiij^/ Piobably the mftin cuusc of hi« lucceti w« 
lti<< practical knowledge and ilitr energy which he fho««ci \i 
Kverf dctvitl of fiirpR-work- ' i htivc seen bim (Colt*),' wrno 
Arthur Youn^, • and the Ute Duke of Bedfjjrd put od i 
tthcpbcrU'a smock, work jlH rla^^', and not qi^h ihc biitioeM lili 
ihirknp» forrnd them 1^ jlinner.' He was n Liborttl ft« wall ui 
judioioi» Undloril, tpcnding no Ie» thnn IOl),{HW. on coiagi 
)«nil rnnn lioildlng^, iind he lind hU rpKaT<I in ibr inrrruBC 
rcntrtl from hU eatalcA And the e^Hid will and nElcclion of hii 
lenEUitry. Ainimg tJiUi?r uw/ui worhs. Cuke iilanLed iw Im 
thftn A ttioustirid acri^s iif woodltuid, rind KfrlQAlly livoc] to K« ■ 
ship Ijiunchtd At L^rm inadi? iff tiiitbcT farm ojtk*tr4H!t of irkicl 
hv hftd himMrlt sown ttie acom*. HU fatn« ai n mcoMifii 
tuTUKirr rxirn^t'd (as bir^oud ibr lljiiitv vf bit own coual? 
And M th« tttiDQal ihcpp-thr-unog — hold *t Holklum k 
furtj-fuur tucocisLve jcars — soinetime^s lite hundrcHl gucnU M 
down tn dinner, including^ prince« of ih« blood, lUtMinQ 
forcifncni of dUtinctlon, lind aII the brcMid'ncwd x^uirei of Ek 
Anttiia. 

The hou>c at Holkbam wai bcult by Coke ofter ui ItaEift 
design ; and thouj^h fnilidiouft rniici mtLV rompUin thai lb! 
doaign IB * an jnjfi^nioij* pus^U ' and setit^ only to fthow ' lb 
pfTverse Utgf^nmiy i>f \hv archlKrl," il i» impuMible noi I 
admire the aUldy fronia^c, nnd thn «trcnjfth (ind inlidilj of (b 
building iucif, whkb tcxU upon arcbcd And vanltni rouau&n 
bat as mnny bneki billow na above ground, Tlicoo rooEnt m 
full of lUlttei and funidua plcturoM ; but probably two of tl 
moiC ini^reittni; objcctn to a riiitor are th« liat-r^li^f of to 
trood<x^ck» killr^l by Cbantrcy at one shot and utirrwArds c^rr^ 
by him in inarbJe, which have? been the lubjrct o{ more ppi^van 
tbun m^H can numbri ; and Gai<]iborou|-h*H porirnkl of Col 
him«Hr, dtmrfl in thr long liffoi*, hmnd-brimmrd h*t, ai 
abootini;'ja<:kct ai the period in which he preiscm^^d • pctiti^ 
frnrn hi« (^nnmy, praying George III. itt nvm^iM ti 
independence ol the Anit^rirnn coloQica, Grand, faoirffTcr, 
Holkham ufidoubtfdly \%, ihftv jk a icnM* of loneliness ^■ 
iBointicjn in the vfl«t pnrk. oip(s:-irdly an thi^ tido of tba m 
minhei cliiit alrrlch Ujw^4rd« WrIU ; and Ciikc hiuuclf^ 13 
otUv fjteat landowners, was scnaiblo of th<^ «oUtu<!e of " 
prospect. ' It i» a uirliiNtholy tiling to blatid blone la atn 
own connty. My nctxreit neighbour is iho King of Penmi 
/ ojzj Giant of Giant Cuitlct and h^^re e^ileu up all 




NorfoUu 



135 






nnattboan.' Jt ti»y be «dil«d ihut, likt; % true aoa of Norfolkt 

aoi^eoTir ma «2€«]l«»nt «hi>t, kilHnfi; on i>oe o<x»*ii>n vi^htv-tvo 

birds out of ri^S>E>*foui for a wA^cr* fu rrrcunW ia iIir g'liiic* 

book tt Hulkban). M^ ^bU'rCAiniKt large ahooting pcirl)«'i for 

Lhfi^ montlu la ibr jrnr, nnd krm (>iTfn him*<? with firincrly 

bu«piCalUjr^ A gruKl baltae iikiIc pUoe twlop it nri«i, and 

o& ibe otber daya tli^TO wm panndfco-ihcrotlng ainua|: tbfl 

mmim, or Hililfovl «haolin^ in ihc; saIi nrntuhrit. It watt no 

woDOCT that 'Coke ol A'orJolk* became n boustlioM word id 

lh« SDXiiila o( thv timr, tlint he Hfm rripirtlrd »« ibi- piiriccT of 

lanncn and of fi>o<] l^llont, ami ihac he wax ido]i»cd in the 

CDuatr^ wl)iL-b br ri.-]Firv?nli?d uIinovE wllU»ul tuLerniiiAiifn fiuui 

niti 'until tli« 6nt K-.>forin Bill. 

The good VTork lir^un by Coke bu brca stciulily pursued by 

(iiherlATffff liuidovrni>r« in xh» coiinty^uid it it on th«> worti 

toil ti&l (be ^iraC4^>t i(upri>«'(-t[icnta hiiT« boen most t'K^urntty 

tf^fctfdf by pcniEii^nr drAin;iC[<' ol the cloy and marl ind by m 

libtnl u>« of Artificial manures, sutti &i phospbatcA and i^uuno. 

Ae pTftspnt, Norfolk fflTin» br*r a rits^rvedly high rnpuuiion ; 

"(i chough oJ r«c«nl jcat* VArioui cau«c« have operated on* 

^nnLinhlv afEainftl both Inndlord aud l4*nant*-4aL'h ut wri 

MMODf, ibo Gallic plDL^rue, tli<- dtrcUnc lA tbc viJac of land, and 

ibt fite of labourrni' WAg<-t — itilt a^iiiit thew? moir nr |pta 

^*ti\taij criU >Da>' be >et iho loii|; U'uvi, ihir low rvnu, Ibc 

^icrtU-ni (MVt buJhUng^ anil the fe4rij|>r-jauv<r rjuaticica tjf the 

*°ii itaolt. It may he added that, according; to competent 

'Dtaiirilies. (Lh Norfolk lahouier baa few L'l^uala In doing hu 

VQrk w«ll and quic^hly — whether it be rick^builJiog, hedging, 

V ihalchlojj; aud in spite of Mr. Arch and ulhor agitators, 

^ i(, aa ft rol^t romf^^riAbly bouied and fairly eonienied with 

hit lot — ibirtrrn to lifteen shilling n week and double thai 

•mount a1 hanetl tliTte. Tl^cte i* rornparaiivfly n small 

*il«nl of prats in pritpoiii^n lo the nrnhic land in the county j 

but tlir vntxitig 't% rrniirkably good, and the red*p>Ued Norfoik 

dide laJiu ft hi|rh place al agricultural iho«« and furuJih »oinft 

of ihv h«at Ivratf thai 1% ^ni ui SmithfLrld at Cbri»uiiaa. The 

ifttUoD, ft! rcjtanU tia^our and quality, ii ordy infoTioi to ili# 

Scufibli and Souitidoitii; lju( ih<: old brtitil of blftck-fateJ 

«Wp, which formerly fed by thou«Euui« on the »atl xnanhef 

ftt«ftg the coft»U !■ almo*t eilinct. 

'Umij [TTMififd tie agihlr abd erraljo propoutttieM of dt«T, &nd 
tim (jnatftio* liaeo l«*l tn th^lr dlBMripeamn<u>. They nro j^nnod 
«ritb 4d^iVsiifl Joftr httrllo4 vrilj luidly oonfiao Ihom, aud if th«iy 
fittoot lb«y niMt b* aou^it iu the ucst c^UQty/ 





Norfolk, 



The oldesT, and neit M Norwirh (whidi wr rrinrrr for a, 
BtpiLTQtc orttclc) ibe moal inttTL^siioKt l^^wn in Xorfolk IC' 
King-'* Ljnn, sljiriiling ul ihf rmmLli i^f lb*' <>h'hI Omw- mi ihc 
borders ol the MhiMnatl. Few toivm in LngUiwl ba*^ prr- 
borvi:!U »udj an old-woild Wk, — itu? quainilj-iuuulclrcl t^^MI- 
wftyg, (bo higli*-pilched roof*, ili* pjclureaque GutMhall wiih 
lU biaxk ilinU and while aionc work, the curiousU dcsij^ncd 
C(i«Ci>ni-huiii(-, 'wljicb inighT huve hf^fn lirouj^lil IxmUIv from 
FlftndfTv/ and the t&ll aU-rplr of tlie firey Friars, whk-h u now 
nlrnE>i!r, iha im\y Tem;iinin^r frngmc^nt cjf Iciur y^tt^ni monn»tc?rie». 
Juijj^tii^ trorn old engnivjn(«a, M. Mari^ret's ChurcU must bar* 
fikrinerJ^ i)eeii orii.^ ctf lh<' 5t]r«t in tho cixjnt^ j l^ut in 1741 a 
violent gale blew tlovrn tbc Epir«, »hJch l«U upon the middle 
bJaIc, cnisbing it into rulu» and kavaag onl/ ti« vUciiiovl stuid* 
mg. It has ftiRce been rebuilt and ri^iorrd, and it trnll wonli 
a visit, if only to see the two famous brasici of Flrmish Volb- 
manshtp, whioh Ate Imrlly tn bf> !inrjm«4<-il in KngUnd. Tbe 
large cbapel of Si, Niehola*, which was drpcndcnt oa St. 
MargttivtV ■« anntlii-r fine (:hur<:li uf the fourtvcnili cvntury ; 
but more curiiius and InieroBting than oiihcr it t!ao liItU cha|)«l 
of tlio ' Red Miiuiit^* ftppniocbed by a ^rand avenue of nloi-treva 
which m&rk* lht> lino ol the city vrall«> it i< u una]] octo^onaj 
alone building, uiucb drcAyc:d, ibrtrc atorin bi^b* tlit intcriof 
being erndfurm. The chapel itaclf, tontnining ihe ihrine of Owf 
Lady, waa on tbc upper ^oor, Approacbnl by a double staircatc, 
rlahorniely earvwl and decoraieii with fhe finrii tTnci»iy of Ihtr 
hftmalh eentury ^ and il probably served at a half-way bouBCr 
li.ir lbs countless pilgrimi who pnHUf-d nluii^ the coait ijq ih^ir 
way to iho Virgin s *hnne nl Wiliingham. 

Lynn waa a place ti{ €iin»i<]rinb]e iiii|)oitnncceven in the days, 
of the Conqu9st^ and throughout thi* Mi<UUi< Ag^i carried on an 
extentivc ttaitr with Flanders Find ibr liHtitr Towni uf the Hal tic. 
Many of our kings rested here on iheir way to nnd from the 
North ; and il waa from hero that Klu^ John set out on bia loM 
diinatrons journey atTOAs the Wash. It was hft who gxre iIm 
citizens their icrand charier, making the town a free burgti U>f 
tvrit with all the arLNirnpaiiviiig tig1it« Hiid privllf?^!. He 
alio is said to have {fiven the silver-^ili cup and Aword atill 
preservnl ^o tLte Guildlmll. Biit. unfortunately, the workman- 
ship of Iha cup — ^wbicli is b(<autifully el^uvd and eniprnved 
with hunciag and Lawlving scenes — ihoirs ihi^t it beloaj^mj iu 
lh<< reign of Edward IIL and wai very putKibly font has b«en 
su^jE^ested) the gifE of King John i>f l^'rancCi who olicn attended 
Edward 111, and Fhilipps on tbeir txt}tt\ progrf^ftseg and might 
have boun pre»oat at tbc ' Pcncock Feoti * held in their honour 

by 



Norfolk. 137 

!>y the MftjOT and burg««9L-». Bui, whoever jfnv*! the cop Ui 
iliB town, it vju r^Tininlv nni Cirur H^ Lion't binilifir, 

X-jan,iu nrc htirc i<iid, itntidi on the bflidcrs ol ihc ManliUnd, 

tod in did tinidr* iriurr tban tini'c tufTpml ivverelj from iiivu- 

Jilion«p' Tbuft wo nukd thnt 'in 1370, nil MLLr«liUnd wiu fto 

drowned hy (lie srn tt»t llicre wrrc not twii nidi of wbole ««a- 

tank from VV^^tt Lvmi \i> Ma-^^EkEcn Dnd^^t* Li \Vig|^ncla]<i * ; 

koil agvin in 103 itiravu LnAr in whli buch vti^ti^iKt llmt the 

<luoig« wax i^Bliaiact^ ht 13,Tf6:'£ — an cnnrmout turn Uk thoiv 

cimcfl, Tbo XQftu. ift aoir wirlj piutei-icd U> bcuiks nnd & 

cuis«wAy ; a ncfw dock has bcfn built, and a nffw chnMii^l rande 

tbrooph tb<r raat ftandl^aDkin givia^ n dirrct Approach from the 

•CA, MarthUnd tiflf ia no Itmgfir tW pPttllentUI vwamp d^ 

•eribni by mcdimra] WTiErn^ wlicrc thi? h(df-*tarFpd fen men, 

ud in Ab^HpikiTiK »r<l ilvti-lilnjicin mcit^ IujU tEintrlinl nitb retnl, 

(>n «tilt4 bftor tbcir ilorkii of ^wo, or prkrJdInil ia ihoir 

biittun^nl biinu fnjm onr isUni) tci anmhrr; wliilrin winter 

\\if^y war* ncknt hy ievez and ajEuc, or (ai FuUrr pjt* it) 

'kxrcitcd bj lljp Rftilv of Mxtsblnnd,' Sii fmilv a» tUir rvign of 

€b&rl«« 1, no Ic4« itian 40,000 acres wcro rcctttimocl by Corn** 

liiia VcriiiLiidtiL and bis Flt-mikli l-tbouirn, otiiiiic under the 

uitboHtj 4>r l|n» KnrI of Bwlf<ird ol' tbo dny, TurtWr wofk« 

••»* earned ODI from iJmo to IJinc* rtiid r«rlj' tik the prc*cai 

OBntufr one of th«^real««i ^n^ineerio); worki of modern timet 

*<^ compktrd by Kcnnie and TulfonJ, nbdnfmb cbannrrlkwcra 

*^t for the OuM and Neiw, and an eUI»oniTe cyilnm of embank- 

"*»ntj and otiirnlla ca»ur«d perfect drainage ior the vhole of 

*iai fast urea kni^wn an ' rhp It«(lff*n1 l*»vH.* !VowwIaja, to ntn 

^c appropriate motto printed on the maps of tbe icclium^^d land*, 

*>«!(* tfn'nif Mm— '* l)jt* detert lauglii and iin^t '— and thtf dreary 

**unp<, oDco hfionted by lapniti^t and Hmi-fowl, ftbow ftoino of 

^ritketi |];utur<n atd moM prolifiniirn-rir-litEiri tliekingilom ; 

ViA tboy abow alio, io tba Norfolk ooro«r of Movabland, five of 

^ &ncit cburchcft in the cocinty, Sii^rtftnd and imprcttiv*? :ii« 

ti»r— ^*p*ciilly ibofc of Terri^jjjton, Tilney^ and Walpolc SL 

rrtcr*^— ibal it ia a constant auurc>c uf wonder bow i\\t*y carne lo 

* baik at all in tbii deuilnte region of the Fenv, how thnv were 

>*rfo»rd and supported, and »tiU more b<)w tbcy found W">r- 

ilmvn to fill them. 

TaniKKitli stands ncit to Norwich in size and importance!^ 
ud lWr« arp ft^w seiutd^ townt which have «i> niu<!li to interest 
VMi Ditrafi a viiitor, in apit*; of the crowda of eirunzotiiiU 
*'b« bare Iraiiifarmeil wbnt nicd to lie a 'P^'^* nhl-fjisliionf^d 
*ttnin^plac« into a Doltttr-r Mar^jite. Ther« ara tho ptc* 
lii'nqtuc i|a«y« crowded wiUi liig^rr« and fiahiag-amwAw, \\m 



i 



Ids 



ScTfoiL 



iin«:i<;nt ' Riitvi/ vtith ilieir quitnic unJ foreign 
v«n«r»blp CfcinrcU o\ St. NichnUs, with iu spacionc aJ 
vnat churclivaid frowdcd wUb Ktai'L--»tonp», beoealh 1 
(w^nty gr*nerntLi>:» — n inuhitu<lft whom no mjin (Min nun] 
lir buncci \ th«rr ii ihe TolhoDi*<^i nich iti curioiu 
am! Early English winJow*, dalinj^ fnim th* 
Hcnrj IUm wlicre m&y »til! b« accfi 'tiiO flaneroat 
momk ^lown n Udder of ten sU^p*,' ilc»i:r!tinl bj Jotiu 
unci probabty the oUle-jtt pruon colU in En|;)ftml ; ttu 
ibr Sur lldl'?], a fiiir Eli«HWUi)in lnnwe, with a ^cfti 
stairoasc ami n lonjf, hl^ck wain sen tcti parlour, wj 
[lirlurc? of Nc^lsoii by ICrjtuier untl ibr ariii& uf th<r m«TC 
v^'PlUTvrt abov# ihfi flroplare- And lb ere still reiDU 
tbt? South Quay iodic of tbosr aoHJIy built and roumjll 
vf tb« Tudor pvriod, vtllh elsburatu inamvlpii^ft and pft 
ceiling*, wtioro iLv mcrcbnnis lived in much comfort 
opult^nt'o, and dUpiavcd tbpir mili* in tar# Lowetlofl chin 
picturi^a b>' 'IViiiErn und K<.-inl>rri[jdl, 

VarniouTh, lik*" AmtTftrdnm, Ti»n\ Iw *ftid to be ' batit 
hcTrin^ biiLicift/ uid even in IXimculay lio^k the hcmng li 
on lliia oiAti i> rn«<ikCiuned At tlit* iiio»t important of inai 
rights, lint IVom the Hnl tbc fiiher/ laboured uiider| 
alisiidvaiilfltctrs and dmwbnckv, Thv baibour wzi» *in 
dr:t(ro)'«d or choked with (and bj th(T I'ur/ nf tho eajot, ao 
times had ii> br renewed Jind dtefl^ed out at incredible ex 
unlil at len^tb in lACO a ptriuuiient haven, wblch 
fioijueiiEK aUeiigtIiciicd and improved lince that d 
formed by the pcr*crerance of the dlizeni. Then th 
fierce apmt uf nTolry. frequrntly rr»uhir)^ in bluodihod, 
ihr Vftrmrimh liihiYrmcn nnd ihose of the C'inqLie Ptirtt and 
neighbours ui I»wcitofl ; while aoroM the water, the £ 
ffir mrkn\' r»ninrir*it. look th^ linn'« 4ham both of th(f fiah^ 
the profits untd (heir Hert was dealroyed by Blnlcc in the 
of ibe CommojiH'eallh. A more jiinicnble l^t'ling pr^vAll«n 
ie4|uoot]y between ibe Varmoutti fiilicrmen and tboir fi 
neigbbuuu ; nnd ibe ^ Ducrh Strndnj/ a reljc of tbo 
lainoui 'Freo Fair/ lurvivKl tilt lute in th& latt c^nlury. 
at ibc beginning i>f the herring fubcry in SrptembeTt & fl 
Dutcrh lufE)[en n'uuld mil up the Vare nnd !i« intxiKd aJoi 
(Jaaya, aKTaeliiijL- c^owda uf li^hlieert from all the CC 
Toucnl. It was from ^'nnr^outh ihut Admim! Dunean wul 
1797 just before he defealrti the Dut^h fleet at Lampen 
am) ii waR hrre aUo tbat \elinn land<vl nj'trr two nf hia 
brilliant rictones — the ^ile and CnpcnboKen. On th 
orr/ttlvn the CurjMraiton pretentird bim witli eke fi 



] 




I 



Nor/oik. 



Lb«fr cit)', Mi<l, on hi« uking tbe onih, the town cUrk ftdmoni^ed 
hitn: 'TiUc« tbc iMok m >'imr ngHt bund, my Lord.* *TbaV 
ri*|^?i*»l \rl«if», 'id m Tenenfle.' Th*- Drkrir roKtmn eri>r(«*d 
ti> Ihr hcra'i mcmarv, with ili bftn^^hTv inftcnption, * liitan 
f\r/iii tprrarum rimnertujf rfftiTmiduhtit^ iifwert nbciVL* \hv. h^ivAO, 
LK the tomb of Thflmiglnclc* <iVfirIo.>ka tho Buj' of ^rvlomiv 

The * VannciuEh Romk' ■rt- tbr only sjifr artrhomgc bctwi>pn 

iko Thami'* tuid iLe Humbor, And do part oflbc En^'Utb cckuI i« 

*> tWgrmut to Tcswlf, «prriftlly the headlnnd «f Wiotcrton 

K^Wiftbaiit eiffht milet from Vermouth Itcclf. Ther« » fttnav* 

p^ftl d&D);t*r iritii a <gaXv frum the TiurLli-Fuit uf sbips founticfing 

Ofi the Tocki which fringe the ' Dflvil'i Thmat,' n*ar Cromer, 

*r beiajt »lr4D<l«l on the flnl abotea near Well*. Two fff*^*^ 

oiaiKin or fkriion, D^W (^ncl Dickon*, bnvp deicribod the fury 

'^B ailom on the Norfolk cofut ; ftticl their dc»c rjption< (Lrc. crcn 

''OV Dtlhftpptly, unly loo well authfriilic^altMl by &ctiiti] facts* 

^onuHy* wbpa there wa« only n aolitary light on the roof of 

^vtunfT Church, hunilmlK iif vc^vi^Ik werr Ic^n ntinually on tbU 

P^it of ihr ooatt \ tuid ihi* Lord» of iU<t \laticir d<-nTGd no iit' 

^iwJdftable incoinr froui * thi; wrack uf ihp s*m/ In 16112, no 

'<^fti thnik 140 collicrfl wert^ drlren nihorv and wrccJced in a 

'^''ii"^ ^le, nnd I,0(>(^ seamrn jwriiliwl ; and even in miMletn 

^■tiM, though ligbthouMi luid Jij^btibip* hnv« multiplivd, 

^7*'- niimiidri reTunm ihLiwed that ihiii cojui waji rmponiiblc 

*5^' more than half tbe annual wrookt in tho United Kinjciloui' 

^(tr tonrisi whi> p^ttrs ^li^ng tljCAi.' cliiTa, wbicb kumrtlinca loar 

*(X> feet above high-waier mart, see* everywhere trarc« of the 

'^n of the Enslcrn j^les and ihfT dcfltract;on wrought by the 

^^atUQl infurftinrt of the kca. Huge [nftaie« of the LinderclifT 

»!« lamblcd in picturenjuc rain beneath him; more than one 

^illa^ hiu dlnppt-Mred bi>dlly bvincatb tbir wnvir*, and only m, 

^\%\Kfy cburcb tower reinfkina in mark the spot. Tho i«ry 

*tllcs are made uJ' aid ^tiip timlH-r; imd, ui may be *iippn«ffd, 

4j|>wnii)g 18 tho cumni'*rH'i»t and ui^.*%\ ramiliar form ol death 1o 

tl^r lailori and Iihhermtm In the MTajtiile vilbtgeK bi^Lween Lynn 

Attd Lowestoft. * It would not be dilTioult,' say* a writer, * to 

Qad woBJca who hmr In^t f^thrf* nnd hu»bjintU, aunt und 

^tftodAOfu, in tbe lame way, one after another.' The louat 

^vaditjoiu uid »uperatition« arc usually ronn«ctcJ with (MrriU 

ftom lb* M». Th** ' ihrif»king woman ' ia hraul when ttie ■Eorni 

^9 comioi' ; tbe huccdojc * ^huck/ who baunt* the cooat bclw<va 

QMvton aod Oi^^rttrand. ru*hi>i frnin the tbure up a lane <.al}ed 

MEcikin. •!»] hrirjfi death daring ibcyc«rtj> ail be rncel*. Al 

^Lwric^lum there \% a atill mofe cnrinua legend, narrated aai 

»**'XoTfolJt Ardifltoiogia ^ 

'k1 



' A little wbj cut to Mb. Hhtm it a ^itA (tboj ntky) jt»4 opponto lo 
K p*rticcilMr cliff nboto tLc ctplua of Numtf old al^iit waa fuoviud; 
Mn] thoro, iaor« tLuti oiioo. Ibo Kahormon bikvo b<iud « hnnMB Toto 
uoiDin:: froio tTj4> v*l«r. «iiil turn wbich wftj thejr iviJl th« Tolet b Ui 
tfio ntluiT dinnitJiiEi. Co a hlJiIisii tt cbuiyes ittt iirvoltoii, tmd cousm 

i^adt bonc&tlt tL«ir boat like tlio loMt viM cry of b nmu aiukiiig hc^po- 
obaI)', ThoQ, if thaf arc niio. thojr settle <luwn to their oat* uid 
roTT f>r 1if'» tu Bborf>^ — fur Itfc it in—fot tlitj atq lackf if thej racb 
Ijouio ill tiiUQ tu «w.^u[jti iha bqumlf wLicL i» hun U> f<jUuw/ 

Thfl toil of Norlnlk, nt wril n» it* long pmjp«iny r<**«-lint, 
baa alivd^i bt^cti aitraccivt- L4> birds oi n&mia|*c» rippcjaJlr lo 
iTj«t4'rf<*wl iif «TV<<rj i1i'«cripui>n ; unt] mo J^^m tJiun ^290 tllsiinct 
>j)c(dcii hA%'c nt one i.ini«» or another bpon obtcncd and idcuti- 
fied* iDC'luditi^ apttiiLiuna of t^« wliilu-tailcKl **Aglt% tli« cnme^ 
thft Otprcy, tb« pcrrgrin^, nnci (riuxiat of nil) lhi» r«tl -1«f;|!E«d 
rftlcon, AIJ tbc bmU mcutioncil bj Sir Thomu HrowQc iu Lis 
liftE of 1671 were l» lj« fount] in Norfolk M tbf> bf^^innin^ of 
thit <*nturv, wirh tb^^ fxccption of ihc fpoonbill nnd the 
vftrmorMiii. Hut of trf'rnt j'f-nn tbcTi- hot b«mi « rnpi'l diminu- 
tfOii of (bo luT|£<^T and rnn^r varautirv. Tbi* nictnmulioii of titc 
mnnb'lnndH, ib«f itTJim i)TAininj^*iiLil1if tlir inTrmltioiion of niU 
iftmjri, tb4.' tnllui of touriili, an<I it majr be added the muiiA for 
IXilliTrtiiig v^^^ titiil a[wrijuriiH| buve all c'oaliibulcd U* iht 
gnulual c?xtiiirtlon of many species, while othem are rapidir 
diiappcaribj;. TUc grt^at bustard, as huge iks an alb^troi*, aoil 
bulking Jibf' a Tft\ deet in (be distance, ti no longer «e«ii on ifao 
biatbi ncAr Aulcborough and Tbrtford ; the ywn^i^nea, fvhicb 
Ubi*iI Ili barry tbt< prgei.in« on Ibe spiral of Norwich Cathnln], 
Lato long ajnci? dopi>rt4>d; only tbrea hcronrka (w« beliere) 
ikrc \ntl in the wbobr rounty ; the bittrrna that baunteH ibv 
rr4Hi bt*dt about HichUni; and Hei;;baffl no Jon/^r atiutle 
Cbo pnuauta wllh tb^ir ditroidaiU cri<;« and udcmiiij appnu^ 
anrv ; ci-i<n the rulTi and rcvvri, eo df?ar to the- giutrononiit, 
have almoit disappeared from the Hroada ; wbilrr i>aU are ^ova 
on Biirkvnham Mnrthj whprci, in l^1t>, no lesi than 123 saipe 
irers Lillcd in one day by ibe aacne Kun. But there ajv still 
many tarieUn uf bSrdit lel't to delight the natLir;i1i«i nm wi^tl ai 
lh« iportainBn, rBpecially in tbo ni^igbbourhood of the Broad& 
Marah barrirra or * Norfolk hnivka/ plorr-ra and lapfringi^ 

frebea, cooU, tea) and mallard, aro atill JQUmcrous eiMii|>tk > 
iovclon llriNul and 8i;ouU'jii Mtrre awarm wiUi IWb-beaiuMl 
ffulli; and in vimer tame of tbo boat wildfowl abootiDjr in 
^d^lnnd it to be fnuml on ll^iiMTy Broad and Brvydon VVntcr, 
wrbere, on one orcaaion (ao Mr. Lubbock lelli na), an ancievt 
flsbevmaiJ, ' wjib n mifbtv piece wbicb he called "DM 



Norfolk. 



141 



^^KZy" ^JU killed cis^tj-thnw iowj nt a s:oic1e shot.' Nol 
onlj AM* \\\ie per^grioM anH hiutftTfl^ pitinrt, hut inajiy ft]d 
U^laiam amI m<Hl» of spovi hAT(^ djcd out in ibc countr linri? 
iii«* bi-ginaiRZ nf ihr pmriii t^titurj'- TUh rntt ini-ptiii^ ftt 
Bli<fclu)(: aod TliKktixl ar<< lLin|;» «f tii€ prtdt, n« wf^ll »• bnvrk- 
m^ pfLitir« un Cro^Uin tIcMith nnil otter hunting on itiR Bure 
ui<l VF^rcoey ; the vtoul cobs known ai * Norfolk trolt«rv' 
h&v« lotil tlieir rL-pulatiL^ii, aiktl dug* uru au longer tralnod as 
'N^«rfolk tomblert' to aftmct the rabbju on the wnrreni hy 
lb*^ir Miuiut aoiio; ;Ui-- decuvs fci wilJfi^H'K once so aumeroos, 
Wfcil wcj-r/' 5,000 m.ilUrd Tiavp bo^n laki^n liE a tingle* bnu), hftv* 
aH liiuppeftrcd with Hfe or nijt cKcepti<tn« ; And il may br 
Ll«>ubt«d if tb«Tif ar4» TD*ny survlvnri nl iti^ ol4 mce of Broad 
ja*» who c&mcd ft livolihood from one year* rnd to the olb«r 
m thp matiirr co happily d^icrilM^I by Mr. Lubbock :^ 

* Whoa I fini vieJiful tlio IEr«ft<Uf J fvurid L(rrt) 4tD<l ilitm) on 

^'OOQjqiult Mjuftilkd <Jo«u. ji« tlii^ Aiitorinftn§ vuulU call it, ou ILd 

'^M'gftof ft |rfiol, who r-yWii nlraottt c>]itmil7»» nhimtipR iinii flflhing 

*i>*' Iho Mciptwrt of biiDMH auil family, and lived ia a truly pHtoiliTo 

"*^iiDDr. 1 portioularly ttniomWr on© kcro of tbia dvjioiiption. 

Out Bmud,'* ita bo aluuya okllcd Ibe dtciuiiivu imtA by wbidi km 

C^t-ugo •t<»I, wru bis mlemooam — his wortcl ■ Oiu UUnr]« iu ll woro 

ni#a pTilnuH or tlio HMpondoe; ita oppovit* «itr<^riiity Lin v^iiima 

'^■t- Wbt'Tcnrtr Iiia lliiHigkEfl iwiidoroa, Ihey co»U ii;*t ^ci bisyoud 

"^^ctrcUi uf lii» Uilirvi^ Iftko; ludcsod, I ucTur kucw tbciu abttrruut 

^*11 r»iCD. vrhnn bo mfLirmcil mc, witb a dcmbting a;r, that ho bail stitt 

^^■* vilo Aikd hii Iwu uMudt cbilirdu tit u fair at a country villapc tvo 

*^^iW off. tZiAt tbuir iJcttd might <ixi>aud by tmvi^l. As be finely 

^^atfreil. llwy bad nuvcir bvmi atf»ij rrjiu "our BnHuL" I ivuui into 

«>ia hoDa* at thn dlnuer-botir, and foitnd tb« vh^tle ]iarty ^^^ia^ 1'^ fall 

^ most thankfully upon a roaitod hombg-gull, killed, ihT ooono, ou 

** cor Broad." lli^ hfo pr««cbt«d nu riciBsitudca but an altomatioa 

'J'T nukoib tin|iluy(uciut- In ititiltiri ottor hiii ilay's rt?uJ»ciUlint/. Iw 

Qicbt be TtigiiUfly fonnd pofilfiil at nighlftill, waitiTig fnr thu flight 

-■fJowl, or |4ddUl)ff aftiir thom on tlui opert n^ter. With tlia tint 

^ttiD days of Fvbniary bo launahod hie floot i>f triiiuuurt^ pike 

^dinga ready fuli^ at Iub ovu diHir tu thiiea wbu hcu^'ht tlnun tir »*ell 

tpfn u& th« Nor«]«b inarki^t. As mooh as Ihd piku bul ftp&wood 

*H VOM oct of lUMbaoDi tti<j ootA b*-gKti to otfotipy hi« attontiott. aad 

hmKiici^ ecgfe to bu dili;EouV|y »^Li|fht for. In Ui« ond uf April the 

oUoil ui bin «Htr'ry diiiiiHiiiJ wjift friMinuDLly rjmtiil fur t}jii Huku c(i 

AttrtiDg the niflj which m-urt-^il r^iitln i\ '>\\ thnir flrflt HrTivid, Aa 

ft* dsfv BKi^ lotiffor nLDd hcjttiT. I < iiii.;Lt bo foimd jii;Ar4jiiiu^ in 

iBuaUer pools iicor bin Iiouho lor thf? «boalB of tcQch. nx tboy 

'MlUllMUuI BpDwmu^. Ybt u litUu luiigcir imd k« buijUU nirovli- 

^Minff— >hi« gun almv* Md r^tiiily upon hiA o»at, in oaao flappon 
>MU bo not vritb. Jlj the tDidilo of Angut loal qmim ^ % yt^ 





14^ Ne^o9L 

oomor noDi Ljb cottage, nsipve bvgftn to ftrrivo, aiiJ Le vms olUo 

to BAi] Ai^' B'y flic «Q4l iif 8f«]iieTij1>tT good fitxipe tltouticg vaa 
f^<mctiUlf t>> ba mat with ui Ijla Jiai^hbourbood ; uui bii oocoJillo 
knowledge of tho nmTobDi'f Ins ana^tMniu^ guoil litaDQOi, mud scaI ju 
^xroniliiig s{it>vi for tfiiu^ nbn du^jlu^eJ lidu, lumlu Liiii it uy roncb 
BOngbt iifU-r lie a qxirtiiig giiLd»> by Hnijift photH jind fiAbonoon ; fttld 
hiH kuL>» ltdg<j uf Uia hiikbiU of dLS^rcDt biTdii <iDftb]ccl hLm lo giro 
uHoful iufuriualLoQ lo llio«o who cUl«ctcd tticntH* 

9Kt ofu-n rtncf which bavc i» long: brra iLv flippy l;miti:>^- 
(ground o( sporismen mrl _varht*mpn, lie in a iriftogl* Torui^ 
Uy Hnppitburgh, Norwirh, nnd Lotrnttrfl, varying much in 
Chvrir HiiCR anil mpptt, fr^nn lArgp abcrta of wat^r, tucb u 
HickliDjc or Wrozhftmt to eoizip&rAtit«ly imalj Ukea^ sucb 
oi Filby or Stnlham ; jkikI wbilr siime are m bright and 
rA^ifUit in tbc PLiiiihin;> at Windcrmcrr iUcLf, otbrr» are lu 
mmbrr and Jtitirrlitte u» 'Hurl Mertr,' ^lirrr? Arni«i)nl«> fir^t 
(tno<>unt?ri>d :bo tcmblr Miti GwiEi. Tb* itnhvdshavc (*itfa<^(«l 
lELUcb Mli^ntioD of rccf^nt years, and bivc )>i-i-n bumewUiil uvrf- 
prauLHl in ootisequ^ncp ^ for it tntxtl be admiltod thai xhe 
■crnriy olo)>^ the rircn whicb lead to ibt^ui, »iicb as tbc Bare 
or ^Var^^ney, reniindi ui of a Dutcb lanilKcnpt^, aad cannot be 
campaf^ wilh tbftt of th« Wyo or Tlnkmei. For mile afirr 
mile ibr ntrpain in Inrileri^l by tall ivt^dt nr liiit-t of puUird oaks* 
wilb fjiit ;jre*n putun-e Elri-tohin^ a* lar ft» tbr **y€ cap rracb. 
wbjle ihv i}u\y iilijecU ibat bu'sik lb<r cniElesi Biinrnefii af the 
iky^linp ju-ff the brtiwo »tti!» of ibe w berries, ibt* nindmilJa tbat 
drmin tbc tnaribra, or tbc toner of a diitAnc cb«rch, with Wr«- 
[Lilt! tbere ui tb^^ foreground a f^« reed-tbalcbcd cotUgrii • 
ruined abbey, or an tild^rasbioned fiabing-uiQ, But, if tbe 
ri»*fi arc nionot»m»uA, tbe laltei tbemu-U-ea bav* iiTi<)[i«li»n' 
ably a cbtuiD Ibut is all tb^ir own, mid b&re aomc rj^fbl to he 
ileorribni nM ' onr ti( tbe ■iran^fvt and lov^lit^cl aspocts of 
nature wbicb liH inland laiidccajx-, not only of Norfolk bnt of 
all Eni^laiid, <^n sbow.' Firitly, tbvic i> tbe abftolnir stlllocsi, 
(bo lilcnoe aa if of an encbanled land, brokcm only by tbe 
*i*atcr lapping in th« icodo,^ tbc aplfub of a fiib, or ibe ory of 
a atarilfd vrildfowL Tbr-a tbrre are th^ womlctful f^ffV<;ta of 
Usbl and colour in tbv atmovpbcrc itarlf, aoJ tbe cvirr^vari ing 
■ 4:loud sbado^Ti* r«^«»rir<i mi ibi.' lurfnt^^ of ihrr waUT) Ukd, 
UsUy. tbor«f ia ibe luiurifuit rcgctniioti frlngjajE tbc aborv«« 

' On dtbcr «tdo ia a dciuc wait of omrtald-grooa ivtda fran wrvn 
lo liau fc«t bij^. Tbcii cotuotbo yellow ina nokti.'rB, tall and bending 
rn^M and bidruHbu, tbc kwuiI vd^ witk lu curios **1 kri f * 



N<^/M. 



143 



t 



wftist Id tliciD, joQ may pluok u florca kinrls iviihnut muring; btuo 
^UotftoTi oT for^pot^mo-nijUi f^Jiclovija. A^ikcH uf purplu louatstrifu 
■nd bio»d tnfte of tftkffiiLa; uu4li» id Truo<ly hI^IiuIiikIo ; nud, 
tweeUt tl&D ftll, tuuMH upon m»ii«u«, all t1i*.r itny Mlrtug* of t)ju 

UkfS ioAiixliftto bankd ponomiuafi of knlciinttMpic bcniLty.^ 

If Norfolk cannot claim any po«u or hiBtomni of th« firat 
tink. ahi* can w Irml Ehuui of n long vrirt of iricn of l4>li^rt, 
ail flUlinguitbcd in tbcir dnTf nbo bar<^ Ifft their mark upon 
our (Itpnlnrv. Sli« in»y clHim a thare tn our firii dKUctif koci, 
Thnin.-Lt Tu:i»^r, whoic * Hvr Hcndrrd <i<icKl Foinu of H(i»- 
l>»*nj|rr' it a Gi?rj|^it: vrrUlc^Q in a humply style, ami Rivlnic n 
f^itLlul piL-ture of ruriti Hfr .and ^mploym^^nt* i ami it may be 
i^otivifAfc LlluHimtLD); ibc ]>rTm>LniMicv of 1lx:i1 trrmM k'Iailvi^ til Uir^ 
M>)| and labour^ that in the vocabularivi of Forby And Nail, 
^Uflftrr la uuc of ibc ftnLhi)i» nno»l rrrqijrtilly quoted lij jutijfy ar 
>Mtuirat« ft current prnvlncialivm. Almoit contemporary with 
T'tiitrr wu John Skcllon, Hector of Disc, the frjcnd of t^rasmuB 
»i»d Cftxion, %t\i\ ihr Poi^t Lnurrafp of thm** umnrrsiiii^a, Hi« 
itiri^a« oltftfJcs on Wot»i?y. and bii incihauBtiblc power* of 
'b^Qikng and vituperation^ \\a\v ■-aniixl for him the title of Lb« 
^ngli&h Kabdati. A* a contrast to bim may br named tbo 
'"-nglUh Pctrmrch, — tlw grnilr and cbiraltotii EnrI of Surrey, 
** bo lived Bt i^orrrya Mouot, not far from Norwi<:h ; and Ibtr 
y^^vitg Jeiiiit enthuaTJut, Robert Stiuibivr]], whi^i but be^n 
•^iftoitioacil before, Matthew Parker, J(«epb Ha\\, and Sir 
' liuinai Brtiwue boloiig lo N(*mtcb> Dut ibt ouoiily fiiay 
<^1ftim Tbomaa ^hadnell, who in 16B1 BUccomied Drydart lu 
^^x\ LAumttTr «nil wai merctleuly Batiri»ed m tbe'Atuulom 
^*ld Acliitopb^]/ :ic a inoiiiit><r of diilnt^H And dt^bAitcb^ry. 

' 0^> fmtu a liitt«L'i:i invvru tvlliug hcmut, 
KAirnil tt* n ftlubp^ and li<|iiiiri'd nrfiry nhinls. 
Goodly atid groit bo uil« behind bin link ; 
Witli alt hi" bulk, tbtic'a notbiiig loal in Gg, 
For cntiry iiu^h tbitt ij» ntit fuifl is roguo/ 

V*et, in fpiliT of Dryden'a wivag^ aiuek, Sbvlwpll waa a nilly- 
**-»!* iDCceatf^it dramatiat, Several of bii comedirs, sueb aa 
XjnoEii WVIU' ami ibe ■ Vimroio,' are arntisiof^' >i[id well 
^^<maraci^, and hit "Sqcire of AUritia,* whieb jr n (Arg^n of 
^^^unei' sUtiff, is uuJ to liaTe auggeatcd 'The Adveutunn of 
I>^1 • to Sir Waltor Seoil. 

two pocU were associated with Norfolk En ibe laat century. 
^^* wa* Cnibb*, nbo waa a frequent visitor nt Yarmftuttv, %t^ 





114 



h&A giren us in 'The Oaruugli ' a iciiu oS plciarr;! of tHi 
luicient frali'rin^-plice — the quay, tbo Ittbing boji, ibe CAilor*' 
uvernn, xhe t lub», the fAKhioni jtnd Amutriiic-Lita of ttii* d%y\ Tbe 
oili#r W!*» tht uubnppy Cowptrr, who juticd the luU fire irars 
of UU lif^^ ftL East Oi.'r<'liftia uid MuTidcsIcv. about xrvrn raifc^ 
fnHii ChiiriiT. Mumlpilrv i% ihr dultpflE of all ^(^11 wftE«rui^ 
|>la4^^>, hut the port (no hv telU htvdv Hrskctb) ' lounil »omC' 
thing infipr^fciblj »on(hin^ in thr> mnnoi^noiu ftound of tar 
breakers* It woi here, in on<^ dI the mrc inicrvaU ot undtfadcd 
intp|]«cl, that he- wmtr bit pitthHiL* nnJ ilniciBl tlpijniiing pnv 
ol' *Tbc CAftt^wfty-' Hcdifid in & hotiir fruniiD;- ibc mArktl' 
pliK't* uf KftAt Di^rcltain. aail mis burled in llu: ikoriU tranwfC 
of the Adjacent <ibur(^lj, wh#ro iht* Foticbinj; iajtcripltoo on hi* 
innfmiiK^nli MU^^r»1r<] bv (he latr Dcnn Siaulrj— ur lutUifr («e 
beJiovif) bv hi> friend Huf^b Peanoa — (I»rribc* hi* nnhappy 
fftlr: 'I Has a atilcJcrn dcvr thnt Ictl the herd, \im$ aincc.* 

Pasting f''^^ *^^ '^'^'^ "^ lett^tt to tho m<*n ol ftctioa. ii 
«ruuld be onlv nutural that Nurrolk »boiiId be ibe nurw vi 
bold leainrn nnd Tittvnl hprnra: nnd tiirh i« io fa^i cbe ci«e. 
'Betvterii .Stiffkev nnd Clc>/ trriica Arthur V»uii^, ' i» the 
litt)i» viling<^ <kf (WI(rEirirj>e, which fiinluint but Ebrpp hooiM, 
And jct hu Junuilj'^d llrJt^EQ nilh throe famiju* admindA^Sirrq 
Cloudivley Shovel, Sir Jiibn Nurbnr^ughf nnd Sir Chrittophe 
Minna.' And to ibete m^y b« added tht^ nunoft of Admin 
Hnwkp, Sir Th^iiirt* Trovkbr!dgi-> * tbr HHjaril of Ui« FJm^ 
and tbe gre«t Netvin hiniKelfT who took hi* w^eond title i\ 
his birihpUi^e, HuTnUniu Tborpr. nut tar from WcUl Ici t 
liMi cnnluTT, be»id« .Sir Robert Walpol*, Xorfolk cap cUim 
lejuc tv/u other Bln1r»inen of die frai rAcik- Oaf^ nitt Cluirl 
TaKnBh(<ntl, ' thr^ mo«t brilliant of a brilliant family/ iv bo ivi 
tb9 Walpolci almoBl lumiuixilticd the roprvaeototiiKi of 
Gountji. ChurW Town»h<;ml wai Chbnof>!1ot of tbo £xcti«<i 
under CluttbttUkt *nd il woa bi« mttfortune to bare to inimJ 
thnl iH'OnifUf^d meaviirf' which robhpcl ut of our nob)e«t coloo. 
II LA bondiome and commanclin^ ^jnirc* bi> powen of wtl as 
mipnicr3r, >nd hie nnfural phj(ju(^nr.v mnd.e liirn the muit popuL 
aptfftker of the day; hut, Acci>rding io llrTncc Walpolc, t^ i 
mott brilliant ipet^b (tti a drbaie on the Rist IndiA f^mpa» 
WL* deliTcred when he wiu 'half drunk with champsgnc «.« 
tiill mnrr inroiii-'nied wilh sptrji* — it whm Gurrii-k oicti. i 
extemporp twntr* fn)m C^onir^ve." His Jcutb at tbo early m- 
of finrty-two mfub- a pnifitund luipreisioti at iUe time, and ^i^ 
oceaaioa for omc of Burkr'i n<>bleBt 0i^ht« of rioqij«nc«; — 

'Etoii tl^oD, bcfoTv IbtB AfUtL'ltd orb (Chathaai j va« oi^tireiy 





JVor/bA. 



146 



(lory, CO tlhf oppcMLto ^uurbor tjf tbo licaTrnA trotu luiotlmr lumiuuy 
^O vDitliciid ^r ui4J for his huur b«oamo lord cf tha mounJmit- ThM 
~ kl, loo, lu poatoil wd Mt Tor u«ar-' 

VVilU^jn Vl'indh&nti, wtitMO fAjnilj' sent at Fclbrit:^ boa 
unforiunau'lj |>!t«!NM] lo fttr^o^n, reptvfH-ntHl \orwirli for 
I'voiuv-cif ht 7«-an lill hii dcftUi in 1(S10. He wu Socn^ury 
for Vitu uiutrr J^>nl (ircDviIIc, uiM aiJecl wkb Burki^ in the 
risc>iura beptW4<(rii hioa ^nd Fox. IJitrdAixno, brilttani, lii^-ti- 
vpititrjl, >ii(i II biirn ofAlor, Win<lliiini ih t^ur iil' tbr fiitciii 
^chnctcn :a our polilical Uutory^ He wa* a mi?cibcr of * live 
Club ' uul a fricDu of SJr JokUoa Kci n4>[<li &nd iff Dr. Jubo»ou 
binuolf; * vFbona, ibough a ^^ff* I^^ higbk tftlucit)/ nccor^ling 
to BmwcU. Ofl bi» cifatbbc'd, tbe Uocu>r sent for bim. pmisecl 
Ills 'tnanUap*t i>r minvl/ !«n(] commitUHl Itti M^n/ani Frank to 
bib cliAr^i-, U inillijun was as lire an aLhIcIc a* be vtrni a 
*lJLiHaiaD, Amt wkk an efilbuviaslir |iair()ii of tbe 4>1i) \i>iiij|k 
IT^tnc or'canipm^/ nbicb be bold to combine every ionn of 
•tlitii/' rXL^i^Mi'DLT, like tbe Grtt-k pantnaium, Of'ram|nng' 
■E H »«ftcJ4.-nc t^ ftsy tbjit tbo ruu^licrkt lorm of Hu^tj- lootbuU 
^ mefp cbiUr* play c<>m|ianHl witb ubnt Forby callt *tbiA 
^icicJii cod noble cxcrciEc/ Tb«? number of pln^ori oc n £jd«- 
^<^rird froEn tttvltr lu <i buuilri'd ut mute; and tb«- tiaJI inigtit 
^f>fiftri»iitN Ik> Licked, thniurn, enrried, or foroAd into Uic c>ppi>ftit4t 
S^-*ai. Tbr il^ock of tbc encounter, when the bftll wm firml ibrnirn 

t^*j\ DUBl h&i'tf bven Kom^lbing terrific i ;Lnd the term *Sava£rr 
^--'ttinp* (lurd vrlicn lb«jr pUj^cd in bobnuilcd abuei) cxpr«-«*c* 
^*>* cboTBcirr of (he game ; — 

I*Tl««i.-' ooftlwU wcN Dot QQf^uontly fivUl tc mApy of Uio 
^OoubiteALt. I bavo beard old poraona bjwak of u odobnled t^nt^mj/. 
^CorfoOc A]^im«t Stiffhllr. on DU* CunLmoUn utili ibr^v bnailrm ou 
^^cb dde. iSoforu tbo bali niu throwt] up, iLc ^urf>:klk men uit^uircd 
j^ta&liJtgly cf tbu IsufToik umu if iL^y hoti bron^bt Uiuii ccffioa! 
^%9 SulTolk luuUi AtUn fuurtvuu buunt, imul-^} llio viutun^ Niiw 
^MfthB v«co tbn rip«nh of iha conflirt in a fortnight.' 

Tb« t>reittinrit[e« of she EakI Ati^liran dialed hnvf b^rn 

^ibftostireEy In^nird in Korbya ' Voctkbulary ' an<l ia NuUd 

* Eiymologiral and Cnmpnmiivr (itouarv/ wbirb is apfwndrd 

*« bia etoeJIcni 'Guide l'> Varinoutb/ It i» « dialect obouiul- 

^a; iq <|iiiiiiil .-ttid rAprtf^«aiv(? jibi/itr*, btu «jnt* wbiilii tu» fflr 

^U its proDilDciAiion c>wa, it it ImpoBcible to imitate or mprt' 

^Joce.^'ai] ludi^M-'MbLkLU odd apl&y moutbed utCrrnncOi hi 

^>bicb all Ibo or^ARt of ftproeb, tongue, icmtb, and ptdaTe, ifsoiii 

^ be mnninfE firul oJ one aDOtbe:r in lull piny/ l'ri>bibLy tbi' 

itifftaie i>r Sdiool Boardt, tht* Hprend of nUiraii, ibe influx i>t~ 




IM 



Norfolk, 



ilrnn^^en, anri lh« genrrAl 'opening up ' of tbr rtiuntvT^ hmfv 
<loiic iniirh In Hoftrn and harmonur iho trrriblir sLirill n^cil&tiv< 
known ns the 'Norfolk dranl," which still, howrvrr, lingirrt 
unong thi- whcTTT mcit and fann-Ubaurcrc, and i« ftlmoAt ft* 
eiAttng anil unpleasant lo Lhe car a« tlic ' SuRVilK whine.' 
rorbj notices whal he mils 'th<7 teniiity of the vowel pro- 
nQndatiun/ a» up|iD»c(l to the aonorouB and mouth-tilnnf 
fpeerh of Noithem KngUnd, thown in inch vArjiEioni u 
'kctcrb* (cfttch), ^credJc icmdlc), * hin * (hrn), 'JinuAr/,' &c 
There is a tendpno^ to clip vt^weli <hort nnd to muddie 
together the svlliLblc^ of two or ihroi^ wi^rdi : ibtit wc hnrc 
'dufTuR* for 'c]ove*hou«iV 'nllon' for ' alwav*'; noil « tmr will 
>«y, ^ M'aiini bod me u'into th'arrhru-d and call m'unde 
I'houfl',' Thr^ nc4^iit ia aIao frequeml^' laid u[inii lhe lail 
ijIJnble of such words a* 'eacile,' 'positive/ 'eovv': but, ai 
AtcLbisli'jp Treocb obsc-iirrB, Lhe protiuncMlIon \.% prubnblv thr 
aitcipot and oorrocl one as retained hy the lower nrdcn, and not 
a barhnrouji peTTcrsion nf language. 

Roth the vo*?flbulnri*j quou^l above — especially Natl's— are 
tnoai ouriotis and inalructive reodini;, Thej arc rich in 
Dbtolete but e3;pre»ive terms, never aeea in prim exri-pt in « 
provincial dictionaiy, but hMid«^d down bj oral tradiiiona friMn 
lailjcT to ion ; and it mav be noticevl that ti^r most numfrmui 
cln»H of woidi are those eipreutve of anger <]r contcuipl^ bodily 
wrA)<ne» or infirmity, and physical excrllencca or dcricirncIcK. 
Alrhaugh many of these word» have pus{?<t from the region of 
claAsicaL English, ihcy are to be found in i'lisior^a vcrst* on the 
Inrtner'i life written cpntuiics o^o- Prohahly the cwo he«i- 
known Norfolk words are *bor' (fthort for *n«ij£hbour 'I and 
' inawtber ' (a glrlj^ both of which w«r u>cd by Mi. FVgifoty ; 
bat the etymology of his terrible oatb *gormcd' cannot be 
tmed. That cjtbaliallt: phnue, * Sammodithee,^ which puudrtl 
Sir Tbomaa Browne, is said to be still In use, and is int<>rprettfd 
* so mot I lhe ' [(,& so ma/ [ thrive}, or limply perhaps ' same 
unto thee.' The good wil^ *haf9e> and jnfllet wirh a netgb^ 
bonr, And * froiscs a few danneck' (fries a few pancjtkc-a) for cho 
ploughbova' lea ; they take tbeir * twvrr ' jluncb) on ihi- Ktinny 
aide of a * pightie ' (^encloaod fit^td) i and if Ibt^y tee a looto 
■tone aboLit^ they ^ bull it into th«: boll * (thii>w it inh) th^ ditch). 
Children still play ^ bandr-fao^hoe * (trap and bftU), ' one 
Hnd thirty' or 'nine holes,' aa I hey did in Bishop Ldttimc/s 
lime; or they ' titter-cnm-tottrr' (seesaw on a |>1ank). They 
are fond of ' coshes ' (awcclmcata) or ' frcdy-frailiei (Jostifc 
Shallow's 'little liny kicktbows'); and 40(uetiini>s they tesjt 
ibe 'cjJimanco cat' (tonoiKshell), or utCcr a sod v«ledictiott 

lo 



C0 ' Buhop Bnmaby ' (the lady-bird) if it »|iuU« on ibmr hand ; 
^htf vatca the ^ inDvUhf J knnppini^ the doilmnni ' (thr (hmi^h^i 
ftnrr^king th<» siiAiUaWlh) ; th^y lltien ta the * h^rli^y bird" 
^aixhtiiiC*I<^} ^^ *^c * billy-wii ' (owl), nntl ^re drcMlfulljr Aftai<I 
^iflbe *buttt»r>bump' (blit4*rri) ; sometimes Ihry *ffWtf^ (fttlget) 
^3r *pmblo^ (frTio)i *>'' ^i*c Iht^y nr« ^pli<^e>y * (fretful), in wbidi 
^cuc they iriLl protntblj' W ' cloutint/ * whanged,* or * yurkvdt' el 
^«t ft 'clip,' ot a * »utvu>,' or & ' aiAvrara' — a tilt>w or aJnp for 
'vhich there «.k »oine ibirt/ a^noa^rias in ihe Eoat Aiigtiau 

Ic 13 but a atop fruin xhc dliilcct of the coiinly to its ir-ulitions 
Aiiil Icilklnrr ; but id Norfolk wc find tew of ihoae fnnolful and 
romuitic Ic'ficJKl* which pcrvotlc the HijfUWds And thr liordnr, 
Th^rr ia in fact an ^LlTnott vrmire absonci? of wbat Fi^rby cralU 
*th« po«irj of Kupf^nlilion/ and ha naciiboa it to the flat 
uid mDacftanvm chftrncirr of the scenery. But whntf»vcr the 
Norfolk ^r^n^ry may bo, it la certainly nt>t ' oion^^tonoui,' aad 
he would more li^hlly hare attTibuIrd tbia dcfi,<ct I<i tbc pro»(Llc 
and uaiinagtnalivv chara^irr oi ibe ^ful^fl>tk pc-a«ant, who 
ftiDOii; bu muny viitaca hft* ccTtoinly not the iligbtcat tinge of 
rotDance ur lenEiment. If anything, he PKa^H:erAlPK M the b#at 
and woial qualitira of hia rncv. He i» iiurdy, icII'-rcliAnt, and 
Ubonoua; bat lie ia »}%(* prrjuctiei-d, Hlubbiirii, anri di^lib^rate, 
with % Fooled Antipathy to innovation and a lirmlT-acnl«d 
niQlieuipC for a]] who dweij iii the ' Sbverea,'— tbiil t^t, beyond tiie 
fonfiiMa of Eaat Aoglin. On« fanll ho baa in pnxticuJAr (a# 
thoie who bftTc caDraucd th« county at the time of a gcncraJ 
rl^rtion muat bai'o djiooveivrl): it i« almott imp»B«ible even 
kv hii beat fricndi to aaccrlain what hia real vjcvi* juid Wiihca 
aiv oo any given aubj«^rr He alwayi aniw^n n ncieitlnit * in 
what may bv cnllod tho dubitatur or api^roiiinntinf; al^^le-. Ho 
b alwaya feeling fin* what h« has Ut say through a mazi* of 
lani;l«d eipletires, qualiGeations, rt.-traotalion&, and correct ioits.' 
Bui if tlicr Norfolk p^'AAAUE la not rumauiic, he 1% and alwaya 
baa b«co, imetiaply svpervtitioua. In tbc scTencernlb c«ntury, 
ibe county bad an cvj reputation for witchcraft, and waa f^T 
■oa* Mtaja the happy buniing-groand of thi> n-»t<>rjr>«pi Matiliew 
Hopktika- He waa said to bare cheated tlic dcrjl E>f a ctTtaia 
nkCtnotvidiun book, in which ihe nainea of all the witchea to bn 
fiMHMl in BnglaEid wvr« murntd, aud unhappily a lajgc propor- 
tion of tbcm Mcm to haie livrd in Raat Anglia, \o f«v«r 
iban uity miaerable wretchea were esu^cuted in SaJIolk in a 
aingle year, aiiJ aiatcru aufTtrrrd al Varmuutij at ihe Auixe of 
16(>4 ; and in the sAine yrar Sir Mutthcw Hale eontV^'miied 
two wRlcLcd cfuuca to be banged at Bury on the tharfe of 

L 2 l>ewilct^jnf 




IM 



:^crJoiL 




bowitching come rbildrrn, whtn Sir Thomat Brawns, 
lumvcir wiiUfo an clabotair iivativt^ oa * Vulffv Erroi 
dM^lMei.1 fh^r rhn fir^ from wHiHi th4» rhililrt^n !4atT4>i4*<l wt 
* itfUarEkl biit beijehtcncd bj- the ptJircr ol ttic iIctU, Ci>-opcrftU 
wUh tlir in!ili47<* of thf witc;lif*i/ Thi>ii|jti tliU iru ttin 1i 
recortlrd nccution i^r vrJubcriLft in KngiftuJ, the b«Licf in t 
rindirtive 'tnd mnJiijcnAHt povteo «f tbi- Sruanin^ mui' or I 
*«]«.' woiriAn/ as vrtitl ua curious f^rm* of vxoraBCn ■ 
dlviiuuon liv hiljtcT luid keif, liiigtrml uu ilLuin^ tbn first ti 
of tho prcscDC ccnitiTj- ; and Forliy, wiitin^ to l?S3:f, dcdft 
tlim * ll iLe rtfiKAii] uf five pifUijJa wt'ii* ugaiu unVn-d (or i 
ditcovory nf «v«i-v witch, n luflicicm number would ba found 
furnish a decent mcome to Anj modr-rn Hfipkttu/ He menlid 
th&t, vrvn %i\ J4t«* n» 18£&, an old mnn iviu * kiiriim * in the htm 
pond on the villajfc ^rccti of V^^ickhaiii SuAitti ; and Dr> Joutp 
IQ bii 'Ait'iidy,^ ^ivct «-v<*ral ruriou* iutlaooe* of thr< ftuiviv 
of this ' L>rU-ni by waUt ' and olUrr |>i)pular supcratitiifiM. 

And hfTf^ wr muiE take <mr Iravc? of NWfdlk — 'that iwc 
and civil county/ aa Bishop Hall calls it, — dear aXike to 1 
Apoi-liinaD ^nd itrch/rrdo^itil^ H;id ipac^ alloitfHl of it, aau 
tbiD^ mifht h(lV1^ been laid of its art Ircnjurct, its cfasmii 
wntcrring-pkuea, jii i^>lf-links. its ^'elieif piL-v^rvi-s, ii> ^jkig'n 
marrel*, «DCb ah ihr fumou* iiiunimiLif^nimi ortif^ and th« >o 
HtM^] forrsC ncjir Cnvinrr ; and ii>ini?thin^ atifjuld be M 
(and will Iw ssid Ui^r^ut'teT) ol' Norwidi iiich — that lair d 
drftCriWd by Lftvcn^ri^, with it» quaint ttrrcts, lis couniJi 
churches, its orcbardi and ^ardc^n* hy the waterside, ernwc 
by the * grey old castle' and the 'cloud-encircled cathedi 
spire/ 



( »9 ) 

AltT. VI. — -V.ito />4im n IHnni- Rv tli* Rl. Him. Sir Miiutil- 
tluttrt E. dmcl Diiff. Two \oU. London, 18V>7, 

YORK HOUSE, Twicicnhnin, io lona- ihc hotnc of tbe 
■^xilvit pnncva of tUc l[i>uif? uf OrU-Liiu^ js fn-cturutly 
ntatiomd in %\i^ P'^?^* ^^ ^^^ book ivhr>iL<* iit1p preci>ii<>« ihriw* 
Tinoft, u tbc counlTj--1ioUf« of Sir M, E. Gmin DufT. In IS^rd, 
l»^ing th«n Arpml>fr for tb^ Elffin Bur^hi, Sir Mounttinari 
b«<AmA Mr. GUditone'ft LnJcr-E^^crctAry for IndiA. Jn the 
iDct>iid OlAdttflnian GfU'^rnrnvni \w vxchingMl the |wtt for n 
eonviponcliD); one in t^u CotoniftI Office la 1(^81 he wr4-nE a« 
Ouvftniir ro Mnxlrai. During thp iniprvnl bclwocu ihc- 1>rgiii« 
ninj; n*nl Uic ci<»c o1 hn ofhcial Itk in EngUnU, — iL^t u, lot 
*oiD» ibirireii ji^hvs — li iii^il io W «hiiI Irj iliv fficnilK \fi i\\f 
^ipLUbk occupanc ihot, n* the (-"osmopolit^n Club in C'barEcv 
Scmi uaa die tiDciurnal iif^arpn of tbc iuteUigi.-nc forei|EU9ri co 
MtdavUgkt pnriuliio wu York Hou«9, TivickenbAm. 

There wu iiMnribli;!), itcxk by week, dann|£ the pcfind bow 
■lAmed, a comnarLV coniijinEly chJiOfjinj* but nlnarc in(«re>llnp 
m iLa pirrMriial Loiii])oMlii>£i, uud ijftcn utOK- ff-prcvcmatiTelj 
CounripoiitniL thin prrhiijw anv ronfj^mporapv rdfm*, Kr(iP»t 
Kerua. oo bi» occnsional TiniU lo ibis country, we,* icMom 
■^Wnt from thp mof of h)< Kmlth ;>rarewujj. Thp ^onBri<iU4nmii 
*Hil the rnnd reireat of the poet I'ope h»d been ncxi door, and 
^hit, in th« villa^ church hnrd by, thir brlllinni ion nf llie 
CZbeapfidit Jinei^draptrr iituJ pinuely comniennor«i<Hi the Uit 
^winK^plju^ of hii iwii jrirpoti, ittmrttmcji moved tlw ifreat 
5^mct aiti*t of word< humorously lo sp-culnle uti tho tiT^rerj 
^tldcenoc of tljr Kti|;1Uh rrfiifirr. An^ftluu' t>i ihr Iretjuent 

Su«t>, a future Primi? Minister of RcpubHcan France, vra« 
IhRibot, more an^UclEccl tn the grave funuality i^f bii pcrsonftl 
^^iptvE tban Jalt^ Ferry or M, Waddington. It wu a1 York 
*^u« tbftt be first beeanic acnuainted with contemporary 
^Ubjliciff* in tli« pnliiieiil life o1 V-Inglnnd, — with Mr. Joseph 
^-^imherlnin, ih^n oeginninj; to eistablisb hi* aarendency m the 
dtiuw of 0>[Dmo:i!i; nrili Mr. VVi|]i;Lin Rnibbontr, who, a» 
^ttmtjcr tof Livcrp*Ji»l, wn* filling *ojncthin|; |jk« the taine 
^i«ctT u St. Sirphrit'i which Mr. Whilbteeid bivl birld belortf 
«>i>i i or *ritb Sir John Lubbock, who had iucceedeil Mr. Lovo 
^ Mrmbef for London Univi;ratEy, though during hi* weekly 
^ti to Twickenbatn, hke bi« hctx^ h« occupitHl hiiDit-lt more 

^nb butuiiy (hail pulilKa. 

Among othan, fresh from Westmin^ier or PalJ Mall, who 
*nc riaiiora ni tbc rivenide rilja, wa« the late X^rd Fam- 
Woogb, biicKclf a p«noiiii iraxaiitg for &11 unw Uk vWtw '■iV^ 




laO Ccuraoj^lttans in tka Jlctisf <yf' CorrtmcTU. 

IncrrdulouBly aik, ' Whafft in jk nainv?' The tiral Tho\ 
M«| of wlLoin liUior| I'Ah iu» wl>ii bv hi» pen ibe p*u<i&4fe of* 
Ch&rW I- H» ^[iiilutlf? to thai iH^nrfaclor, nffrr lli« poftHiilUy- 
for >riv]n^ Litii Lud paaarij anay, diil iiut pr^vrnt bim from 
bcontning Srrrptary to thr Long P*rliamrm, Hp pmbfHli*?ii lL»r 
cxj>ericncf? thus gained in the most autlicniic rcturd «f Uio 
Aia^mbly. ThoniAR Mny 11. follnwi^il il« hiauiTiogrA|ihrr in tlie 
■t4T|i* of hit nnniciakt^ aiwi prodcccjsor. Hi« licntuc indocd wii 
nm limifrd w s s[[i^1(> bud^ dr u> our puricrd. li rmtifAcml ibt 
whole l)uJd rif t'oiifttiiLiliLiurJJ progrcn of an ontu«? cctiturjr, fn>D 
ITtiO vt 18CD. The knowlcKlfrv? thai hw] tmn indUpcaMble 10 
«o miuij S|>enk«Ti o( the Home of Couii&ont wat, for ih« 
in*Uuciii>i] iif po»Crritv, i'oiidcnsrd t\ him inlD hi* nx^rl^ on th« 
lawi, privilt?(^<«, and uiAf*i.<s of ParLnm^ul. Thcr urboDti gnvitj 
nf the m&dt vrha bccaiui' Luitl l'~ai»horoU};h ouly a Icfr d*ja 
brfoTT htfl d«nih,wu the tame in pnvAti? life jva ai MrSnenkcri 
tabW. In one thins ^^ resembled li» friend Abraham Uajwan). 
l.ikrt him. Sir Thnmiu Knkin^ Mnv, howi^i'rr imimnif* tbr 
cirde wheTc he moTed, n'a* never betraved into an ttre^ponubie 
tttt^ranc'e. Havwnrd, when LUHuallv ^ukt-d hi« ouiniutt <iii aiiv 
point iu public life bv otic of hi* bi{;bl> -placed frionUtf such 
M Lord Palmrmon, mrvrr AiuweriHl olThnnd- He first jitnrrid 
himie'U mental)^' in ibe puaition of a Mini'tcr of tb« C'rown. 
Then, ftfirr ilifr Irranurrs of his viried ipadlog that ■fii'titei! to 
bear tip^jn the point hn<l been EurrcT«d by hinif And the ^en<;rml 
mural applied intt^lWtua)!^ to the patliL-uUr caie. he ipokr^ 
at no moment li^hlljr ov poTfunetoiily, though it b*pp«i:t«d to b^ 
iiCTnsi ibe WAlouts and the wiae^ with no second listener preaeoc 
Tbi»> t()i>, WM Li>r<l FATtibt^mugb't babll, a* U was the babil of 
the Kcneralion to which he belonged, — that of the TocqiMTilUia 
or Pr^njftl'PumctuU in Praiict*, and the Cbavlet Grerille* in 
En^Urtd, Th«i« were all men of the world abuvT everything. 
Bat men< ilippnnrv for (hr snke of railing a tmile iirenH?«3 ut 
tbotn the mnrh of ill^hroiHling, nsd wa* o* such uncoaaeioiulT 
Ahunneil Vikv a aix:ial Hohviun. 

One or litu more memben nuj be mentioned of ibe 
Breattfnat Club, aa, with no eieluane rtfftrreut.^ to that m«a)| the 
•octeCy sometimes called itself. Tbo title, perhaps detij-nedly, 
perpoluated Uoircriity a«4oi;iatIona. It was then noC uncoia- 
mon among nntlogoua eittnu of the p^iod. Lord Hoogfaton 
inveited the term with a fresh and entertaining si{iiuCic»Bce of 
bit own. Mr. f^ladstone bad not ceaved to ilJtutnkto, with 
stricilj A<«dcmie bovpitaJily, hit on-n id^a of the dmoI; for» 
ihfiee fw ioat deoadev agu* the Lutidon wotbl was aendbly lect 
CQMumcd with it* own dttUactinK caret or it* more cxnciitig 

^leaturei 



of bbufR llua ift tLv csw- lo-iJu_v, nhen the UioakUvt 

tpRj h ne€ !«*« extinct tbiw ibr? clomcttic tapper. Of lh« 
■OMn of chi« pauiculv l^ruup (be preieot Lvrd Rvm/ u 
pah^ Aff oalj tarriTor, Ancilhrr who Mongpd to ir vm 
Uii AjIIwt KosicU. He lived ncorlj' to the present deCAi^e, 



VbM he drpan^t thrn* wni taliFii fnim liw »vn% of mi^n one 

H* wiled ft jnd^mcQi that, wilLin buEnan lutiil», wa« in- 

Uftk^whfa the intrllDciuaJ ijunlily id which RrnEin hju ^ivrn 

^ MM €>f ^ yratBb mriotui. Thii oooibLa&tion madi* Lord 

■^thar A traaurj of T^ricd informAtioia, rich r%ta soioiig hit 

•*B iBOiliLteO (cep^ratiaQ. Hxl hii pow«r of cupreauon, or 

^4 itnpftthj ivjtb tbe n&aU vf a ]H>ptiUr audioacr, at all corr^ 

*|i»ifaiii to hii monu] ^ifu nr knowlmlgp. Lord Arthur Kuiarit 

*^igtat to tbc liaust^ oi CojnmoiiR and on tb<? pl&tronn, have 

*^flirf»l tonif <if" tb«" iTifiHriin^ whirh vrns mon bv hi* rrlativp^ 

^-oidJobn. 

Rj-tt?tiibUutg Luni Arthur RoEUKfll In hU varinl Acit[iiaintAnc« 
^%)th citiM «nil ai»n wm li nuAQ tomewbAt hU junior, whA, on 
^^ cotrj apoB life, diipUjed Almmt unique promi4e. The 
^l«li<^« phiiR^piomy, pvrp«tUBlly ouivvrin^, Mt it fltM-nied 1o 
^io, with KuiiblliLv, at i>ac« marbed Hftlpb Loflc lu auite out 
^ place in a dMibcr*civr [uirtnhly, !r wa* intlonl only hv an 
veodeBt ibal he bad lound bii wny into lb? Hou*e ol Commons, 
In aiftity rrcpM^ ho wiu idt^Ally fitiml for n diplomhtir cnn^r. 
His hkbitoftl modes of ciprcision, and the mcrred dcrercnce of 
his uuuui«ii lUf^ireslnl lUe pu^uh-^Msiuti, in riu tmall mauiurr, of 
the Italian iiai^craft knovrn to ibo Middle Agcfl. Unfortu natal y^ 
as it aTterwiinls proved, but most happily hi at the mi^inent it 
wmid, Earle m^ Mr. Ditm«li at our P^Lna ICmb»«y, lo which 
be WW* ibcn ailac^bnl. lie wa4 at ontx fMcinatcd by the notice 
uf the orifcinal genitii whow? vrritings hr already hiul by bcATt. 
Mr. IKsracIi, thongh uocoanected with the school. BumeUmcs 
fblKowed l^ord Palmrrsion'a example of §:nin^ ilown tt> the 
Harrow ^Speech dayv' Th« bnUisnt reputAtion ol bi« ftilurc 
private Miirtaiy uia_> Ln^e been known to htm fioui Larlf^'t 
bo^iah daj«. His di»iinctions had been monlionod to the 
Matearooii ulito by tb- yuun^ man's pijtule nci^tiaiatiiacer 
Mr. Ro«s th^n concfirmcid clotoly with th» active :iianHf>-m<<nt 
of the Cociservative Fariy, To lilaric tbc mecLJni; wa4 much as 
if a schoolboy, whose favourile hero« vr^re found is Peter 
Simple, Hniry Lomrquer, or Darid Copperlioldt had been made 
frrr of the (company of \fnrrynl> I^Trr> or Dirkeni, Ii was 
impoasihle thai be «hou]d reject the chance ol lollowintf the 
ioriuiiHa of him who b&d drawn Vit^ian Grey and Coiiin^rtby, 

Luciftlt 




152 OuntopolitanM in tAt hotue ttfCommoar. 

Lueinn Gay and RIgby. Tlie twrn rliplomn |)jumh! inut K\tn 
io\h>Y/irtf: *>i the joim avtbur of HouH^bold Snifrwge; M»lrr<f(i 
the HnUH ol' Commons m Mrmbcr fur BerwkK. alt#-rw«il* 
fur iMnltk'n, and eul»cq\jtnlfy juiTt(*d ibr <tovf*rnmc«]l m Pir^ 
JiMrnniiArj Str^Teinrv lo ilifr tht^n eiiitmg Pom Lftw Bund. 
Mr- Earlc bad a »r?niufl tor poliliral n^l^tiatiobB uf & <leliotf* 
kind, lit won s»inu rF^(<ruiU Uj bj» |iHity ; ht; cunlimed cLe 
ftllc^Unc* of more. While thus occupied, be coftiidrnwt hiin- 
arU li> h»ve pledged hu chief not to biiu^f in a Kcl'vrm Bill, 
Wlitn iK^wfnro tin* |>t»rhy-nUriii*U Cnbinni ndopC«l x diflerrn". 
cojrfte^ he hHd himx^tf lo hjtvc been coiDpromiBed. A^ a cnu 
of hnnour, h# nw no ahernativ^* bjt lo reftfgri ^l* olfm» And 
kit l!iti^|jab political life for evfrr. Hi» opinion of tbo coailixt 
of bii chief HTM ffxpre«»ed in the remark* in tbe Houn* of 
C(>nijnuni with whicb a n-ttTiDf- Miniattrr nnndntiort his ntigna- 
linn Anil tin rvnuttnn. 

Id BLicb a cnsc ni thiti there will eiI<»a^& be tivo :iL-cio«Bta of 
nay individuril's t:uEidmjU It, It <m\y iait lo laj, m a auktccr 
nhicb bna At ditfi^rcat timcM rUIracIrd much altcttUoin, ibftl^n 
if prrs^nnl relniion* meTr lU^ver re-cAtablishcd Lielirfivn Mr.^ 
Ditra4*li and hi* Jonn^r seeretarv, Ralpb E&rlv r«tain«Mj, to I 
dii} of liU drulb lit Ktcu^cttatrli iu 1878, ibr fin-ndcbip of tuc 
men a* tlje preient Prime Mtnblcrnntl tbe Uie Lord C»majT»if 
Uctivccn ihc lAltrr'a custnu poll tan LutpitAlItiea at 1 li^bcIrr-^Ml 
dnrinir bis Coloni^il Sprrrtwyahip and Sir M. K, Orant Duff" ^ 
reaoioDft at York House, ntt cntcrtiuninif parallel, aot below 
dignitj of pnlitjral •i>rS<>U>gy, mighc be drawn. It it. bnwn 
enouffb now to tay thnt both thi^sc boiU niny have louod t 
t^arlint Kn;;liib pmyHlrnt. in thf- ciiitivai«] company whi 
Mr Mtttbew Arn<>iil hut coniin«morftl«l oa compn*in)> < 
^eiiK of Ftlkla-od at Gieftt Tnw. 

Almost witliin & ttone'a throw of York HotiM li tb« vi 
wbicb, thfou^b manjt vJtiaMltidt-t of ]iiiipiJct<.iivbipt *iil1 rvlai. 
the cu^buatd bnttlcmema tbnt pcrpciunte the ur-bilcct 
whim of lloiace Walpole. Tbroufhuut thts perriod ju>l gUo(=:^ 
at, Stmwbcrry Hill, under ths roign of Franeos, uuIt Watc3e- 
grave, was the hoipitable meclinj^-g^ound of many otbcra beaitiJBM 
LilM»r*l poIUiriJin*, Travellm, when vkorld^nid^ pilgrim*^^ 
were the exception and not clic rale, jli»C reiamed from M pt^rtt 
oi ih^ rartli ; men v\%'t had made tbeir mark in my vorftticin oi 
on «ny *id<^ of politif::^; anyone who had achic^rd » n*putat «<''^ 
for talent, indiutry, or rmhiiidiunir — were wHroir* giir&t* lienrtatli 
\\w roof tbat Quuf« tbe remn&nu of the Whig Party for orer ■" 
drblon. TliU l»ly puMt^aed a vtry no(ic«nbl4^ bfotb^'r-iH-lifr^'t 
s&Mom Ab«*n: when h« wia in Knzland from the Stfnwbvrrf 

* Hill 





CiwucpctiUin^ m thtt Hau*^ of Coffrmopx* 



153 



H\\\ parti*!. In am/ «Atii1og-D« of the eipon«nU ot (or^'icn 
pnlicT in the titjuic of Common*, B pturiiiiicitl pEiiivr ittu«t W 
jifpn M I>arii1 UrqiihaH. Two «t tbe moil lemarkabU 
tliftiL^ wlikh, during ibc pn^M-iit cvuturj, xhr Wlin^ of thi* 
ronntrT hu undrnp^ne (m foreign pnlilic*, on? th* ^rovtb of 
' Ko«t(>f)boban,' and ifau abonduninf^nt of tbo iiutjoa tUftt Givmt 
Brjuin ii intrn-ftcil io iJi<^ innmi'-nHii<y' of lli*» (\intjnrntAl 
halwic* ol powj?r. Tbu speonU of lh«*c c^bau^?* ii t^hicfly 
utuciatml nllli x]w iiaiu« uf Uicbard CoLMlen^ tlie Tint wiib tlmt 
nf DtTid Un^ahctri. Thv latlttr haa not jW h^i^n Jond cwcnir 
inn.* Vet no person pcrhftps, who wna lo ^r<^fit « oelebnij 
in bi» dk^t '(^d who h»« not yet bv^-ii f^oiiv a wbole f^nemercin, 
i*motc jrcncr/Jlr fcigoltcn. Whether n;oT47 odd AiKCi1ot<-4 arc 
Wild uf OT«|ubnit or of nnoch»<r figure fnmiliAr Ea hit ^npntion, 
Hrarv Ihumtnond, it would bo ditticull lo my. Uoib tbo lint 
<mtar of ' Ruuo|>b'»hi[i * nnd thr cArXy di4f:i|>l<^ cif Irvin^iim 
■tt* aprjg(Ul^ bonouriblL* men, ol ;;oo<l parii and amic'Dt family. 
BMbUibfullj followtrd tb*^ (Xfujuiftnds o( Lhr-tr uwiivunftCirficw. 
V«ilbcr hod oiuf^h rrcjwct for what cat^h might bai<e dotcribvd 
M Che rul|;ar cunreoliuniilUics of a manufActurr^d ^«atUity. 
ilr Hmrr Ommm^kriH'* MMwrnrinn*^ are deAcrihed in manv 
^iw piuaK(c<^* of (hr <iTcTiJEc p\peT%, Of the idioivncnui<*> 
oJ DftTid Unjuhirit a/i 4*qual1y Auth4?ntir :iJ.'rriunT h^vs hci'n 
civ»a bj Xh^t In^t of hi« larviring i»timnl«4t ^^^ '"^ Lord 

Ttrt ino«t pmclicati noiiumf^nt of Urqiihut'i influ4»noe vmhlv 
tnottf u« tonjfty U tlic Turkisli BAlb. No London llftmmaoi 
inibe ncijEbbourbooil uf St. Jacu^s'i Street U suj)i>oTU<d with 
ibr tune splfttdouT or kept at tbe same temperature ju that 
■rtjch fotnin] piri of Ut<|abftrt'fi hoote nl IVatfofil. Into 
1^ at & temperMitrc ol IbO'' tcp]^U'i viflitorat arriving* when 
tbeir hoftt wft* en^ii^vx!, wcrr shown Vt AWAtt tlirr gn-At m.^ii's 
EcqveaicDce. If tnofcnitodc ii to be mcuured by iotiu«-rice, 
pm aodottUedJy Uri|Ljbart was. The scbooj -nbicb he erratet) 
Lia pioTOtl ini>r» poworful than ihfi religious snet whose 
ipititaa] cbiel' may be Cdward Irving, but irhose sucial 
*f^ia«r waa undc^ubte^lly Henry Druoimond. In person no 
toll Enrn> rcvcmblirig rach oihcf ao niu<b in their le^ulated 
titiEuium, iTOLild he more unlike. David Urqulmtt was only 
^■e jeoi* in the House of (,'oininonSi from 1847 to Itt^^* 
Uiiring thia time he rpprejuiDird the borough of Sta^urdt whoio 
Xubcrs At ditfcrcot tijaca have olten been in tbcir way parJia- 



Hr- Umplurt, irln viiti Uini in lft(r\Dn1f iliud fn IfiTT. 



' nr- I'mpiurt, iriin viiti uini m iKV^ttni) 
t 'tDlhelJajiof tho DbOdln,' l>tw, (kSl. 



m«RCM]| 



M 



154 CoAnnt^njUtan* in thtt House qf' Ccjntnons* 

ujrular^ ptnuon^es. Hcnrj' Drutiiunutd lua^ litfv« poiw iKii * 
A^itE nl Se. SU'pb4>n'ft tomvtthat longer. Hut the r&rity of bii 
AEtcDtlancca made him ail cauallj unfaiDilIu figuto io Ct« 
aetiTiiLilv. Mr. Drummoiid, looking, from thp vay in uLiidt 
tic cMrtfil lii[|i*clf> frttiicr tuUr^r tli^n tir was, displared ta ift 
t<xltL*mc* lV>rm the tlittugonl for coctuine ttinl ik irwikUoaillj 
permitted lo millionuroi. To thia d&y there arc owflf vto 
{^nn n^mrtnltrr chr niriouji aniltitiity t*f tlir nld-«v»rld b^t, atiicb 
aunnountcd the d&rk yclloWt wiry iock>« and protrudMl aliovi 
lii»T ibik^f^^ l>roA« (if l1i<- 4:apm'Iiiu?i \ivoA. Mr C'rqulinn, oa the 
ntticr linnd, rcx^rvcd any peculiarities of apparel fur hi# cooairj 
lioiu4^ OIL llir liaiiks uf lUe Cidiit-. A nuiii]), luoaf^ily-kuit nuiL 
bn wu broad' b TO wed r wttli a utrikingly intoUigottt eipmsiiD 
litid vitrcanel/ f^ir. If giiud taitc in ciututDC be kUuhu 1)f 
unobETU(iv«D0«f, Mr, Urqnhart vrai a w«i]I-dres«ed maiL. Hp 
spoke, A4 he vrr<»tc, witli poiDt lu wril oh vrilb ramditx* Ht 
never IijilI, ai tbe ]ilelon[{ o!)jeL-t of bU difttruit« Palinniunt 
njHiivt viijoyed, the car u( liiu Hou»c, liui there was DonsA 
irho«e- canver«nlion W»* mote nppredaTed in U»e lockl purl)«U 
of be. Stq>hen*i. Beyond any ol hiA conteia pontics hit loiiuCDCir 
wa« Mt (liroujfh ^verj ci»rnvr of t1i« country. In •omrtquarteoi 
and in tbc cntc of aomc tDdlviduttlsi noiabLjr in tbo oaH « 
Mr Joieph Cuweu, tluc anthaniy livn «titJ. In lli« bW^ 
lUgunKiat or public f«cling, Le inif^ht BOmotimo« lUo tuonf 
l.in^ujLfE^, ihciu^h he ever ti?m|M:r^l Uie ^>f'rrerrid ^niui of t^ 
Sout by bii proverbial taimiaest. Whatever th«* fervour tbiitiD 
by biui in I'arliauieat, i>n platfonii, or lo ibv depiiutioiu of iu* 
Foreign Afl^irt Commit l«ea, pervading at these bodies did ibe 
whole cuuDUy, Mr. LIr<[ubart knew tw a nicely tho temper »i 
ttiofle with whom ho bail lo deal. Cvpry ayllaMe And ertTj 
If est are Vfcrc cntcuialed beforehand with prcciMon- Tbci 
Kr>]ihim fail^^i to pioducr^ ib« «iact reiull the «j>f>ak>*-r wanmL, 
or to dee|>Gn ttir veu^rralioa which Uus ^noinc, ii eccentric* 
leadifv o( men bail generAii^i for htrmelf in Ehe liosotiu f>( bti 
diAcipIo*. 

tir(|uhart*s eon«etcntious idea waa llial br faithfully rcprr- 
■anted the traditional l^orv doctrine as rexarda RustLa, nxsl 
imprrsH'd Iry ihi5 youii^r Fitl uu hXn, followera at the pciiud ' 
of Itic 0<:snkaw cpiioilo. In hit spooch at the Lord Mayor's 
dinner, Nitvi^uber 'J, li^[}i\ Li>iU Satishur; duLtACterivrd Eug^tiab 
diairutt of Kunia as an aniiquac^^d sup«rstitioa of diplomacy. 
This disiiuti Mr. Urquhut did luuch lo intciuifyt bat not mote 
than Mr. Ditraeli himself, nor, at diflercnE periods, ib« * TimM ' 
newapapiT. Nor did Urqubait'a rebutueocc «V«r outalri^ UU 
itBowitfdgif. Thotp who refer to his sprccbei or bii wrltine^' 

Mk^cci&Uy 



OumCfoliiaju in the Hotue of Cwudkhu, 155 

ttpK^xUy hi* hook ofl 'Tb# Pitt ftnit Piymqc of Riifiia/ will 
noc fiod didcb cattraTA^uioe of acnlimcni <n cxprcuion. They 
iiil mber recDgtii«e ibe dc!V rvAectlun a{ thov intFTiviUcicitt] 
Tim whicb wcrv ««maC Kinong ccIucaUnI EDgli»hm«n from 
tha diji of the Crimritn War to ibotr of the Hulf juiui tixiublcm, 
A> a piecv of Jjicr^A' workmiiiuhip, Mr. UrqubartV * Pilian 
of HfTColea^ IB bii b«t txiuk ; Lib iM^liriU witb bU wa 
tboBodKl tbroucboui life up to ih« Ja_T of hu dc«Lb^ Hu 
^■BpblrU would miock ft t^ofxl-«Locd room* Tofcdier wit^ bi^ 
WdU tb#j' wouM DM th** viag of ± libr»rT. In 1H37 or 
I^Darid Lrqubut bcf^BA tktc *Frwtfo|jo/ 'Iliu ai«rkcd urn 

en 111 lb<r lilpfatufp of pt>Utici. \olbitig o( thr mrt bvl Ifnrn 
■nnipi^d iMforf^ Only luprrfect itfkilalioiuof it baro appokrod 
■met. Tbe injui at ill^oiMitx'tc, bitioricAl, aikI poUtBuil iiif<ir* 
nvjoa aIxhiI rorrJ^Q ci>(uitric« which it coutatQc ii tlill taw-ful 
U ^ MiMleilt uf iLrM- msttcri, Su^Lj a rsrinty of dnuUed 
TBtlilMtmti' crrtaioJv cao be (oiuul oovheft! clae. After % few 
.'••Ti liir ' Portfolio »!»» abA(kdoo«4. The neit Borial poblic*- 
Hon Bitti which Urquhxri wa* r-onoecc^ w&i iuund ai ShrtBrld 
^ buc Irofuidc, ouce » well-knowa Socialist. Tbi« pro- 
wim «mntinunl dtiriDff vnae jrwv. Afurf iia •aipniiirMt 
uri|ibftrt tot io wofi oo lL« * Diplouallc Hvricw/ That pub- 
wioa WB* ool^ au>ppeil bv lu miiuir** demib, 

Dtqcbaft** casipo«itioiu appealed only to a limited public 
iante who trad thna BFfiuuilj acLTjrird (bcji iuiplicitU at the 

Siri delivefisd bv an inaptrod patriijt on Eogiiab intetetta in 
tru Eorapv. Howcrer CKUaraffant aoai« of bia view« quj 
UiP br^fl. of hU penonal cfaarm lb«r« U no dmibu RraciUMi- 
'■^ Kcpablicana, bi|^b Torioi oltiY-OcmocTati, all alike coo- 
bvrd Oavid Uraohan*! faicinatiirn. Impcrrioua, aatucrmtic, 
?*t fi«cip06« aikd urbaiMi, Urauhan, by UiM* and other attri- 
^U«, shoved liinuelf a Utrn Indcr of toro. Id that capadtjr 
^Jnieht perbap* be compared to one from wboQD ha wotild 
wettruidL iu horror. b«t wbu attachrd hU fclloWH:icaX«rc!a to 
^ wiih a itWDpb allowed to few — Joacph Afauini, 

Ai^er kuuokcuJuIIt cuntcatiiif Shcrfficld in 1S41, Unjabvt 
CMVfd Parliaw«oi a« \lffnilk«T fvr Suiioffd, aad b«ld ib« «M< liOB 
'M7 to ltib± A man wk-t knovra hia «ibje«t. aad who bj^ bia 
4fUlM cofBpuaarp <:alma inlCfni|Mioi)t can with patirace and 
V**4 boBMHir alwny* compel a bcaiioc in tbe Huai« of Com- 
'^•iit. Unjuban'a traJ juwrr waa, howerrr, »xira-parliamm« 
^■J. Hia plan waa to viait tbe Cowoa, cbirHy in the iHirlbiTra 
f^MJca, wkrrv br bad prraoiiAl frimda mid bla cuuiuullrra 
VT* Mtablith^^ lo deliver addraaaaa nofl ^vmltrtpd to politiea^ 
^^Qcatii; or fotci^Ot but corctiii^ the whole kiM>wn am ci( 

etti«a 




1 



156 Cv*m(*jrfltifans i» W« lioum qf Commons 

class, the flpenkcr invited (^ucdiont, voludlAnlv «ubj«ctinff 
bimti^lf lo the procEM koown ci* 'b^cklmfi.' VVilb tcmpir 
iirkVLifileJ, Hiih mtirh mmutm4>a«, ofti^n with <^ntid«fnblff aii 
and huro^^ur, aIavavi trith hi|:h-brcd councij, ibc Apeakor 
anri tFiu:hf*r imiwt-rt?)! auy i]U4^itii>n3, direct or tLibiitiuir^* put 
to him, wbiJn vnrkn> of bi> hfinrei*, like Khoolboy* of a bjfooe 
gfln<.*mtiij[) at a »-rmnR, tihik nute*. Tb»F Ifut-nnUknl rrcf>n]i 
of ihe tnaAtei-V woidc are to thlft day tremaitred hy \ hn«t ol 
bib diBi;iplu>. Z.'r ;;v?r/i' Ihrnihrn, h »houId noi be ditlifDh 
f} cDEiitruci Iram ih<.' lUlnff wordi of lucb mcmt^randa a Miin- 
plctc jjtAtcm of tkc political, diplomatist vocialt aad moral Mtb 
of thin romnrknhlr man« whove :«bilttiR4 can onlv br diiptirftfi^ 
by tboiL- to nhom tbcy were unknowti* 

LJnjub»r('« propn^jindu vxf<rciB«d in bia dii_> a powef on the 
Nof^thorn conititacnfir« at Icott compamble to the «pcU of thr 
Ptijnn>«e Lvague, Mucb ai die timctiiiii?ry of dmt lLh uf oOtt 
lftt«r orgitTiiKAtJo'iA it p^rbAp* rin uooonacioui roproilucuoo o4 
the tactics of the gr^^iU aQti-PalmorttooIan, ivbo Uveti io icc hi* 
own m^Thodx 0flt*c;[iv«]y copkd by th^ lend«T« of lli« ftiiti- 
Cotii Law League. Wburi, on May J7lh, 1(^77, Urqnhart di<?d» 
tli^ n<>wspnpFiE only by tbc brietivt puuuble alluftintiB notic^ 
thnkt cvvnE. Tho inacriptioii ou iiia tomb at Aftplo* pay 
vrcLI-dtst^ncHi uibuu: to tbi^ wnik of bia life :— 

' Vir 

gumxuo ingoaio, iavictA couatautiil, 

Viiit, bhburavU, 

Pnecvi tevrrroDtiK inter homines 

H«£titGtat, 

KefanJi^ tradilionU politico 

VinduJt. 

JuriD flvtitintu, 

Maxima voii> bdlli |iaoipiqU4t 

TaDlQin bte mvo non dcloti 

Pi'opugnntor.' 

Apart from r^frtcncpi to Urquhart in the letters of such mm 
•c WiUUm Smitti O'Brien, ther« iiill liv« ivveral of iboi^ v^a 
were nac^ officially connected witb Urqub/irt in his varicmi 
i*ntrrpri«rc. Thp loriniT editor of tbp • Dip Turn a I if Rpiri*w/ 
Mr, C DobHoa Collott, baa not ytsX. po»fied ntray. Tb«re «ro 
maDT (iiheri whoitr nH^nllrciinnii of IJrquhan arc reivivftl 
uncxpecttMlly when they identify the admiraLJe butt of bim, k 
H^akinjj llki^firb^ wbtcb lo-day aduiua the Tuikihb bntbs In 
Jerm^n Stniot. SEt. Chiftholm Ar»tey, who waa alUiMl vrilU 
Uri^uban in oiAiiy of bli parliauicDtary attacks oa Pnlmeratcun 



Ik4 Umm tf CcnMom, 



157 



luiovta to hftYc Icll behind blm oapiou* pftpcri, tl>roving 
Ughl on ihit Intareitin^ pi^ri^l. U wtiitUI, tKFT<>fon*, prolpihl^- 
QM be difficult ti> prcrinco tin intlructifT aiiU ciiUTt-ti^iing 
nuiiKi^^|i!i covering tlie potitp cArt-cr of {[ut very nattrPhhU* ^ad 
much lauundprvtood vxponpnt oi iorelga p>lic> ia tUo Uuu*e 
of Commo«>, OD whom we hmvc b<:rr onlv found il poHibI«r to 
bestow ft pi»uc|; |tlano<^. 

If Lufd Lviiuo bia left no purclj pr>ltticnl f^ctiun like tbat vf 

Lofil BoKCunRfield, inii«E of fhr* KPTioft nf novnjt wliiHi opAnfd 

vith 'Pelbau;' aad clL»»L^d with 'The FoxitiiLns * rnHccI ihc 

hlic Mif of bi« <la_v, nnd pnnrnv, h_v fU«igo or coincidence, 

pcTfoao^^cfl in the idfain oJ the pciiotl. Nothing 

Uing to a A«tcli uf Un|uhaj t from lift? vrn^ cirr prnocd 

lv«r; but thn aIdK and ivoiivithoLk nor«li«t kui<w th< 

^eoiklivv politiriua well, ami. like <Hhtr jmrions djrown 

ttA«^ inio tiiB cocitrl^t wju tt^niibK* of int rBicinaliun. Aaj^Ut 

of Ui^uUart'» cliarocicr ^rcr rc|ieatrdLy hit ofT m liicidcLital 

ddioouianK of club «od PaHUmcni^ uf loJjbv or drnwing-r^iom, 

WlA tboushi and cor* it wi>uld be pt^silblc hr one l^jIrmUj" 

Tell tcQuain1«v) with zhr-. rp^irh and with thp man tr> iriAke a 

ArcMrd ^ucM <u to the tmiE* in the pi>liticLan Mrkioh bjul *iruck 

ihc iriiipr, anil bi^l Ih.i^ji iiu:ur|>i'inlri] bv bun inl^i tlmTrevaniuil 

"f ' Tbw C-AxEonH ' or into the Audita v hKurlon uf * My Nov(*l/ 

Tlic pi'rioil cojnj>ri>ii]K inust i^f tUow tijurientt i>f forf^j^n 
pulir}' ID iUe HoLiMf of Gmimon« witb wlioni w«* arc nuw 
<^<crnri]r rnugld/ divides iui^lf into the I'ltlm^^nioiitdn and 
tbe jMii-PalmcTttonian epoohm, William III, ii rightly butd to 
^rc detncd the outline, nnd indicAtnl the jv^rinAncDtdinrctioii, 
<'tho iniemminnnl rviurv? of hU ac)o|itnl iziiuntrjr. From thr 
*ti»tY of Utrocbt to the Treaty of pAris, a> wtJI as since that 
^*tr, the dit|io«ition of dto«r whir ti'iml Enijiluh dijiloinncy bHA 
"*n iQLicb fcs it wu* with Hvbry VUL h tuu been to a4H:ur« ft 
^xiuic voice fur Liiglaiid, apart lium rrance i>r any other 
iMitinental Pow»t, nnd has grnefftlly inciinnd to Auttria at 
>C«imt tti« country which ujoil nearly confronts ui on the oihcj 
n^ci \he Dover SindE*. Th''«i» word* rather «uj-^at a jfeiteral 
^trvcmcat lti»n vlAic a precise truth. Hal the bio«<l c»>ncrp(ion 
Kbit has born put into trrmi wai prcscoi hnhiinnliy co I^trd 
■UDKrvtOD. In our Luropcnn rciniiona it biLi novur brcn for- 
mally repudiMUnl hs tin »i\\\i:htiinitai. Ii is iLUiicr UrAirt\ n'^ a 
toiUDionpUec whidi, uacL^ lurci^u pulicy bu been lubcidinattHl 
to the welfare of our Indian and Coloidal ICtupij^ posicsMs a 
tiitfancsl, rather than a practkal, interest. 

No Foreign Minister of Eiii^land after Patuiertlofi has Cnu- 
tterMed the halanty* of power ^imong intorriMJonnl ohjccu of 

Kn^^lish 




M 



158 



CosmopoUtarm in t/m jtJotms t^ Comvum*, 



EngUfth coDLvnu Palrnvrvton hSmfeff indtE«l ppcin it from ibi 
fonw of Uiv tTsdiUoDt ftmul wbicL be ba«l Ixxn inuncil- H« 
i^ldnm ntkril Ati ociivtr itmkir fi>r ir, lAvr Brbrn, in hit mni 

Ciniy phnue* he Baw n cbiincv ol a dtor >cor« "off bU owfl 
t.' Tilt ftfc'c of Pfllincmt.m ik M^pftTftli^] fr<>ni tb? prrt^Hi b; i 
lB:roftt[tr intorral than that of ycnr* alone. To tlAtfimfin of ik 
|iri<-HiJtiEH-lju1t] Fminliiat ir-lIuJ, iLt- Vieixiia Cuoj^u i'( l^li 
•ocmird a p«Tt of lh« mtidtrrn hiiloTv of Muropo, ParllKmttDl in 
tboti^Unj^ rcicmblcd a foniilj ^thcrinx. There Ajipeiutd m 

EartioiUr »Q«on wbv Eiirop^un AfTiLtn iliould n4»c b« Tv^-uliUtf 
y family contpacU. Whfii Lcrrd J'Abiicntoii Ant in^dr tui 
pnrHamentnrv mark. Germanv was %n\\ a cmmbUng cotigrrin 
of petty Stnlti and kingl^l* unJvr Austrian influcacc- lul) 
nAi <iiTid(Hl Iwtwern the AuairinnE, thr Kin^ of SATfUtun, ud 
tbc Kin^ oi x\xc Two Strilie*- Tbc idf4 of tbc old c!cctot«ud 
Brandenburg i>r tb^ up«LAM kingdom of PtUBbi* ilomtnaTtngU 
United German; was sum«tline> mentioned by drrfLmcn^ b 
«»as dLTided ufi n chjuiera by pmcticul itAtpsmcn. lulj itl 
rcmamod a j;«t>|i;raphical expression. H^rr inatolUlioQ mfaA^ 
tbc Great Powers fvas a aciUiiiicntitl atuuidity. On th4^ oifatft 
band, bj (be arbrxil in wbiob Pnlmi'rttoa bad lieen cdticawi, 
I:R4>Iand, a« a pfitty to llir \ tcnikm l^vHlj uf 1<^15, irai beid, ftf 
ffood or erilf to b&ve forrett«d any advanmg^i acernin^ fMtf 
bcc geograpbical tnsuUntj. Tbe great ImfCJC tbat, wbU« ll« 
Cvnlury wrb in iln irnit, bnd bopn formcKl a« sn Eur>pHO 
b;i]tTafk againsi revolutionary Francct did nol, lo thr polixicm 
ol' pal mentun'c youth or i>ArTy iranbi>od^ appear trboU v obtoT^ti: 
If pu Jollier binding in all drinils U}>oi; its ajgnatanrv, it bid 
«lil] a moral fnr«-. !(» rnfiirLeineiK might conmrablf Jrt 
prove nn internutional neceuily. With France ni periodic*! 
tntervuU innying fiom n laeied nionnrrhy U> a Hed RrpubUc^ 
oicilUtinj;; toward* Loui* Blanc one day, and tovrard* Lout* 
N'n|Mleon ibe iiv xt ; nijw wilb a gtMi preucber eulogusDjf 
l^iLiu LX. at the Mtulclcino, now with a popular bomiblt 
biniin^ at the equaUly of all men to Eusti^r auilienn^H in Nutie 
D:»iDi^, — wh^ cuuXd say t<> wbnt point, la tLt* agitated atmo«pcuT«, 
tbependulnm might airing bju;kwArd> or forwaitiaF 

There wnv thus u general feeliD)^ of perplexed ftppr«hOiklioit 
ftinODg tbc l^tir<rpc'aii Powers that at any moment the peace ol 
the world might obHg<> them to lake some freab actiop^ btyiMKl 
(tiplonaatic limits, ti>tvardB France. Then, as more reoTBtly, 
ntmplaintfl were rife concerning ihp imperfection or the in- 
firmity of the European concert. i'hat Biueb^laltfdHif 
int^rnnlitHial instrLimeut Kuggeats, indeed* a Mim|>ariHnn iritb 
tbc Gicok myths ivhich ccmparativo phiioiophvr* tex*rd as 

reprearnting 



Qumtiprjiiitiiu in (he Hohk ^f Contmoixi. 



159 



rrpmrniiB^ ft ]>a»t ihni vfAi Qtrvf^r n prirtcnL l*hi* iln/uli! or 
itD ti>)ioirint( lb** f^alherinff of patpnlato* at tin* Au&tTian 
dpilal » itialfti<;UvP, It niiuvk tUu p^Mctkml oljHtiick'** »iuH>fti 
log to impauibtlity, which prevent n pi?rma[]oDt utiion 
O, Joinnl hy no lit^i of political interest or |fp<f- 
fnphical nfighhmirhfiod, nn<| nor pv^n morally uofii^l h\ lh» 
ravciotuiw^M of coRimon trjulitions in the pmt, xhcy (mniiot 
iuf uftociflt** in pt^rfect tdtmciny with «<ncU otber for obj^fta 
Uftl lie o^uidc their own ljE>rdcr»H 

UI6I& tJifr En^tiih p|pniiM>ront|iin» af Vienna eitpwiMHl 
f^fc icmplc« at CO chu propri^^ty of dcnlin^ with the poity 
wiotialiur* of Rnrnpi* llki* «o omny lou nf ifianimnlr pidpfrtv 
ptftcUei) out by the ai]ctioa<^or at Tok^niioudc Varil, Five 
JtUi Ulvr* in 1820, tlit* Trojipuu aui] LAvbaiL Cuugn:» 
mrciiHaed tbc anned intervention of Aaatrin to rr«Corc Per- 
ifijuod In tbe tbronc and vrirh biiu nhMdutisai lo iLc people of 
^t|^lM. C^itorvagb'a roaruonarv t^ndpncjPB wrni privity wvW 
eauncd to domestic politics, llii dUient on tbij occiuion 
bmn hit ror^Ign ^impttnirmB in ouuncll EnftioHti**, Uower^r 
fiindy, iW l>feinniHg of n nrw ftod popular jnilu^^ncc on the 
jUnlimicy of Eri^tnnd That mnvcm^nt laatrd, gnilimntf 
^Bith m% it (TOW. In 10^^ thi? I3vbe ol' Aoffoutrme received 
VmniiMn of tbn Powprt ro pnirr Spnin for th^ piirpotit of 
Upiog t'erdinand VU. to pUcc his heel apon bis ■ub|ect», 
TWtltiMtion with whirh Canning, al tbt- dntp nnw mentioned, 
ntMlJftd upon tc d^vvl, irtemblc^d that which contronlrti hii 
|wd»CMiJT whrii, like biruielf, Foiciini Minlttrt ivuA lrAd(?r of 
ike Commorta. The yi>uri^*vr »ut<-«]n:ui, :lb lb? older would hav* 
wr, protested A^ainAl the An^rmlcnie ccptnlilion. A >eaT later 
L«n!icogid4«d ther?ix>1lio|;S{>aniKb republtn in 8f>Dtb America ; 
1^ in hia own famiJiar phratc, i^aJim^ ;»to existence tbc New 
■larki that wni to rrrlretn the bnUnee of the Otik. 

Cnuiin^^a intervention, when it look p]a4:c, was upf>n a much 
■nc coodition^i] irnip thjin ihnt of hii pnpil and Mirreifior, ilie 
hlwt«U»o ol our day. Canning hdd niool, lavr in the cue 
<f tooBUies auf'li \t T'lrtu^al, t'j wtndi Kn^d^ind bitd pb-d^'icl 
tfiflf by intcmntiooiil inDEnimcntii and commeniul tica, 
Khnciuoii, inolveil In jirevent njiy single Power from donu- 
wtjftg Etiti>p«j apart from any <nrritt«n ohligftliona^ was ev^r 
"^J Co step in ai ihr champion of nations atrDg^lin^ for 
CMltUiMiona] lib«niea.' Fortunately, pefhaps, Palmeraton't 

WdLma % lb( vr^mtfRth 112 anil vnlimiiLr Stiffs Mj'fiirtninilitia^Di.Twr Yvfttn 
ftliUiM»bkhiaiiDatatuU-agttilnliUm<niocnp]juu Lunl raluii-nioEi,|>. 102 
^ *-] « b lu Qooui* I'rfuitf UlaLaivr Scrte*. 

applicalton 



^wmopolitans in the Htmxt tifVommons^ 



!i]>pUrj\i]i>ii iif ilkik eiuii>bliij^ but Likoi]iri>ini«njf prmctpW w 
not ntwHVfl alrictly contiiinm. Tbu«, In 1856 he tliovrfcl no 
»Tmrh-irhy with the Dnnubian SlaU^ in their dToru ^ftrr inde* 
i>t>nrlen4-'-. A^ilii. In 18133, t>i« cimti^mptu^^LJi lAngnage vo 
I Won llrunnovt ,ibout Scrrin aurfiio'^il rvrn tbut M«Mfto^ 
diploinri(i«f. In ifai? <»imf? wav, bcfnip ihr SrTViEui int-tiltftxt, 
FaliDL*r»Lou fliacouijUTDaii(H*d Ibo atCo<mpt of \U-ikcmct Alt, 
*U|>jitrrIrt1 ns it wnt by FruodS I" ojitftljliKli Kgvpt a* x SCAt*» 
ii]du]M<ik€lQnt ol iu ttajsorainoo the Bofipb'>rat. NotiruhAtaii<iiK^ 
hU {HrriodiCftl diHlavuur at Cuurl. (.lie iirguiiufcil hy whic^b 
Pnlmc^rAtao MMimt mf^ntillv to hxvc jmxificd hu uctUm v«» 
that the Uptimaic »phcrc of Kntcliih infliiPEicv U thcoretl<&&If 
UniTLfloil "iilv hy thi? Hwiu mf ih« liabit^^hli^ ploht'j ihoofflft it 
niAy Im? Khlom cxpcdicDt to cicTcisc? thnt pririlr^ic, vavc wl^«a 
tbp iiniJKii trt |>p IlpI[>ci1 posfesHes, in lis pdiij or putBlir 
opinion, points of rcst^mbUnco to En^'lAnd, nod tany \\ifttiott 
\>p IJkrlyT ()in.H^ily or indirt^ctly, Ui a^rvi- Cnglifth tntrmu. 

Sir ThuodoM' Mnrlin, in hu ' Life o\^ the Pnnc« Cootorl,* in 
auiidiv p«L»K4gi^-ii »hoTTt u> thai thi4 vic^ ia mti itrn Jtruiwtc 
ffom the notion which then found favour in the higb**«t- 
quartern, Jlrrirc It a\&y \rrj mtcII havr bcrii div|KLi<«l 1*^ 
PfllmmEon during hii oflionl comiruniraitona wiih th« IVitx^ 
Contort. TbcB4i rclationfl wcrt auipc^mlcd «i>(y, and not t*"'- 
Eniiiatr<], hy thn Na]>olei>nic: incuWjl th»l <^aii«^L thr Foct?i|£'* 
SKzrcttiry to n^tirc frnm the Cabinet of Lord John Kuttell i^ 
idwil. As Caallercagb h-jd {itivaet^u nl the Vieoim Cun y r f** ! 
th« reAolv» of Etelgiuin to separAle herself from HolUad itttu^^ 
in 1331 the tint blow to the tfttknirnt of Mitorn ycar« cAilirr* 
Hen PBlfnvrKi»Tr» support of B'^lgiJin ind^peiidvnco at onoi^ 
gratified Englitih feeling And I'Lilttlled the undilioni both of' 
CastlrreBgh and Canning- His sm^^is in rairying that policy 
ft^unit 9CVCTC oppoiition in both Hou»oa, and at the aame clmf 
Id aiTAnglii^ that Freiirh troopii ithoulit it^ riDphiymt no 
bcbail ol JJdgioiD without dijniniBhinj- ths tvrriEory o| the ncv 
kingdom^ is one i){ thuBC tvpic«l «L;t» thnt L^aplatii th«r oattntiU 
AM^endeocy which, with a few intetvals. Lord !*a1rn«nt(ia 
rnjoyrd to the day of hli death. Shortly after titii achicvt- 
uieHt, Auatrinn troops were Eettlrd on Ifalian aoil. I'almrrftOD 
at irvt^t vviih do diplomatic amhijfuity, told Vienna that 
EaglaDd would not Jicquii-«ir in the tuppty^ttuin by Air«ma oi 
ihc earlieat movements toward aiilonomy in ihe Peninvdla,' 
ThiMi fidhtwrd the UuitHj-Pruuiaii league if MitnrhengHlCL 
Thi« alinoat amounted to a aecond bjrih wf tbc Holy Alliance. 




PiJ [orrstoB 






P^lmfnicn in 1^34 prftmptly r^plinl bjr thtr QDnclruplc Trpnty, 
Bj iMi ibo Western Powers of England. France, Porluj^il, Anil 
Spats agmccl in rf^jti c^e pr&t^riBinDs r>f ihn cocnMnpH Siato* of 
uiUni Europe^ That lo tiDKniitncntal iintl connuminatc ft 
DU of tli« wtTrltl ihrjuld hwv tufferj^d hli judj^inifni to hv 
*irp^ by mgTftinrU vuspicioo of Hu»in, Jind ai time* bj ^a 
anifiKTtitiiti&tini^ ftUnchinrni tn Fmnrr, may K*i*Tn ■ur|in»mg. 
nuuijk in h]» ^y^* u tL« lioin^ of aatocraiic rutu^tiun, wah ^Jtv 
tbc proTocnlive noorrr of tioniipii'ii Ii*4 H^>tiii»i t\xr pitlitictL! 
vrin of ibe world. Tbnt, in 1C51, m For€>(tn Si'crplnry, hff 
Vi>nt(l hftve 0C<|uirftC4?d tti tbir cc/u^ (rtttit, mi^bl bavr been 
AirrfM* bjr ^11 tvho remnmbcnKi bi« attitude ti^Wftrdi thc^ 
FtVDCh annciatioa of AlfCicr* Aiid bit confi<tencc in P^ruinn 
flitnmpn ai ib* f^rnbodim^ntt of a honlihv toWrailon mnkinr 
far the sm^d of tbe Libt^rftl cnuic thToughoul the world. 
^j«hing DDilecinvnl him. Nol tTif^Fmirh (1eif<r(l<>r> of Kn^dnnd 
iflibfi iklreMly mcnitoacd epi»(idi: of Kgypt nn<l M<^h(?onct AH ; 
sol \\k more Hrriouc ■ppRraiifm nf Frflnrr frmn mir*plT«; tUJl 
"«a htfr forcDal pcnni»iun ia KuBiia 1o tcitio the Eastern 
^cvlioo fti ahcwithird, providwl only cho 7Vici>Iour waspUntcd 
"Dike bankft of the Hhin«- Jt tccnnod, imlood^ thai, in tpitc 
*' PdlunTilun^a love fur Fmnrr, ihc nffair i»f the S|>4luiU 
BVfit^ in IMS mUBt pcrTraDnen tl jr oitmnpo lb<» lw<> VVotom 
'fti?trrfDcnU. Nlicmo '\a f^i:l- Tbi; lEtcI Jeol, il ia Ituc, went near 
^ ploo^ng Europo in inl«mAtion^ war, for Auitria, *0«ing 
^ i>ppQrluiiit;r in ibtr aUenatlun of Fraocc and CngUniJt 
Wii»i[Pd to hcT Empirn the Ri^publlc of Cracow. Bui ntiiher 
*U btibed irony of Mr. Ditrfteti'a most pcil;»h*<i invectirca in 
Ok Honie of Commoni, nor the 4?onfernpri]au9 sneen of bin 
•^florit* oq^n* of opinion in the EuriTnc^n prcsa, tior the 
Vi^s^tiiied uj^ns of wanin;; irinrulrnrt- In Ills diploniAcy ai 
BoeB«, could biTftIf the spell of P&l meT«ton*a infahintion. 

Wc now, tuivrTrr, cnm<! to thp ino« powerful innucai:e ii> 
^ pTopn^tiun of the new school of ncn-intcrv»rtion in fi>niigil 
H^tici which bat to Btrongty nta^rtrd iUrlf in ihc tfousc of 
vDniBOQi durjnjf ibe Utter hnlf of the preient century. To 
Kldunl Cvbd«rij,ns Mr. John Mtirlrr hujtirL'uuiHtALitiullj thnwo 
IB Hifl bkigrnphy, boIonE^K th4* dj«lincU'>n not only of foirnilta^ 
*"f ftfw CDtDmcTeiAl feYtiririi but nlto of practicidly ioini'diictiii; 
^ n*w *T» in our Jureifni nrlalion*, in thJt •Pntr C-ohUfn't 
F^phlet on HottJA wat an <-pocU-nnakin^ trcntiie. I'hit is 
*e pith of hit intcraaiionnl pbitotopby. Riitiin It incspnblf* 
^ noUiin^ fresh conc|Uf^st4 in Europe; m for ibc^ nonr Kitvt, 
"ti mflurncj* in more civilizing tbun ihnt cjf TurliPj, wlnBte 
"wi are no eonc^rn lo En^Und, la another way CobJon 



1 

J 



163 G?tm<^lirang in tit UouSe of 

wu ft ptoaMT of th0 nfiit foroigQ poUcj". H« wu AmoB* 
tbe eArllcit of ooi public meo wbo tr^relW wtddj, »m 
obHTted for lb«tn%flv^«. Il^ginning with th« le«ft iinU- 
miliikr |)lcii«ijrc-grouncIs of ("'rancc, SwiE^ri^ilBod, liJiL^t •O'l 
S|iain. he? ujon puiuKl llw convrnlioiiul timks. Hv vrit u 
covmopojican, if duI d« vrLnoualy v«Tt«4xi in romjfn inon suet 
fnrrigiJ ctlicsr ni Sir MounlMlunit Giant Du^ i>r Sir Hrnr^ 
Drumxnoacl Wolff. Afl«T tbo ivbool of Cobdeo htd become a 
|)ijw«r ill iluuieBlic >lAl4Ttiuiiii»Liij\ inicrvctklion retucil U> be 
pouibU for Kng]nn<l in foreign pcflitics. Free-tndc and a five 
prcT«s bftd not j«t quite done tbrjr work. Thejr b^ rmilered 
it impracticabl** ovpn for a FalmeMion to make wba( In hit 
ichoolboy pbriuc hn called any more icorei o^ liii ovru bat. 
Bui Cobdi.Ti, lilte OrUiido, iiv4?rtlin-w iriore than hii «n«iiijn> 
He crcaUrd a Bcbool in which Lord Abf<rd<^n and Mr. GUd- 
»1onR vivjA^ hj» aptcil Ht^hidarH, Oiniiiirriii^ tlir infliirDCr, 
direct ai wi?U aa jndirtrot, whicli be ('xeixdiod, it *i>emi iirno^e 
tbat \w bbuuld Lavr fuuud no rut-ana Xm pruveni our ttrlflilif; 
into the Crimean War. 

Thoie trho can recall the jncideatft of 1849 will recollect tbat 
English f^r^ling against the Tuitr iar bit treatmrmt of Koemtb 
and Elunj^Ary waa more bitter than wbrn, tire year* later, 
RuisinTi iroopn croueil ihif Prutb. l^jrd Pa! ni»-rBlrui, il la tme, 
waa not at this timir Kor^i^n Kecrotary. Hul lbiMi|;h at the 
Homti Olliop, be wj», as i-verjh»nt-' kntw^ the inniti^r Kpiril of ibr 
GurtfrDioeDt. In adiiition M hi< r«iolui^ and intrepid mind, 
ibe Home SL-uiTjlafj poh»pO»*e<l jiiAt iben, tti n dri;»<^' ^t-ldum 
equalled by a Cabinet Mitiitler, the ipeeini knculedne which 
in foreigrn a0air» ii moBl emj^halicalfy puvtrr. Aiij fciir thu 
reason. Hiinng lhe«e Htrennoui yean nf I'almrriTon hb 
warmest p(;r»onal friend, bie tpecial confidant and partiiMi, 
Sir Henry Ilulwer, afEvrwanU L4>n] DhIIiii^, u^na En^lUb 
Ambavtailur id i'aris- Napoleon lib bimirif wai not acived 
more eiTei^ively and u1jii|uitoufi]y by bis »ec'rPi a^eiiu than wac 
thv diploinatUt vrht> thi>n rnptvt/^ntf^d ui jit ilii> Chi^. Erery 
ivnionr tVom tbe Palapcic, from the Kfiiii«trie» \m \\xe Q^aX 
d'Oftaj, or from the li>bbi?< of the Corps JU^ittaiif, did oot 
find iU way Irsa alowly to tbe coffee -houaea at editors* offices 
on ibe Boulevards tbftn to the F^nglich RmlKvi«y in ibe Faobonr;^ 
Sl HusorL\ So lurclj a« tbe>e lidin);* of Imperial, of CoQlti 
(tf ofHriHl pNrjHina', nf of prtpiiUr i4<-iitimi»[iL irarelled to Sir 
Henry Bulwers wrilinjf InbJe, so surely were they traiunutBvd 
tbrfiugb lume sure, if uiioHidalr diannel tu tlie Home Secnttfy 
aU Cambridge Houm. 

ProbaUy Palneiilon's deairc for arilre iDleivcotitni In bia 

Dcighbdor's 




fiffabonr^i qiurr«l* liaJ died ft natural rlcnth. If not« lie wfts 
irto k*vn an ohiPrrer of ib*» «Ign« of th** tiin««, loo *(utck lo rake 
hifl cuj^ from cvcnU, to be ijfnorant thnt tlir pablic opiniuo of 
ibi* umnU^ nnd of tlip nf(r hnd pnmniinrrtl invKicnblv n^"''**^ 

Eo|[IiukI incurnit^ i^ny riik ouUiilo bcr tev. rainpar:^^ >&rc for 
ofajcrU btjuni) up wilb hr^r linp»^[Al grcfttnoM or commercEat 
wvlfafv. Durini; th« firvt four JL*rad«^t of thU century lompU* 
Uoi»« to ft BEftlf«ii]ftn of l\lrnmiun*> impiili<^8 ntid aiilf-cedi-nt*, 
to fliDg tbi? Hnj^liih iwor^t mio zhc scnWa o( the Eiirop4>an 
bftUncccoDitantljr rrcurrc-J. Tbt* HuavijLn trc^aUn^nt of Kr>tiuih 
Vftf onl^ oup nmon^ ti^vrral nrrnnront. Hur in 1$42, vLiob «u 
the pro^*TC*t made bj the cause? of non-iniervfntion, ibnl lA>rd 
Pftlmpmon could find ft plra for d^^iioanring the miition of 
Lofil Ailkburu>n to MElIn the ^[ai^o boundary dtffi^rencc with 
\hr Unitrid SliIcs as ' a diijcnu-'eful ftud ilan^rous ttrr4iiti;ifnLent.* 
Two j«ari Inter, tvi^n t]ti> Duk^ of Wi*llt»gton and Sir Rolwrt 
PrrI, ftft ndl h-b Luri! Abirdren, nol onlv did ni>t reflc-ut, but 
wirrr a<iually pmpnfwl (o enlcrtAiEif the prtlensums of the 
RoMtftn Tuxr t(F tlir I'rotfcturaUr of the iirfi^k CburcL. 

AftT the f'Timean War had n»m*? m an nntf, :hp AbeTtlp^n 
OoTctniDcnl tottered to its fall. The poiUion of Palmenton, 
ftft Prraiirr I15 tfar eboico of lh«» wliolir natluo, rpentled 10 bii 
ftdmirert xhv pT4>ced<^nt of Chatham or oi the yount^er Pltl. 
Dut tliPT iotrmaliniTal taicticii, faintly lecirj^iiucd indeed, a* wc 
hmre m«ii, by Canoinj^ nnO by CaaiUrosffbr y«t not a rtk-u lately 
orKftBiwd into » coLeienl irilcm tiU Cobden, were now aecrptciJ 
ptinciplcv of Britith p»liey. Tht^e were nor. hown-er, dc«tib«d 
to bcftT their full reajll tiU a Ulct General Kleciion, turniaff, 
1ik« ftoai* of itc predef«atora, purely on foret)[n pcdiee, h Wfui a 
fora^Oa ftnd not a domeetic, isftue which iv-eilablUhed Lord 
Pklmmton at Donning Street itt It^hl. The 1 OL iMnstiiueodirt 
«bowrd t|ieift»e]vea more bctli^rcnl than Ihv rrprcspntbttvcft 
they Trnumnl. Tbe liouiehuldejs puivf and Aiiuple plnoetl thr? 
first check, which deiroeraey in tbin eountri bnd at yet |[iipriae(1f 
upon the Imperial nio^ramme of tbe jcreat man whom Mr, 
<^Ud«lo<ic made it hu avowed purpoi^ to eoun term too. Lorvl 
Phloientoai with the natjonil appioval, repelled tbe KuMUn 
iUgigrn on Indi« through Prnla. AfferwanU, aintd popular 
etiifao»ift«mt Uc ■ceure'.l 9t the eokt of n littlr war the evaluation 
hi Penia of Merai. lint wben, n muple of yearn Ijiter, l^ird 
Mftlmeiburv wi» Forcian Sctrciary and friction with France 
unre morr lermc-d formidable, ibe »tuiiii tbat had uppi^in^d to 
b» iB«vilftble waa averted by common conioni of tha two 
pnrplcft. 

At thU juncture Lord Mrilio«<thury dttpUyed conclusively a 

M ^ preAcicncc 



t 



prcicicncc anti nn inti^bl, ihiit would have dt^rm cradit ti» att] 
oi' his i>riH]ecnfton, and that hliEorv ji^rhapf his not adf^lMMij 

hi< own rrpuitttinn uitl Ehnt uf hii Empin* on It&lian autopoinj. 
Count Buui might protest Austria's deterininfttton to lUad ttpofi 
(be fttfttlcincMi of IKI.'^. But the EngUfth diplomuliii, ii Toty 
i>f lh« Tones, knew« whMcveT might be Ibc disp^itiucu of tb# 
liiLglUh Cukirl, that Mr. GUil»L»n(r'» NeApuliiftu IcUvn, ^sd 
tbe cQihUMum ming round GiLrJba.]di, bad already doomvd tb« 
Austrian occupulioa of i^mbardy. Nerer, during U>r vccood 
hiilf of the present centurv^ b»s EngHih diplomAcv in LoiMloa 
Aod in cnntincntAl CAph*lfl hcctx more active (ban during the 
Fmj3C4i-AuEtri4ii rnmpai^. ReaiJ^rt of Sir Tb^mlorr M*nU'» 
grcAi biogrAphv know thtt a cincxirc, if AomcwbRt plMoiiic, 
rrganl W Uiiilcd \ia\y did not iiiiplj With the Eoglisb Qouxt 
or CAbtJiet iiidijr«rei)et- for th« ninnArchy of tbv Hapaburg^ 
When, therefhre^ the French victories of ^ln^cntft luid Solfcrinu 
f(}tluwr«d in quick succession, and wh^n Ai»Eria had b#«ti drirfci 
withio the Quadritatcnl, Napoleon wa» admonished dipLott*- 
rimlly that, iT p^ace werf? not speedily eunclnded, Fru»» and 
bor Gcnnan allies would march un Paris. Tbe effect waa tlw 
Punee of ViLljLlranrA, sSgni^! Au\y llili, ] !i5!). As the resali 
■oon showed^ this iiiitrumpnc satisfied no one. It had becti 
concviYcd in a ipifil of aulocrau^ more absulule, and of di^ 
regard for popular feeling more contcmptuoui, than that whicb 
characterieed tbe settlement of statesmen and soTereifns at 
Vienna in the fifteenth yeuj of (be pn>«fnt reniurj- * Wr am 
asked/ eictoimcd Lord John Haiscll, amid the applauie of the 
House 4.if Commons, * to propi.kBe a prtriilion of the jN<oplet oi 
Italy ns if wff had the r^ifbt to dispone oi thom-* Lord John 
Hus»ell was tbe last of English statesmen to show a Bfttuli 
•pirit by ^eiying foreign laws of pronunciation. Il« aaTar, 
for instancct spukr of the town that is Uie ceuiii^ of tbe Wine 
trade in Southern France as anvihing else than *Boffdux' («^)^ 
He had faithfully ciprrfiacd the dominant mood of the asaeiB- 
blsge wh^n he denounced the dishonesty and ibc impotence of 
ihe Franco-Austrian compact, But the roovemeat which we 
have conjivcif^l With the name of Cubden was not to hti put 
hack. The policy of Kuroprsn intervention had as finaUy 
passed by for England as tbnt cif ibe Holy Alliance hsd hrumic 
an anachronitni for Eurupv. 

The debates which thi; epito^Je producrd brouffht to tbe 
front two remarkable riponcnta of fnreigo politics in ibi^ 
House of Cuuimons. In ijis Djary I'or May tJ, It^G^tSif Mouit'-- 
■loart Grant Duff makes thv following entry :— 

'An 






C^vtCfifiitant in tAe JIoum of Comnum*. 



lf;5 



k * An «l*bont« U)d, in its vaj, TCfj stnldng oration by Lord Henry 
t y c^ fa wfaioh fa» attMOplpd to turn tLo tbblee by detailing Uie 
pidemgi^ </ tLo BonHxifibte in tbe pnfloiiH of Naplc«« w%» fcllawcti 

bj A audeu cjKyt^ fmou h yiiting johh oil tiis own ndo, BoUcff* 
JokEtftmk«k Tlii: vai for Av«y the moat sncMMtU ptriiUMDtAIJ 

WA«f ftt «bi«h I «TOT MBurtod.' 

TbM, too, ira» the opinion fif no Icn « rrllic thiui Mr> DitrftelL 
TIm p«rljAm?ntary tUbxtUint ha4l not verj long t^fl OxfArd, 
wh«rc in i\\tr. icW>U> JUid i.-»|X'4:Jullv in tbe deOatin^^ siH^lrttfis 
and CMAT dabc formnl by ono or iwo frollegcs^ be hac) d]«tin-> 
t^ i lbgJ buntcrlA Tbr }iromiM- of Lis ru-licBt appeATaocej iii tbe 
HiMM of Commani wiu nrvnr ■d'auaU'ly fulfil l&d. H^fx>ntInTi<id 
to b*re « ^ttX, mX lca«l Domirtftlly, wi recently ju It474> Hu 
a|ip«^rBri<^t In tbe Mnoif w*T»r irr^pulnr. Though divivrtwing 
all An^biiion for place, \\r^ wna mortified r\l betnf; pnas^Hi orrr in 
JMimtkfta one A«ll]lllli>lfUtlon, He ftcemet) Uileily Eo usumr 

■Mfitfal anaUido of tb« idaq wieh n eriw^nce. He «»ak into 
bffcstr^ory of ibcuRwbo migfd bfivr iii>n(T Aojlljin^. Dl-bmltb 
did not «how hia ftbiliti^ to their b«»t &dvantftg«. Hi> wraUh 
Bd iodoleot good nature in«rked bim &# a prey for adrcnlunMift 
■li«n« wbo knrv xhn fuclnktinn trhUb rAreign ^ITain pns«f4H*cl 
br Itim, Belorc probably he was himftc-H aware of tE. he bc-catne 
■HjMty invvKM in thtr toiU of Turliith finntKT. i-Ei."- rmally 
^B^ppcnmi, not only frotn political life altogether, but from 
bbv manr frinitU at botiic whose re^fi] be nerer lint. 

Tbo speaker wboin Hutler-JobnsUitie foUow^J, Lord Hennr 
LfiinoL w««, as tbc entries in Sir ?ifoanutQarl Grant Daffa 
iKarv ftbow, another oratnr <tf conipicunui promise. He had 
Ircn retarncti i-> tbe House of Commons for Cbichcater at the 
Mme OeneraV Klretion, and, ns baa bwn already aeen, 1i ml made 
kia firat oratorical hit in the aacne debate* Tho epithet it naed 
idriMidlTi for no one who Temembers him ti> whom it waa 
■■plied CAD doubt thai Lord Heery L<.-nnoi was an orator bom. 
Mia Bpaili«tie and dUedantf mauner, bis Ia[i,Lrtiidly cynicaJ lonc^ 
Vere not points to bis advanuj^ in a. popular a»temb]y. But 
kii kiH>«ledp! of foreign affairs was the mult of careful study 
eaperienee on tbe ipol. His TiKion wna Veen, Hit 
savr whra bis personal pTe<l)Bposi lions were cnpi^Ecd, 
No one knew this better ihtin Mr, DtsraelL Only 
l«L bat intuperttble, ri>n(oas prerented Lord HenfT^S 
intinent to the niEce of Pnrvign Under-Sei-rrury, a p»Ht 
rbich bail onoe been lilled by the ori^nal of Wsldenhare in 
Bvacunsfield'a ' Cndymiun/ Mr. George Smythe of Canter- 
fane, and ono of the 6^rei in the ' Conmgtbv ' group, 
pcvietl IrisbxneOt not lot ibati educiilcd ^Scotsineo. bnre 

often. 




CcsmopofitOTM: in the Notne of Commons. 




oflen^ to an emincni tlpgree, contrihutrt! to theknciwltj^ vrliidi 
Parliftmcnt possesses of loreign nffixtTi* No onu ia hud&y pn- 
fonned thh serrice rnr>r« ngrveMy thiin Sir VV. H. Gnsgorjt 
who entered tbc HoLiae of Common* at Libtrml-Conwrtmriirr 
roenibri for Gnlwnj t-i>uiil^ in 1859, lu Lib youxh be b*d 
seer Jiplomntic lilc abroad from i\w %amf piint nf virw na 
that from i«tikh it vrA» Btuilird by his fiicTKl Cbftrtcs Lover 
Tbia sorr of acquainlnnfL* widj wli:iJ mnv *><' Ciill***'! ibe rvttduva 
ot (iipioinacjr gAvc him vxnctly chAl kind of kncwkd^e wbidl, 
(luritighis enrlicr mnnhoml^aionr-TvnirrtninMl andintimclrtllbv 
House of Commfln^. Tbc *amc hnonlc<lgc in hia later dnji, after 
hu reiuru fruin tb^ ni»vemfii«bip iff Cejlnn, mritlc hiiu one of 
ibe mo»t a*!ceptttblc personagcft in London society. 

From ihf group [ind fit tbr? ria. tion' uiiJer considcratiorit 
more fftmoufi niimt^a uiuerpe, Th? late Mr. A, W- KingUke, 
the raosC liluftLTiouA of modern SfjmcrArtibire worthL««, wiu not 
BD eflFenive' *ppAk<*r in ihp Houie of Commons. H#* had t 

Ehiloaophio borrorof popuInT bnlf-knowlril^i?* Conttilutionally 
t Aer-Mii.-il to slinnk from the roirgh anil tumblo, tb^ rhvltiiicu 
gire nnd tnk^^, of popular debate. His Sfxwcbca Uoke^l onm- 
pioKioD. His voice WHiitrd siren^ili tt) bring Immr 1o bt4 
h^urers the puinls thai wett often excclEeDt, and nivtiv* con- 
«cientioj»l/ aluJicd. Thow who bate evci looknl into bii 
*Hutur/ of the Crimean VVar* n«e<l not lo be told of his ftDg«r 
ftt tke anncx&lton of Saroy iiml Nice by France, A tlory wft» 
lit ihii lime current nliith ihows nlike (be weak poiniii and the; 
itrong ot the cultivMed nion, who, inbia eiquiiitc ^ k^acbcn/«et 
a tipw faibiftn in contpmpomry prose. He hail d**li\'erMi h fi^w 
romiirks during iht'st^ disfustions. btjt in ft tono jnivudibJo 
■are lo those wbir sal on cho Knme bench, A liltlc later in 
the tfame detxite the kte ^ir Robert Peel alio tpoke on thv 
anti-Don'tpaTtl&t aide, [n him, a<& must will recotlrci, few of 
ibe prime qualiliea of a great orator were wanting- Frooi 
his father be had inherited n voice of tuperb compnM bj 
well as an aeute and ponerfiil int^lleef. He bad bi^f^n in the 
diplomatic service. He knew from study on the «pat th« 
tiireunistanrfs of the caie. On the presr-nt occHtion be >jiok« 
«Tien better thon tisual. To a friend he fiderwarrii fnutkljr 
explained bii lueceis hy saving thai he bad lione notbiny more 
than reproduoe, witli bi» advanldgca ol lonorous eloeution and 
histrionie geiturvp the text of wbut hod fallen «til!>born from 
Mr Kinglflkff. 

This anecdote, which Tcry properly i* not noueed by Sir 
Monufiliiarc^ U * well found rather ihan true. Ie aptly 
iiluBtrtte«^ however, the character nf the ipenking- of the two 

niea. 



Oo9moj>olit^i^* in the liousr. of Conam/nw. 

men. Whai bad UA]>j>v^DciJt as prJVAir pKjxrrA now Rnnblc ui 
to tutp, wu as follows. Sir Robi^rt Pvt{ at tbU epoch icted 
hAbitttftlly in corKyii vritL Mr. Kmglakc and oav: or tvro more. 
Bolh ntpmbrrn Tind privatHy discuMed thr luhjnri hffnrr thny 
d#Uv«recl tbcnuclvcd on it in the Houbc, The vicvra thai 
ciprvswd ni»y n«*1l hftve b^^n Id^nticfll, ihough one or«ior W4S 
hmd ftnd the other vrju not. 

A Ulllc InlEf, ^ iniiii, not leas notable In 1clt«ri tbta 
Mr. Kin|;Uk4>, iho biti* Mr, Laureno^ OlJphanr^ f ffolly mingled 
ia the dUruuioni of ihc Jlouac nf Commtins when torcign 
wt]\cj chanceil it* be U|ip«rmoii. The author of ' PircaHilly ' 
b«d been (rninf<l in tlic Foreign OfHcc. On Loril Lf^in'a 
nwioi] to Chm^ 1857-^, and rs Ch^r^* d'AHairrs nt Prkin in 
16^2, hf bnd m&slrrcd tborouict))' tbc pri>b|cui» of the- Further 
£ut. Elii rrrnarkft in St, Sci^phcn** on tlii« MJbje<:i «i^rtiM-d 
Attentioa, Wi perbap* fruin ihoir inhrrcnt m*nt than from the 
atlrmotive noloritrtv uf tbv ajKraker. Had Nfr^ Oliphaut aim- 
bicMl the phvtical vi^ur niid enorgy of Urquhnn wiTh hti oivn 
deTotioQ ti> the Mtmc subjects, he jnt^ht pcxbapi have folloired 
hb med^opiior't ei*nipl* hy organising Urqnhan'* Foreign 
Aflurfl L'ominittcei. As it wa«i Oliphnnt never ceued to 
Uboar lor the brtlrr iniiruiriiuo uC thi- Knglith public on those 
fomiga quetlion* ihtt siitc^inrit to hitn of supmufi interest for 
&i0VDd. ffOng niivT he hjid left chi* EIoufiL' of Coiiiinons, nhcn 
he w&B deiotinff biinsvlt' entirely to lili-ralurc, be ctarCed an 
agency Ci> ftupplj Lot]<Iuii oIuGb, ncwtpapcra, and private 
ittdivuluali vitb int(?lligcRce about the eoiina of ^-enia in 
Cwiem Europcn That machinery wm not fully compleiled 
vlim, in 1R^<<, its visionary but ahrrtrd invt^nior dirH of a 
punfoJ And Lin^i^riTig diseaae. 

To thoM who pcrsfTii filly rpmember lE, thit will teem the 
h&fcToa ppTiiHl, durinj; this ccntaryt of parlinmcnlary ebiquenrc. 
Tbr Lord Itobrrt Cecil of tboic daya, now Prime Miniater, had 
OMd^ bit mn)d«<Ti ipeech, not on a foroi^n, Init on a doTn»cic 
i|l»cation — the Uoivcrtily Coioini»ioR of Lord John Ru«aell — 
■A eflbn that t^rrujiHl him the nrarm complirrLODt of ISfr. Glad- 
»todc-. The *pcaki-r had, howevrr. lung Ix^forc thiv, by Btuily, 
by Irmrpl, and by aorial inii^rcoiirap, c|Ua]ifled bimaeif for thf? 
cie«tincnl of forei>,'n policy in the ptcu cuwcU ns in Porlininent. 
Wlirft, ibrrrfore, hf fiT«t UMtk part In a speedi on thi- Vienna 
MgotMtiiWW in the diplomnlic dist^iiaaiona of the Crimean VVar 
period^ be bAAdlcd the mbjcct with the >a(ne thotougUnea* and 
arigtOAlity with vhich hi had ditcussed in ibe old Oxford 
e«ajr» ibe qneition of Pmliamcntary Reform. Mr. RopbuckS 
■locloa condemning the conduet of thr? Crinenn VVsir hy thn 

Ad m i n lAtrat ion 




^ 



IfiS Co/tiinpolUana in th/i House of Ccmman$^ 

A<)niinit<rAtion of the day wa« hmi^ght formfil tiift ilur 
Abnnlecn Govcrnmcnl hnci lalkn. Lord Knbcrt Cecil, diffcriof 
fnun wime of \n% Cunieivauve ci>Ilt?n^-UL-Ei^ beld lli&i tbc rnolu* 
lion should be retUteJ on the ^niuml cLint it pointed prmdicallf 
nt Lord PiJiuereloEir though itomijiiiltj^^ i\\ Iil« prcdcceunrs, nndt 
if carried^ nec^^itarily involved Ibat iil:it«siiian'« retirement. Hv 
tLricfore moved the pir^^iriua (jUFBtion. Hia tpcccb iru aa 
clnboriLte lurv^j' of ih<^ ititernatiunal bisturv of tbe prvopdia^ 
iive }^ar£. It at once rajsed the level of tbc wbolc aclMitc \ iX 
pfltnbliabt'd hs mnker^s rlAim to ibc Tevcrsion of tbr FtNTriga 
Secretaryship when hb p«Hy ahould bctralt^r be in painvr* 
ThoAe who majr compare (b)s disrourte of tbi' preaviiil Prouiiei^ 
foity years ago, with the rescarcheB into the hidden CUUM «df 
Euiojteaa cTcnti, incidentally inier^purscd ia ihi- volume dov 
und«r reviewj will be utru^k by a r^t«iiiblance in thpir lono and 
mcthoil. Tlicre U tbe same pbilosopbic desire to pcnetralc 
b«»eatb th(.- surface of events, or behind the trnall l^lk of 
diplomatic quidnuiica to tbe historic a^^cncica prininrilj %X 
work; tbe same avoitlnncc »f banality anil 4:<>innintiplatx } 
tbc Bomv evidenco contained in every sentence of auc«*ai- 
billiy 10 itiforuiatton denied to the onJinary commcniaiot 
on events. 

At a subnequenl date Six MouiLtsluait found Liniself La a 
different camp from the Lord Robert Cecil of his entljr-r days. 
He hu indeed cbatilably preserved for u* some of Mr, Disraeli^s 
be^i phrnt^s, na, for tnttanct^, thai def^ribing the <>migratioo 
movement from Germany, not as an exodus, but as a htExnOf* 
rbage. As Colonial Under-Sfrreiuij in Mr, Gladstone's 
Government of 1S!50> Sir Mountstimrt Grant DulFhad criticised 
libarpl^ the foreign policy of bis Liberal prederesson. 

Tbe retroipect of this period K-miiidv u> tbal Sir Mountstnvt 
GianL Duff call, ttbcn be Li in the vein, bo na li^bt in hand 
ftnd fls instructively entettniuing ai bU Thames-side neij^hbout 
hiinse)/. One of bis contributions of this sort to tbe EasUrni 
Question discuiiions of twenty ^ears ago vrill 1>ear reprof I nation 
here. The subject of tbe diacueaio:! was tho Cyprus Convention. 
The date of tbe G[H'ecb was Ju)^ 29tb, 1878. Tbe speaLer liad 
ajlmiitcd Cbe plenary power oi tbo Crovn — in othei words, of 
Miniitera — to conclude treaties without coDsultuiK PArliameaL 
Thai which be qu«^stioncd tvos whether the alacrity with whicii 
the PoitL- and tbe I'oneis bad placed the isle of Venu* at ill* 
dispoiaJ of tbe British Cabinet was as abiolulely cpontaiuvat 
and sincere as had been alleged; or wbc^cr the letter of tW 
Consiitiitton Itself ha4l nnl been Interpreied mo litendly. Thm 
/tdJonin^ wcie his words; — 




OumcpvHUxiu in thff Hitujte </ Commons, 169 

VUlHn aLould romcmbur tL^t ccunpLimuntaiy and oourtooiu 

&^«iii4nd nr an TtoliAn frlln jmi llmC hU hoiiju^ ami nil il crmtjitiis 

AJ^ >t yomr dittpcwitioD, you luft^ t^ifoLv uu JorituncL Uut ha mniukA to 

bo TMj oitQ ftftd boopjtaljlc, Uut yoo muBt ttot undcrdUad liim to 

nuu lliftt bo liatiuiUj IruiMfciB bin jirupcrt/ lo jrm. If jou do. it 

maj bn uElL yuii ilk it ilirl wilfi Lftu IiiU> FHtich ^^t*tl^mTd], That 

■WBcnun, b«U)g in Hoi»>> ftml in tbo Itonsa <if Torlonik, Itio Unukcr, 

'TlUmul tpPcaJt kdmirutiou for uu citKimcl^ valufthlo piotiirc wticli 

l^oiugcd to biA biTAt. I^Lit'Iooift^ nilh tho coiiite-^ma luatlucU iif Iila 

teOutry. ifiL[iL«1iot(dy bdgfrcd hJrn b> convklGr it ne hlfi oim. Mcltnr- 

'i^oli, tciiii^ Willi D£ httlu diHcruliun on tbu |>rvi(i:iit Cnituot. tciok him 

*t hit WonT Turiouia iuY(;ii;-(kI iiimwif !■> Iho ilav i>f liifi ttuitU by 

'^^Uiag (hij sCorjr nitli lL« tfiilii^uti. <'< ^f t,\fftia tti pi-it. TIk^ CouHti* 

■^tiuii IkoiDg on impeisonftl {TfkALikrA ^-{W not bn nbie to tull tlio fllorj 

to ||)Q 4ieiulTULiAgc of llioM wbo havo tri>atr>d it eo badly. Tbc 

OotutUutioD^l hiat^iriaD will Ao tlioi for it. Wo may 1*0 miio ho will 

•'id il with ui cpil(>gTie ut iL-aat jui *ovtre. if iH>t ciuilo eo bittoil^ 

*^^|ir> i w od io» J^ fftiviu Va }»•''* of l^^ plnnilereJ IiaUaii. MinUt^'n 

"fco try to ftnUu Ih* pr<roi^Hlivo sliouM remember that tXto vioJcno* 

!^tlio IGlk of Mity ^viift folloiTod by tho hnmiHaticn of tiio 14(1 of 

f "Hf^uibcr, c\fai if tLvir NtudlcA in Frvnidi bUlor^ do ivii go further 

"•ck tnd bring ividi iLeia moro fonnidablo reool]f«tioiia.* 

AtncDi^ tboMT who, on ibn iJime iid« nt Sir M. K. Gnm Daff, 

^ttodlnl ihi^ [iTOf:««<linfrt in [£u4l^m tMiro|wt wlih ipfciAl 

*oo(t|^gc, ft plftcc >bouJd be given to Sir Arthur Oiway* au 

^t<l ii*rvint of the Forpij^n Ollifv, now un/ortunatvlj' not in the 

^ouh; oi CommODi. That amoug [Kivftto mombon xhtins stiU 

*Xuu und«r HfjuM-holH Suflrjigi^ ihr i^Apncit/ for ciprRHiing 

'^tioaal opinion on our l<troi|tn rclixtioxi*, with a vif^our &nd a 

C^tt«P vr^nhj of lbi> b*^t\ iiarliuint^ntiiry pdindt, wai aIbci sliown 

*'uriii|; (he yean now under rnviow by .Mr, Jotcpb Cuwcn, then 

Hfttubet ioi N'cwoutlc- The cflorl tif Ilia dt^lirrnuitcra wan 

d*>ubtl«M iocr^JUMl by ihe Saiioii simplicily of hi« Inn^Liikg^ «« 

''^Jl u by the lEuilinl licuLkrlint^* of bi> prcicncc- No native 

**^ the North of EcfKlafid prubably evi-r quit« \<twt a touch of 

^>« local ftccc-nL Suiiietiiing juoie tbiui a lusnicjoa of & 

|^*ac»Bhirc burr remained witli tho dtchi Lurd tScrby to the 

**t. It hi* &lwaya b«n, specially m iinpaMioncd momcoM, 

^oticmbls in Mr, OUftnionn. Thii Northumbrian tunhTv of 

Mr, Ci>«reQ'« elocution made his dcdaration in fATour of 

^1i- Dlfttartri Eaclem polity thr uiorf- ijiipri'ttiio* I T<> was 

■X4 Lftdsod an unknown iimii vrbj^in, Iwonty y^^rt ngo, hit 

^mrkMc cjuklilin vtttc flnabi-il Mptm n aurprisml aLurinbl^. 

Bu Im tviu^ jit leMt, an unconticlcred iu»n. ^'et he, peThaps 

^'^'ft thui any otber ioJiviiluftl »n bis Aidr, secured for (.he 



■ 



J 




170 CtwnppijiUitm in the lloiut t^ Gmtmontt 

fotcifcn poJicj' nf Mr, Diinicit, wbctlicr ripttlj of wrooglv, the 
mdon^ULrTit of ih^ nation. Ii wmt hv aI«o iwlio, a l>w weeki 
later, intcrprctct), in kn^viHgc undrrstomi by ihc public n* wcU 
a« nppr^cintrd hy the (-tpcf, ih^ Ronting pn*ju<Ucei ogalnit the 
Impvrml Titlos UiU. 

Among ihr Mciuvfr of O^mmnns' ip^aJtrni on Ha^trTn afTAin 
cluriilif tht p(<noiI to nhich the cxlfact from Sir Mounl<luart 
Wloiij^ tlie peiiulciniatr xuivlvur of iLi* \uuii^ Lii^laud ^ji>u|> 
clnimt A pliuMf, Mr, Hfti]li(» Cochranr, who as Lord Lamingtoo 
died in the jcar 18D0, w;u most probably tb(? orif^inal of the 
Buckhurit of 'Crmingftjjj'/ He rppTOiliK^ed fiom hit plftc^ in 
the Popular Chnin1>eT all xht Mry hioUfncas, and very miKh 
morr than the p]4*n«ant pitwrr i>f iltuetniling an^ lopk' in hand 
from his own oxpt-rirnce, which Mr. Uismeli hiu atlttbutod to 
thr litrrary Ti:llei:Liiin of ni^arlj bis (fMc'st friend. T)arin^ a 
time whon wortd-wide travel wn tare in English society, lh« 
future Lord Lamiii^tufi had travelled much. When a» ;rel 
cotmopoliton taalcs and eiperiencpi wore ao DnfjuhtoiMble ■« 
not CTCQ to b« alTrctcd by aspirontt to notoriety, the Buckhar«t 
of hU politicn] chi^r* firtt novel had gra^lnalpct ai a citif ii of 
the world. There vras erer aoxnclhing vcaUy fascinating in the 
air of Ijrer^y inlelligentY with uhich thii urcomplttheil Scotch- 
man now ilJuHtraicd nn l%uropcDn »itoAti<>n front his oim 
reminisLTncTK nf Parisian diplomnrv Iwhicid ihe »eiem« In the 
<i«vi of tlie Bouibonr^ or thrnr a retrospective light on Eftatera 
ailain in the yeftr of ' Peat^e with honour' from the bright 
experiences acquired when ibe Vienoft Confjreis wii an iad" 
dent of yesterday or the junissaiirv of the Sulun had not been 
dtsbandeH. 

To the »tne school of exposition as Air. Hailtie Cdcbrmne 
brlon^l (he ngr«enb!e, nlwayH relevant and nfcrn cpigraoi- 
malie sentences itith which Hit Henry Drummond Wolff* 
idieved the dolnen of disrvxsion, or from bis own expenemw 
of Uf» in European Chonteri«« playfully rallied debaters wbo 
tbemselTe* had spoken fiout a knowledge less esoteric than 
hia own- 
In our own day men cofu|>oteiit to deal with conplicated 
qupfttioni nf forrign nfTflirs hare not l)c#n w:iming in xhit Honto 
of Commons. The Fcrei^n Oflicct for example, baa KiciHimlly 
bven repretenied in the Lower Houae by men of practleal 
know|ed|2:c of the alTsira of their Department. Our Under- 'I 
SectTlarirs nf the new scbooj have tmrelled far and wide, banr j 
taken copj'tai notes by the way, and gefienlly have reeordftd 
ibeir impn^nna in iufctruciivc rolnmes. This distinction is \ 
iM>t the fno4iopoly of any oisn side. It be(on|:s to S^lr. Cnrron, 

10 




Ccwmo^iroiui HI (A* Htntu of Voinmom. HI 

ID l-flnl Hdiniin<? F£[imaDri(y>, nnd contpic^jciUBly to Sir Ch^rlei 
Dilkc. No officiftl of <>or day traiticd hitn»U bj witI<T and 
4l««prT Ubfliur i'ot ihr nflice whirh he fill**! in the Acimini^rn- 
ClDQof l^SO than the lAst geDlleman. Hi* methods were exactly 
die rcTcrtc of tl^itr pr4i::ri*ri) hy aome pnTliampniariari« who 
hMl ruW the Foreign Of&ce. Hib excafloni nccoTit in pr<H 
iMWPCing Fnrncli j>r<>|i<?r naoica mlg^bl have iiruck Lor<I Jobn 
Rnmll Its emirentlv unpAirictio- He had li^arnvii from hi« 
■ojQumt in I'afis to r<;nd<:E the Dkhine i.if \\\(r \\\vu ForeijEn 
MinJM^T in Franm, Moniieur Biirth^l^tnv St. Hilainr, n«l only 
a* if it vFcre ot)i> word, bul aloiott as if It were a diBiyllablc. 
Hu »c( s|H*rciiPs on foreig^n afTnirs daring hii Unr!*r-Secrpury- 
tbip wr« ia ih*- Holuo of Cormnooa inconsiderable; th*y wctc 
cBUliouily rr»prii*fl for p«ipu]Hr pULfnrms. His n-jjlipn to 
<)u«fttionft wcFD modeli of eondenand nnd gunrdcd statemtanti 
vhidi MlflfHn f^«U tu abovr a well-Hioreil mind ai well o» h 
WATT tongiu. 

AmonfE thfitr tvbn rank b* auihoriliov nn foreign [kclitic* in 
ih^ flitting HouMr of Connconi i* one wboM claimi candot be 
ifnorcd, however much nt msv oftcra diia^ee with ttie condu- 
noru ai vrhirh be trrivei. Mr. Henry Laboiichrti* h«< «nven 
VupeifttUeniiv Id etiliren the dtilncM of 8l, Stephen'* ihat he 
rn/oift at imri- ibr sd innf n^-p nnd l\w diBftdvHiilagP iif ndl hnng 
tftkeo verioLialy. (ihservera are apt to fni^t how frreat an 
inbi^rilnl aptitude fi>r afTalti tje bns slinred njtb his iiiubt 
«a^M:ioui unclp, and how varifKl i» Iba fir«l'han<l knowledge of 
intemalioDal reJationa which be hpu acquired in bis dirrrttJird 
ezperi^'iioiM. Hit poiieolon of these (iualili«t hai lerv^l, and 
may >CTT<r Agutit to rcujiiid ambitious jtsli^ro in tba Houm of 
OTtnmon*, that the humour to whlrh there 19 no haekground of 
acHuua kiionied^ it apt to mitcarr}' in debate, 

*Sbo« me your Muuir »»f Cfininun^, and I will tetl you yout 
foreign policy/ said Mr. Uisradi. It ia generally bicumed^ to 
*ijQ)e citrut it may Iw true* that in a Popular Chamhrr, thrice 
rafofmed, for«iff& alfairt are likely to ei<^ite lett interest tbm a 
dMCuaaion in Committee on a City improvement menaure, or 
lb« dtUiie on th^ f^coud reading of an oppo»e<1 Rnilnay Hill. 
The appclit« that tr:cured to dote a beanng to the valuable 
fttadin of Kurojvnn (jueitinns orally contHbuIrfl by Sir Kilwitr^l 
Bulwer, afterwurds Lord Lytton, hat ccatvd to ciitt. How Jnr 
thai may b« Itne it mere nperiiTaunn. The inttamv of Mr. 
Joseph Cowca mentioned above may terve to remind us of 
cfDv or two iudubUhbir fa<.'lt. Wh^^netcr It it to thc^ national 
that croal iiine< of tmpefini procedure thonid hv railed 
dtKittMHl In the Lower Houie, nciibet the uccnslori, the 

rapaniy. 




172 



Comtifpohianji jjt the 2iottS£ of Cemimoiv*, 



Gapntity, ihe knowledge, nnr the ni«n ivill bi- wuitini^. Sii trnr 
i* it Ihat ^rent crises aiitomntlonllv ^nerale tb« ability to c|«a] 
with (brui and tLo special kDortletl^e Sa sii|>jtl/ iLe coLinicI tbftl 
ihe emergency requires. TbeE« have exUted in the pa«l; 
probably in tbe fulurir tHey will be agaia forib coming, froilk 
lonift individual in whom lucb gifu are lenil suspected lo rcaidft. 
It ia true tbni, lo a certain cxteal and for obvtotu reuons, 
thi* Upper HuUBe Iins nlreaflv, in the rc>poa of fnwign |>iilili<«, 
oMUmcd the lunrttle of the rtprcacntnlivc body. Tbc Focn 
rcnll\ diviJe tlie reprpsentntion til' the people with ib*^ Couiniuiit 
It i» nutursl that by <le^ree« the bun^en of fiiplomnticdiicuMion 
ftbouJJ LiLve gravilnted tu the Chotiiber wLich is at once the 
•ohuol, and, after their labours, ihe resliag-'place, of ambaMaitorv 
uu) (liplomatuts of aiubaAiadorial rank. Tbc Hou«c of Lonlf, 
indf«d, Ui-day reaeroblea, and Wg hnt rc5Cinh!*d, mon> dn*My 
than is rcaJij^eU, the House oJ' C4>iiiinond a« that aaanmbly had 
lirrn in ibe pulmy <i.tyi of its foreign policy discutMnnM, Th^ 
House of Lords, that is li> say, is now not more lorjfeir drawn 
frum ibe edutated or upper claaaea than was the lloiuc of 
Cojnniona then, it ia JiieviiAble that, in n^spoct of tbo leisan 
aud the varied social interest which <]uicken the npnrcciatiott 
of foreign aflbirf, a Chamber, coiistiiut^d like the ber«<)itAry 
House, Ahiiuld h^t^e tlic tuivanta^e. Aa time goe» on> thtj tide 
of diplomniic debate tnii<flt flow in the? ilirer^tion of tliat Ctinmb«r. 
Hat recent cxjx'Tii.-nce furniabc^s an abundnni ^uajnnte« that 
urhen. In the i^iiernal relations of the British monftrchv aod 
common WL'ahh, critical conjunctures aricc, there will be no lack 
of couiJuone[», unknown perhaps to-day, but aurcr tUeu lo eatihb* 
lisb fur themselves h reputation, who will be able lo exercise by 
their opportune kuowledg;? or by th«?ir euli^hlened patrloiifm 
an efTsctive ci>[itrol of ihe molt powerful Minuter or afubitioiu 
^iccrctarv of State wlioac hand ift for the mooicot oo tho 
national helm. 



( 1^3 ) 



tr. VII.-^l. P<xms of John Donne. E<ltti>d br E. Kh CHmh- 
Vicrt, wilh &n Introduction ljr Ccorcfc SainEfburr. Lftindon, 
- 38»d. 
t-. ?3he ^orhx cf LaurSTtctt Stemc, Six Volume*. Londo 

^- i%«mt of Jc^n KeaU. Edittfc] by Ci, Thorn Drury, wilh i 
lfJtrtKlu<:Uisn by U, HnilgeK. Lr>mlc>ri, 189(1. 



>J^ 




MI>KI^SS10MSM isji wottl, to r^prnt the Intc Mr< Mattbew 
Atnitld, 'in ihf nir' ju<l n»w. In evc<ry rlf-pnrEm<*Tit if 
t vc hc«r of ibc * Jmprrawiotiist/ There is imprcuionut, 
J^t^ic, liiPfp arr impr»iicin)«t picCiirPi, ihcm it imprnifinnfni 
Mtvrminr*, •vcn impn'Kiiijnut criticism. IhiatianU^ and cultur9-| 
^ODtfers in their hoiu hclnud impTeisinnUni a> an aeithrtie 
|^c*o]iiiion ; hut very f«w tr«m 1o know what tbtiy ronllj mecLi 
"y the trttn. 

T'h^ aim, w« tnki^ it, of an imprciBinniil ii to pvcit^ or reotJLl 
^^ emotion or & »«t of rtnininns mora or Icsi lAmiJtAr to his 
Puhlic. Elii apprrti is in Pipprience, hii m«diiiin it tti? feclingi, 
^3* >nctii<xl ^ atjlc of «ug^stion ratbcr iban i^f rrpioriitAtioo, ^^ 
I ^i^oiiefl ' and * vaLum ' m & pAintin^ ; tbo ^t motif in raiuic ; ift'^| 
'*teT»turc, wordi gTOupe<l anil chost^n not ao much for thcir^^ 
^T^phir »iTTUtiicy ai for rhpir pn^naoc though Bometimni! v*gtifl 
^••ociitions, arc example* ol this tnctbod — one, moreover, oltcn 
*'P|weciftl*d (or il8 mutm-es by il« iJi^ioti^PS, oa'yie spari (rum JK 
^*^a»onablo cRccta on ;h<! ordioarr mincl. Ihat Mich a method 
P*a its peculiar filiLria ivc iliould Ew tb& \mt to (l<Miy ^ but nhvii 
^1 i> c1aiEn«Kl that Eh^ whr>Io (Jom»in of Art it u provinov of thfl' 
^Diaitlcms, it is dlfHciilt ti> Iw ti^rioui : the prtfl«i»ii>nB, uiorrorerj 
^ modern isipri^vii'miftm to novelly are abflMutply onfoumlrd, 
^btre were ipnprc»iioniBti in the Idtcr ilayi of t^lijcabctli, and, 
^9«iD, inpr^Kctoniilf ivhfn (a&yr^ III. vf»* king. Tha fim 
^^trothe outcome* of lierMissnnce riot anil Itnlinn inJlucncp ; the 
tttrc^ond wrrr part 4>f rhnt rrarlinn agaiiiHt foriiinUim whirh In 
■^lipoo wa* eviJenctd by V\'caioy, in painting by Rotnnoy anJ 
0«iftilH>rv>it£h. In ihr pn^kAnt t*t%ny we shall cunlcnt ouraelve* 
^ilh the cxnmpk* ol Vx. Donne, of Sl^me, and of Krata jm 
^^v Unr^l fatbt-n of out lil^-raiy imprt-'saif^nitm. ^m 

W« bav0 mentioned the Kcnaitiancpp and in <hl« rvgarfl ii>in»R^ 
^x plimntoir^' i-rimmcriila are nf7(.slc^d, for ita spirit was not, ni it 
*»(ii"n Uaatdy asiurried, a purw wrvivnl of Hf^lN-nie and Latin 
*oftwnct> 

Tf' prricnt an acticm anr^init or tnythicnl, m langua|^ 
Mfhtinxil yet mtrnined, was the acopo of clauical epic ftcitl 



h«u 



174 Fothert ^ Liter<irif Iffiprcmoiittm in Biigland, 

dramA; e»en their lyrical poetry — tbit ofTsprini; of moixli 
pTOvril, Inr ih(> flrmk ami Rnmnn, fl<^(inilr Ami uniiPEiiinK^nul. 

Their mutLc ihunncd tvliiki Plato r-ntl<Hl ^ mixed modci/ S«d- 

nni wsK >inilEir?(s nrid jiiy, Jny, 1.0 Lh' »|»]iti>}iri?it(*[y viprvs«r«l; 
Aod in routing ili<Tm thn modr^rn fn<?U thnt X\xev nro plain *t\idin 
Id the general grief vr gladness: a certain sliffncu and stAtnli- 
UMi indeed otin^ to ihem all ; the itidivldu*! not« u, ia tlu 
main, mlftting ; I bey treat ihe mas* racbor than the icgineiU; 
thflir poE»4iD£ are m»t violent ; petulance is no factor in lh«f 

Cblboi ; jvrplciity is fkbacnt from tlicir ntuaingt. Catullua 
iinaRlfT thj^ Ipabi dloHsicai of th^ classics — with his stTAtig 
>ct:i»e of »unny life cwx vtxt\\\^ towards tbe abaolute iflooDi of 
tlic grav« — n(?ver diHcliiam uiulrrc^rrtfots ar bnckwaten in Lia 
transparent fippJrs of vcrio. Lcibla's sparrow is dcnd ; L<4bia 
weeps ; iherc's -iit end- Let Lcsbia and ibe jHiet live uikI li>ve 
toffcrtb<fr, iW rht^ Diffht cyjmftt]i when no man ean liv^ or lore^ 
LierywLtrc, even in hi* Icoit rfTutjons, tliric Ik fjaalttj — a 
distin^Tt stntemrnl with \/\m\1 w^ should now dfscfibc as *ft 
moml ' — no attempts at hinting ihin^ 'thai d^ often lie too 
de^p for tear^' ; ilill lesA any rndr?avours to move us Inrid^nt* 
ally or indirectly. What %a understood by iu as thc'tcoti^^ 
mental ^ is alien frt>in the cUutCHl style. ■■ 

The revival, then, of pnj^nniini in tho sixteenth conturv wff^ 
rot i>f iuelf lUtrly to stimulate ihr jicisonal and plsintjve *i(ic 
of liternturep The cla«sicA] models tvere iinituied ; their licenoe 
«raA eiocedeil ; both conduct and opinion nric in u-iult a|-ajuil 
the tyranny of priestf and the foroiuloa of Seljonlmen ; fmo 
Ihoufbt i&nd free liting were equally rampant ; invureent tndi- 
viduaUly a«E«Tt«1 iiteU o^ainct dnridn] disdplinp to lh« v^rg» 
of or^y. Itut side by cide with tkte>c tendencies was ihe 
psrallel — in siitnp mpectii the sirrtiUr — rrljellinn of the Hefbr" 
mution, which, whctber, as in Kii^^land, founded on a notional 
proti-st axiilnsi foreign inlerfcieiier, or» ns in fSprmany, nn a 
denioeratic impati^-nee of pnpai dictation, was eonti^tent in 
Uiu, that it leosscrted the eloiui to private Judf^iuenl and restored 
the Bible to the |>vople. One esnnot overestimate th^ powftr of 
OUT own noble verftion on En|;ttsh literatiire ; it is banllv tO(v 
mtich to say that its turireneii ni vneflbuUrv was ShBkeS|i«areV 
The licence then of the Kenaiid&ncc Hellenism wai Iravened 
■nd temi^fml liy ihc Hiip-rty of x\w Hefr^riimtion Hebraiim. 
Now, the Hebrew jfeniuif from (lenesis to Heine, \% etoinvtitly 
peruinal nnd plaintive. The So-ipcurrs uvm with lyricitl 
appeals to the ifin«r Miti of feeling, of ittpiralion, of omotioiit 
and their nisclilnery is contequcjitly one of vivid i»ugge«tion, uf 
/iMsiofiAte eishation, rather than of clocjucnt reasoning: or Uar- 




Palher$ of Lit^rcry Imprtstioiittm in Enytand. 175 

monioat pMavnti&cnc. To employ tbo jargon of Ihe SchooU, 
the Scriptures 4IC 'acbjcctivc ' ; (he dniucA, 'objccCivr.' 'It* 
w%a (be th^'ine i>r tiTp^re ftnd Komp ; ' 1/ of Ju<ld>a. The PAgaji 
rtxilrniplAtril man in his rdation ia oxicrnnU ; tbc Hebrew, la 
hii rrliildti to tnwanl life. Comparr-, for iinr indl;uil, Jol>'< * v«i 
mu ift bom aaio tri>iibk\ &» tbo •futrks Ay upw&rd,' wUh Lli<- 
TO&rifutTa fia^TJfutra ti^iitimcRl in llcrodotut, ibe * Agnni«f]itnun,' 
Of the 'SfEopoftiuin,' and ibU (lilTer<!iiL^< it nunifctt; or rindar*! 
iTtm.< 5vap JivOparroK wilb 'All iLomt ibliigv luc pAimi An-ny 
lik^ « thadow and ox ft poit ihni hiRtod by': in tiao addition 
■ppOin the dUlinctiun, Wbat Grv-rk or Komnn nould tutvv 
UBMCil iJenlli bv ih^ ailvrr rnrd tuJii^' loi>i«d ixnJ tbc |tnld«n 
boMri being broken nbcn the maurnera ^o abctut th« >trceU 
and man gtwtb lo liia lon^ home? Th*»e arn the noeci of 
Kotim^ntul iinprotuoouu ; whi^r^ji* lh<* darknrae <?orcrin^ the 
*yr* of llonwrric: heriK^t, the 'Quj«iur auot pmioior manf«' 
oi Virjfil, the 'Non omnia iii-iriat " ol Horace, lail to ilrike 
or vtir (bv chordi of inticril ftxliu^. A^niiit coiiLmt thf? rii'if- 
p$0ftov y^Xitfffia fif ^^jfhjlui with Job'i ' Whnn tljo morniiie 
itATa aAOtr toijctber and ibc ai>nB of CJod shoLJted lor j«v/ The 
ooe it ihe eipri^uion of plnafio an, Ehp other i« akin to muaic; 
Asd tbc eaacocc of muuc it its lubjectiWty. Both the OM knd 
tb« New T«taifirni* ar« pvrvatlfHl hy a smie of thr infiniM 
enTironing: tbo imlivlduiv], whtk tb4> cmphatis of the douicaL 
accent ))i« AS wr havr mcl^/iU'E^i^y cibjpctivHj sLiblimnl, la the 
pononal nnri plaintive it to bu lound the mciboil of whrit we 
itjrit? ' ]iii)iics»iu[iiBiii/ It lb jUkt ibia (|uiilit^. and not hit 
ftcqaaintance with the mythology of L^mprivTi^t ihnx make* 
Ktitttft ma tni press ionist ; just tbU, and not buwhiuisieal irn?i^- 
laHtl«a, ihfti so C4Usos us to Togsird Stc-mft ; jutt this, and not 
hu rapbuisiDs and conceits, that places Donite in tbc some 

Il foUows from whsl we tiatv ui^d that intprcsaioniu writing 
ift A dt^ponmept ofsentLnTrnul Uterniuie rminrnily adipviv^ for 
Ijrrical poetrj, or for lucli prote as li^nds itsril to vivid f^limpBcs 
of lifr ui nature through ttic milium of awakcutfd assocnations, 
Boi it u not to hv restricted to lyrical poetry. ^ Il4rre 1 and 
SQtiQW sit,' fi>r example, strikes an intcnser nott? vS desnTntion 
tbSB iwgva of dMCrtptive analysis; <] kitMHl theo en* I killed 
tbes'&Mbes before us ctie speaker's whole complc^z nnliir? ; so dues 
$kjloclE*a *1 bad ft uf Leah when I was a hnchelor ; I would 
mat b^Tc givGD It for & wilderness of monkeys ' ; so, again, does 
Gmcbefli* 

' Deoli — allce. wnn mich dam lri«1t, 
Gott, war » gut ! ach, wur sn lUbl' 




2 



ITS Fcl/ier* 0/ LiUranj lofprtiii^ism in England. 

None the !»«, however, li lI onniiuble for prolonged or 
ttiitainrfl pnriployTTipnr ; Et ia rinly trnEhfiil^ Ant}, b^ con«eqoefice, 
vnlunble, whrro iho incotnplotcnnMi %n Ii> spenh^ of iU •tAtCRiMil 
i« i^ounlt'ibiilnncrFd by tbc- Liimpli'tenr'ss iif iri luggi-alion. Thp 
tosta, tb«n, of hovr nnd wlicn it i« u»c-il muit be applied, and 
we ihou1<l Dever allow iiuraelveB In bolieie ihAt imprvMioniiin 
\% per m a royal road to iini^lnArLve interprelftlion or it to br 
ftdniiretl »s an end In ilaclf. 

'Donne,' Bays Mr. Sninubury, in bu excellent proftie**, '» 
eminently of tbnt kiod which lenda il»elf to abnm liking, to 
erilerip wonhip, to ^ fklse pnihusiAsm,* But ftg'km, ' Alwayi In 
biro arc the two conHictinif fnrco of intcnac enjoyment of ihe 
preient, and intense feeTing nf ihe ctinlrosC of thnl preteni wilb 
ti)e future. He hna at finoe the transcendental ism wLich vave* 
SenftUaliljr, and tbe pjuslon which snvt?5 m^sUcUni. He wtit 
of the firit order of pcjeti, but he wan nol of ibe firtt ainonflr the 
first/ h la just froiii such » imtuic thai we ibould exjiecL 
iniprE«BtanlBni ; and, when w^ ndd that he wa* a prc^foiind 
pe^timislf the pergonal, the plnintive, the restive timhjx u 
only naurnl. Mr SaJntsbury himself brars out, thniigh he ha* 
not attempted (o explain, whftt wc have adduced as to the temper 
of the fte^J4iifSJin^'e by snying that 'its p^culiftr peasimitm was 
perfectly difTcrent from that of clnsfiienl limes, and enn only be 
paralleled by tlje spirit uf Ecclp^iastcs/ 

Dr. John Donne's career, like his poetry, wa* stormy and 
cbequereil. The son of a mrrchani, he t^uitled Cni^ibrid^, 
nfter a rrsidenee nt Oxford, to ttudy at Lincoln's Inn. He 
early inherited a competence-, and immediately entered tipoa 
a career of pleasure, of travel, antl, perhaps, of mitltftry senrie*. 
In IbW he accompanied Esiex to Spain, and on his retuni 
presiiinrd tii contract h fliinili*»tine mairiape wiib Anne Moore, 
Lady ERertoo's nieee» an audacity ft>r which ho was imprisoned' 
Afrer his leuniuu with hiit wife, be joined ihv I'aiaiily »iid fi>ri lines 
of ^ir KobiTT't DrurVi with whom bc^ joumcy«d on tin embassy 
to France. It was net, according To Mr, Saintshut)** accouni,* 
till 16li^ that he — apparently liorn to Roman Catbolicisok— > 
beoscne an orfUinrd priest; nnd eventually, after a diplomatic 
mission with Lurd Hay to Gennany, t'hapJain tn King Janats, 
preacher at Lincoln's Inn, and eventually Dean of St. PatilV 
Tlie dentii of bis wife in \\S\7 contiibuted ti> sap his spirits, 
nnd, after a lonif illness, ho died in 11:31- 

Bjr tuiQs tuutic and devotii>Dal« always uiorild and Cantjutic^, 



• AflMritagiD VaBsAlif>^1lv'*>«««ibihK-'l ia HJl; soJ, .i/kn' «Tdisa- 
ltaBna4^rUsi^AJaa,wairt«lChli«M iioy. 



Faih^ra tjf* Litfrnn/ Imprttiionitm in Enfflami. 1T7 



of tf^^maiit^rabl^ rultun* nnd Attain m^-nrn, hit fprviJ on^matitv 

■Uftndi out irr^pilar and unrcitmincd nmonjf the brilliant 

^tiLiU!« of hia n^. H» iiotvpr of vu^K^^atint; iileu w&i extnt* 

firdinuj ; lo omplwy bit own |>lirii«Ct hp wa« wini lo ' Jd«ifliU>,' 

uiil, ihhoug^li cine c»tinot sajr of liijn, as be laid of Siiincy, 

' - — — TwiiS ft double jitwct by whlnb lo tUIig 
Thu biglieti iiiikliiflr it] Uitr uubliut furm'; 

■(Ul^ no onfH not even KeaU, Iim cnnT^vynii aublU^r {Q^rntlci or 
'c«iiu[ br the Mvaod ant) si^nificancv of irreiisubli^ cadences, 
'odead, lie u often far nc^arrr to Konta thun li« » to hii con- 
'nnponrici, tit nittU'M the folUtvla^ friiguu-nia : — ■ 

' Dotti not a Tfmtirlflti or hi^lit^r hill 
ItiM io IHgb tih* A r'>ck, thcil nrvn mf^ht tViinlc 
TliO lti:hnlin^ mc>(>a witnld Khifi^TiK^k iht^re ciai sink?' 

* Change \% Uio unnerf 
Ur tniieicH jo^r lifOi *t'^d «l«niit^r.' 

■ ' and thorfth Mbc buvo Khut in all day« 
Tha tvitight of hor luvmory duth atajJ 



A.d, 



SfpiM 



* Whfi> if K ttlow-paotfd vtiir hiitl Klo1<tD ftwuj 
From tli'3 o1>K<]rvcr'« murlciug. Lv iul;;UT. t^Uy 
Two or Ilr«« hiiijdrvd yciLFH to H-o it ^\\Ji* 

' For iho wurld B boaaty j« dwaay'd or gon^^ 
Dcanty; tbat'»colgur aud pr>porLioii-' 

* Hic famout — 

' Her pure and «Ioiiii«nt Mc^ 
Spoko in her chookA and bo difitinotly wrt>iit^bl 
That <i>Qe laighl almont aay her body tlLcught/ 

^ooeo more, what Mr Saintsbury justly €on»id<<rft that inf>M 
"f^toig and un^innl if Donne's uiiiny pro>c and T«r« medJU- 
ti(ucfftd*«tb, as— 

" BtlI a itErooin, 
Wlucb bnnifA a taiior Ur the unlwArd room, 
\\ bm^Hi thou fipicKi fir*t D little glitiimorlng light. 
And afUff- bruLg* it nonrur lo thy eight/ 



Xor 



in i^j:taw) f>ikC of ihc 



<aa W4.-^ lastly, ivfinin from citicty; 
^opilbst U sooma to u< mia^ht almoct bavo been indited by 
'^'^ !iim*rlf. It u called 'Tbe Goodmorroir ' ; — 



V"l lJS5,^i^(i, afitf. 



H 



I wondfir. 



7t4 futhfiM of Littrory itapntrioiis'n in hnfjiaMtf. 

■ I wnniler, bj my frtilh. ^vlmt than and I 
Did, till \ra Iftvcii ? woro irn Dot vroaood till tltoa? 

liut (^uckod on countrv plctwurfn, cbildUblj? 
Oj sorted wc IE) the Huiron Slcopcn* den? 
'TwjiB so: btit IfiiH, nil jilcBBiirua fauGtea be; 
If evcrnuy LwvAnly I ilnl «ee 
Wliioli I (kHireil, mid (;(il> 'twoA but ft drckm of ib««. 

■ And now goodmvrroi? to otir Wftldn^ aouIh, 
\Vlitab Evntch tint one ULotbor out of fear; 

For loyo nil luiw uf otliur HiglitK cutitrulH, 

Ami iiiftk«« oriFi Mtt1«j rii'irn hd everywhar«. 
Ud fl«a-<lia<7i>vi?)vr« t> n^w voTldK bate gOikO; 
Let mjififi li> utLer, worlds i>ii wovlJa bftvo eliovru ; 
Lt^ m pobfiG&s OU3 worliJ ; tAcli ImtU nn&, ftod U onit. 

' My face In UiiDc oye^ lliiue iit ruino nppeani. 
And intc- pTufn lioftrta do in tliu ta*^*m roitl; 
\VhcTO oan wo Had two U>l.t<ir b<;iJiJBp]]vreG 

Wttbout sbarp miiUi, witlmut dotliaiug ircet? 
W|i»l«vpr dios, wofl iLui ijjiK^il o<|UJilly 
Tf our Iwo loviK lni cmf , or thon mid I 
Lptc so «Jikc that nono cba *li»Qkij&, no&o can dio/ 

' Hare yttu nerer/ ejftcalftleo Kcit* Itt une of hi« letten^ ' b/ 
beiEig torpriMvi wuh nn old nifL'Mljv in » deticioai pUce b^ n 
Jcliciouft Ttiicc, /eti over jq^ain ^our vctj ipccuWiitna and 
turmtiri at thp time k Ant opvratKl na ^our loul ?' Hcr« in 
troth ia ibc ti^crct of the mrtboii Umtlink* the Mvlcrntli^L-cntur^ 
* AnntntnUt €ii ttie World* with the ri^htPcttth-milUTj- tin^rr of 
'Endvmion ' — tbr method of t<riiBiioua au^^p^stjoa, the mHhod of 
ibe true imprra&ionUL Wiih ihU dilTf-rnire> liowevcr, in tU 
maTu, that 1li<^ former cbanncd bi« ci>ntcDiporari«a witfa it ioio 
mibmaiin, lb« lutt^r lurjiriicrd lbt*ui iiittr fcbufT. Bvn jEjpann 
«n«ro(ulv npplk^iOcd Donno < iboro naa Dorcviovor to chill tbo 
ttaUno of tUr Ja<:obpan wbo succmUd to a tumult of tbooghl, 
languapp, nml Af-nAAiion thai may "|«t1> l^e leTtned lJi« Frvncb 
Revolution of litmiurc. 

Donne* 1 pH-i 111 jlh- <]itide<! intn 'Divine' and 'Profui*;* 
tbo UiU-r laninly ihn poducU of bit wilder voutb, ihe iotmvr of 
bis mole spititual miUuritT. Dotb nrr oinsptcuoat fi^r ' ihe 
soM>Toiuiae«« of an hsrmonioui i»al,* to borrow hi* oi*n 
detcriptioii. A» VVaJton irrute benr4itL lUe ftontiapiecc to tlic^ 
edition of^ 163ii : — 



* WItiMM UiW book, iby £uiMuiii nbiidi U||EiuB 
With J^nr. \ Irai ntkdji wiUi fii^hi and iffln for ^m.' 



But 




fal/ifrt^Lifffary Ir/tprfitionrsm in Engtantf. 179 



Bot i1]« rriDnrli«bl« r««liire of them all U th>f noao orth«m 
are ■'idmsul lu the rom&QtLc choinifs« c[a«»k or chivalrous, 
which Ptigrimaoil hU brorbfif lurtln, Thr pr*i»o of frif^nilt \\y 
" v«T*e Ictlcn/ ihc pr&isc ol wom^n througb vod^s antl lonnrU, 
the pr>tsi> t>f htil\i Uy ' \i\v}^teiiy' ' K|iic-P4Ei<s«' and ' Obsequit-i,' 
the pfsittrof Otxl ihrou^h tbo •o-callod ' Divine Povms ' — thoao, 
if wc cscipfjt the 'Satire*,* for ibe most |>arl DUgalory, eiihJ iLc 
' Anai'taiy of tbe Wi>rl<l/ l>v far ln» Ctnest (eriei, titmunt Ibe 
»ubjccu (jf hi* iiiuti^. Wc hcifl no poet of hin period witli su 
litnitMl a rangr*- Th^ worliinfii of liiiown Injure and «ou] nrc 
Indticd hiB ciEkljr ihcoir^ nor docv lir, liliC Kcnli, atl<^uipt to 
matter ihrm to the nature arauml or tbf centuries behind him. 
Me iteT«Tr trcau hum&nitx in cuoibiiiation ; be i> the mere 
iJi«ri«t of bit own frelingt, drtadird niiij rAn-fif^d, at h tvere, 
from his owa expcricnoesn l^uch a phenotncnan is unique in 
Englitb Literalure- But in prjprtttlon to ttirr imrniAfieu of iu 
f')cus is tfci« intonsit^ nf his imprcjiBioniim. TtiAl portion of 
tbc * Annlnmj ^ which is bfued on 'The Reliifioas Drntb of 
\lksireiLS EIExab«th Drur^/ And ttyl^ Uy bitti *Oi thi- pro^resj 
of tbc «onl/ ciKibit* totbcfnlJ mnfnt licence of emotion, echoed, 
Af I iu ttay, thmngh usot^Utive sounds ft is here that w« tight 
upon — 

■ Xo sou! — vrbiloa with ihw luggajo of tbU olfty 
II ctogijfil lit— can roUov tht*« hatf-WMy.' 

Mere, thut uiiuppi^mcbt-d «ii(l cclrbfAttd couplrl — 

'Tlir»v bjruiriTi thy i£aii« uuy iuciruei.' 4u long 
Ah till fi*4(l*ft gTi'ftt Veuite thAiigo thw »nng, 

Nmi two of the most slgnifitTttnt imss^iges Already quoted ; here, 
that e|kiloine *^i the bodj^ 

* Think, whtm 'twas grown ta mo^t. 'tivivn a poor iiuit 
A pnMaoo jvu^k'd np in tno ynrdd of r^kiu.' 

Nor ate the bi^tuttus of his * vcrse-iDticrs ' leia finn, if li^ss 
drv<i;urnt. 1 luw ji^ricct is the emphatic picture of ru*Ei€ 
tqiuredom in-^^ 

' Yon do not dntiea of sociottoa. 
If firom ih' embrvco of a luved wifu juu riio. 
Tiev yjur fkt bouU. iti^tuhM barns nnrl iKbonrVI fields, 
£a:, plaj, Hdo, Uko alJ joj« which alJ dny yields.' 

Hovr targr in lonp and tipn — 

' Kai ilLtftTi^>i fllio (^ tbo Mift) pAf ( nc. to beM- loy oft prajAra 
¥iiF jotir moratfo, Ood is ad noar tne here ; 
And t'> siind yoa what I ahaH bci;;. His itiure 
In lobelb kud uaaa atu vliku tiTvtj^vLtJU.^ 




J 



iluw Shftkcftpcaicaii in nng and rlijtbin — 

' Ltivu thftt impaiia in cTerjrtlicg dclighi 
Im f&uoi«4 iu thi>»ou1, not Su th« aight' 

Tb« wme inajr b« »aiJ of 

Hvw Uttlu poiAOU uraukti a orysUI g1JM» 1 ' 

in \\\% f\*^^y sm tlie LaJ/ Mnrkliatn; i>f "OrwH Devlmj I 
Ccmmisiary uf God/ nod of 'To ibc brftin. Ihp «4ul'« b^ 
cti4inl>rr, ui^nt/ in I he 'MrLempsvchcsis/ His w>n|^an(! »on&i 
nrc no 1f«s charactcrttlic, though often more rugiged imd unequ^ 
\Vr- will traiiBLiibe tv«u of ibtr aiost (unpful:^ 

S'Ac Sun n#tn^. 

' fiaaf al4 fool, unnilj miD, 
Why tJfifct tlnju Uuis, 
Tfcrottgb wtTiduvK^ tnd through unrtAinfL, cftU Ott iu? 

Muftt to i\xy uotiorm loTt^ris' fWutciLLfl ma? 
Sauc^t poilaDtic wrett^b, go <;blde 

Late Kcboolboj* And tii>i:r iir^Qliccfi, 
Qc ti>n Cmirt-haotatuen that tlie King will rtJo, 

Call ocjontry acta to hnivcat ofHccs; 
Lctvc. ckll alike. DO aeoHijJD kuiiwn ili>i nlinjo. 

Br^A'k of 2>a^. 

* Stay, D sweel. aod do cut ma ; 
The llfdit that ahinea CH>tD«a fn-ni tbine cjm ; 
Tbo day break* not, xt is tuy b«»rt, 
Bocaiiae tbat 7011 anil I i[)n«t part. 

8tuy, tir else my juys will di«. 

Ami perifili in thair inftinoy-' 

klld» laatly* ^^^ ' Divine Poema' aro in soum roipt-cc* the 
HZtlftoniinary of alL Wc douhi if tljr im|)irMi4>iiiBl 
ha« ever aince beta appli^sL to aa<*rDd Ijrica. Id tbc ' Mimn 
C]jri»f, at ibe nutbiira last going )iilo Cicrmaay/ <>cnin 
r(^mark.abt« pattagc: — 

* I sacrifice litla ulaad ttii(i> Tbee^ 
And all vbitm 1 L(tvi> tJion*, und wlio Iotu mo ; 
Wlicin I liavii ptit otir iw&g 'twlit th«iu anJ un>, 
Put Thi^u Thy Kt^aii bctivixt my nine aud Tti<»>" 

Here tbc aiyk ia linccre and sticcc««ful. Bc^utirul alio 
nainlieri %A and 2-1, wbicb wi* ilmU quote in full, ai a A» 
ttttiimoay to tbia Jtrvt latlitr ol English liicrrary imprtaaioniim i' 



Fathers iff Litemry Impn^sioniBm in Eitt^ltuidm 181 



' Ecu- UB, boar cb, Lun3 , to TKco 

& tauuor is luurv luuaiu, wLeu Lo [injB» 

In pftiMgjiia AIlolitiftA^ 

Utmt UK, fuT, til) 'I'hoii hoar ii», LoriJ, 
Wu know iLot ^liat tL> say ; 
Tlilm- wu U^ (lur itigliK, tf-are^ thou^hUH gives voitw luifl wonl ; 
Thtji\i wijr* BaImu heard'il ia Job's at<>k <l»i7. 
Hear Thjwjlf now, for Tbon ia u* Uo»t tir»y. 

'TLiHt wt' miijr chui^ to cvGuuoba 
TLt« uitvniiittju^ o^iah ;>iulj; 

And ftpoj>toiirH of lant sin niAj clioj 
That niimitxif Thy promiaei, 
Not thrt^tfl in thuodor nmy 
A««k?u us l^j our junt officoi : 
Wbftt In Tliy W^V Tfukii Aiati. t^r itrpAtikreA aay, 
Th«t vr« may li«ar, Lurd, beftt u» whiA i^tt l^n^J-' 

^^Tfly the 'Thou m us tloit pray' is vthkX tnodcm critica 
^tJultl mtn an ' (■porli-m .iking * iiic*ugtii, nml y*l it U tUruu^b 
^*tioijon ihnt Hc rcaiiiEc ii, nnd dcipilc n crabtx^d and iavt>]vcd 
**>m of mf-tre. We linve, wc imagine, (li«'ourip<J pnoLii^ti toih'iw 
^^^i, a oar dcJinitHxi ol~ impriJ3si<ini>m tjo juit, Donno u an 
^tuptTuionUl, luijl cited (enough to givR a fair nutlon o[ hii 
^ittlity; for, a* ini(;ht b« fjueisetl, he it itu^fit tor prolonged 
^ffmi, and ttirre-forr At vvc-ll raviuplificd by biilliAUt facets ai by 
% cloaer examinaiion of tbe whole j«wel. On hii ffro»neaMj 
^nd dnfiirureiiKrat* we haro not U welt, a* tli«y arc DCuJo uur 
pwnrnt p!irpoft(>, 

When wc turn to Lnurcncc SEcrnc, wc nrc canfront€:cl 
by (be curiuiily of tJBtajiied lUiK^ail of «|KiKiii(Nlic imprac- 
li^Miam. 'Oh for a life of flen«Atton instead of thou^bu ! ' 
aoc« aiirbeil Kckt* in a letter t£> bi« ftieni] Dailey ; form* 
aat«ly lor bimielf, b« did not permanently mean it. St4*rn«, 
bowrvt-r, did uimn ihla; and* «■> tar a& be was able — hihI be 
waa <M>iiiiimma(e1y able — set it to the tune of a ^entimea* 
lAlity tDdiicriniiiLAtcU applied* aod it Bt_>le one of the iiio»t 
aqoiiit/? in nor Un^uage. For here a^ntn^mueh as Wff 
nrc conitrained to blame bioi — we rocogui>« n true impret* 
liooJftt : oiiv ivliiiv if wf may *" bint It, indicate* furiit* bj 
abMlom, not by bjute. It is tbe Utter proeess that ao often 
marVs aiid man our eiid^>f'Llie*ceiiLiiry pBeudu<iiiipicBiiou]sni ; 
tb« thgoi^ iTiittineta lubatituied for realitiea, intl^'nd of tli(< r^H 
flciioDS afid relraclioni recalling and renewing tbem. Lc^ ixa 
ti be mt«onderBtrffHJ, Tlie realiliefi vtbicU ^Uimw ^«>^vtV>A 



/ 




v«% 




tLrr. not thnii^ nith wtiicK pontic pnrnistnei* U wont to )FrApj>lP' 
Like Ui« ahamctura mtMitionrc) by Adcini»ittus in PlAt<>'« " Ko- 
mibltc/ he IB uiic tVt TTvuua. ia \(^6p^va, wiyntp <7r*n~rv^*f*'CK. 
Gcwd bumoar, n lense *\i humour always good* toWaiiCtf, in- 
dl^i^rriici.' tu our onu lui&liapt, s^inpathj' with our nri^h1>oxir •* 
^thes^ nnd ili^ir Hk^, »rp ih(« br*it be hiu tA i^JTrr. A« ffir hU 
buttcHJy trngkpmicnliticii oi romance, his volatile naslj-nice- 
tiea i>l" inirijcue, wharever *t<^u<e cbejr rnny have in hiunjin 
foible, or may bare bml in tbc votpuc of tbc (Jayf lhi>y ftre 
unwnrtliy of his wimitctlul tnk-titu, Tbnclttniy is hi f&r ju«UGvO 
in hi* i^rav^ (ensuri.* o1 Sl4fTnc*H dofrcu. St«rnc nrfut^ Ut tftl(« 
life scriou&ly, aitJ it jh aII ibiT mon? Hurjimiii;^ UiJitt notwilb- 
ttaniling, bit woika iboitM exhibit fo mueb t^nduring m^rit. 

Tbtrrf? arc two bulluw catLbwuiil* (n^pit-aenting phnt<:« t^ctoan j 
boDotv) nf Uier eighlri>nfb-rflnluTj finion : i\\p one i* ' Philo- 
•c»pb3'/ Ibe otbei ' i>cn»ibilil7/ The *i*hiloK>plicr/ even o\ 
Pinlding, moani simply > man whn anUri»i1 hii own xa\^ 
fortunes bj ibe con^idcrMion rjf anolhor'a ; the mat) of ««nii> 
biUt^^^f-ipeL'ial|> in Sirrne — ^lij^uififj & creaLuro rrad^ Id guab 
on thp a]jghic«t provoidtion. EvtJj bcp^nr, racb c^jccd bird, 
or unforimiftln insrct, i>r iibaunaic (irinke^, cacb ini»cUani:p on 
ibp wa^tidtf of lift, evoLet tbe incvilabW lenr or tcib-^nnd iben 
he friakk oft'a^^iLi to a freab nbinupj. HJs cbarartoti (or aome- 
tim^i want of cbanu-ifrt) are for «Ter ftJmbUog Tor ibeir bandber- 
fihiefi and wipinf: ibeir ^j^ ; but it i« all a tranu^nt And often 
a trumpfry rmcti^^n, Hflmlniif^red lofi in dtitp* not >tning 
«noUffh to be morbid ; it i« maudlin ; il ia tbeaUical ; it j^poa 
for H|iplrtijHC, tiru in ibr grneroui ouTbunI niiml tbrv tir^rrat,. 
Yorick, inrlri'd, tliris with Faney, and o^ka mtbcr than loves 
Utrr. Tbachrra^ ii ri^bl. Slrrnr ii an acfolmt ; bis uiiublcrncjft 
and alacrity a«loniab, but tbe^' do not in>pin« rpip«<^t- lint 
here eavil muat end and crUiciiui adaiirc. liow iplendidly hU 
trirhfl aT4> p>rrorm«d! With what ewe and grae^I wJtb what 
mannrr ! with what style! How mncb Tfaatbcray hiiBMlf 
bdmivrrd from rhi> rambling, ambling informaliiy of tbar mJe! 
Tb^re. in truth, we have the acciet *>! Stcrne'a iatmorlality— bi< 
iij]**; and tbe tijle was imprraaioniit, thr- iinprruiioniam of a 
faniattic juggkr wilb cmotiuoa and iirnsntion*. At tbe fiak of 
beiiLg weanaomcv let Q« illiuiratc oar pomt afT«idu W« ftie 
accualnme<l in tb» ihpatr^ to codccitc^ a eharanor, not to nandi 
from tbc tbin^ aald us Unm ibtr vtiicr* tbc lEvature, the appear- 
anre : w^ ba«T wjineiHHl a notable ioiianc^ of thU laiWj in 
lb« pcnoD of Svep^ali. wbo9« inlliMraeo ia binu4 by an 
■mblflgpoftiirri indiraiiont ratb^r ihan fr»m any rn)igbteiun|f 
arrcraiicc Such it Sterne'* U}U:t t^ vxnl that recalti ti^ 




F4itiUT» t^ Literary ti/rjrrifjttiotihm in EntfliwiL ld<1 

fl.«»^«tr, llie shell th^t re-ccUops tbc wavci, the lock nf h«h lliat 
t^3 KBBwn* bock lb* vftnitbcd proc^nce^ tho t<>no of « x^ntc^noc^ 
i fao i imparU llic mo^iTc of lU dHiverv. AnJ wWn, ju id 
• T^riilrom Sluiniljr ' noil iht ' Sf^nthn^ntal Joumcv/ lh« mau^r ii 
•^ lilvuc uf buvtoura &nd vagnricii tUt» m&niicr becomes nol 
^w% I5 the fittml rebicle, but 11 iueif int«rwovea with the meJIfly 

At once colour nctl aubaiancr. b» it were, conjoined thcr- 

tncimM^r »ni) puUp, Th^^ in )^ U in inrK ontt^t fhe book, 

•Wriiing/ •wiipYMdU^n St^rtiv, ■ vlii>ri pojjirly raaungul (u you 
uiaf becun I thtnk mino i«), i* butai^iirircut uilelo fiyr <]uiiTtrH4hon. 
Aft ao cjDo wlio hriow* whfct ho U about in ^jod coiuj^iiuy, ni>uU 
▼otittire! to Ulk «U ; Cf>iioa[ithi>rirlu>Ditc1nrMtjitLdfct1)egron,t bonniinricts 
<^r dcooram ntu] good toeding, voaTd [>r<iimn» to tlmk aJJ ] Tie 
•^iK^i rwpwt wbiob you oui pay to tho roador'a n&dotaUO'iiti^, 11 to 
^lv« tbU maltiii umicaMy, uid Iraro biiu eomcUutig tu iraagino in 
bis ttini aft wvll &» youiv.' 

AnU a^tn ; — 

* X would go £fty roilcn on foot, foi T baTo uot & Lorsu wcutb riiHiig 
*<>> to kits %o hnnd uf lltfti man whow? ^rutrnam brart will givo U[> 
^^ nriiu of his itnngiiiatiuii into bii antbor'a bondt — ho picasod to 
*^«v not why, and cores uot ^boroforo.' 

A riti once more : — 

' TTntcra of my etump kavo cno principJo lin oomniMi with paiotcnt. 
^luve an euo< cop,\u]|^ maki^s our p;cturoA 1i;ba ilrlkiuj^, wd oboooo 
'^ itttt eril ; iL-wnitij^ ft otou moro jiarUouabta to iro8pa«a againal 
''^tb^ than b«aiiiy>' 

*Thc HrM two qu»ialKipa atamp Sci?riic aa an antneomat of 
'bf^ clAdicol, tbc* |a«t B4 n (.'hnitipiori of l\w iinpr^ttioniit 
^^ctnor, for by Mrulb ' wo t^kc biiii (o irru-u ootward facta and 
"ot inward naiurp: not to ipcnk of anotbcr pnaingr, ivhnrr ihp 
***tbor flippantly obf*rT*a, * I b^gin with wriiirij: ibc fiMl acn* 
^rKe^-^—and troatlng in A linighij finrl for tbi* arconfl.' St^m^'s 
'^^^rkmaxiahip nii^bt not inaptly bo called * Pictures without 
l*^»alrtr«.' Evi-ryooi* rerollecfi^ if unly frim Tliackeray'i rrpf- 
^ ^t.i<Ta of it in bi> ' bln(:Hah lIotnouFLHta/ ibn famoui pnata^ti in 
iViiirnm Shandy/ hfirinnin/, ' 'Twnn in Ibf road ]h*[w>xi 
^ iiaica ami Lund/ tvtiii.-ti n-ti^mblca » glowtni;* patloral by 
^>4iuabiiii'U^L, ond in iicfbajis ihr bi;>t ioatniici? of Slrruo^a 
^M^rniacj in irord-|iainiin|C' But thcTe ii another tc«( hack' 
^«)*d ami \tty nrnny a» fine io the cplaode of "iVir Marm'i*- 

'— Tbej vreru the awvi^tcHb uuUh I bT«r braid ; mid 1 iijatanll|r tot 
^WB tho furoalaae to hf»ar tliftm mom ^Untitiotly.--- 'Tia MariV 
^4 tbi> poatUfioDi ob»arriiig I waa Jialonitig,^' Poor MarJA," con^ 
^Wd ho (l«aiilng lua body vn ouo «3dc ti> let dm «m W^ <>j\ W xnjk 



1^4 Futhnfr^t^ hiif-rar^ Jmjimtionisrn in £nphind, 

ID li line U'tAkit iw). *'ui RittiD^ upon iL hMtk pIujiDiE Iter 
ujrtm Iinr pijMi, with her litllo gont bojiidfl hi?r/' 

*TtLe goring folloir utlervd thiH with an u^^otit niid look m> 
fectlr iu toQci to a fvoling hooft, that 1 inEtiwtl/ inu^> a vMr 1 t(C 
giTo hiai 4k fotir-aud-tAoittj buuh pioc« Trhfjii I gol lo MoDliDA — 

• " At«I wIjo ipi j"><t MjiriftT " tatSA L 

■'^Tho love and pity oi all tho vUlftOoi fttomtd u«, 
postUlkm :— " It it btit tbvoo yoorA a^o that the fmc did i)c4 «biKj 
npoD eo fair, bo quick-witlrd nud uniablu a maid ; aiuL l>oU«r 
did IfHriA cloBfrve Utaii tu liavu liur bntiiu foTLid by cJie jiiirignics 
thfi finite of tbo p»n8h nhu paUifib'i) theui." 

the pipe lo hvr inurUii mul l>t^giai the bir AKkin ; — ihcy wcro tlio tfkxn 
noten^ — jrul w<ire t'm times ewootti'. 

^ ^'^ — It is the evciQiug aerri^e to tht' Virgin," sAid th« ^OQi^g tai^tk 
■>'-'* Ihti who haslui]f:ht her to plaj it, uiid how shd cikitiij by hor p^i^ 
Uo ODO ku^jfta : \/o think tint Jlcavuu hua a^et^ bur iu bolL ; Ktie 
OTi^r MUCH thti Lhn btivu iiuH<jlllei1 in h^r uiiDil^ it tti^mn Uc-J oTrlj 
ooQuoIfttioit ; ahi' \iA» nww oiica had tho rirx^ out </f her luuui, to*l 
plavji that fitrvi<-:c xijion it almost day and tiijflit." 

* The puHlilliiin iuLTcitd tiii« wibli 00 much dinorcUuti aud utlii»»- 
alo<ii]i^rKV', thiit ] c!iiLild ijdIi hiilp di*d]ihr.'nijg Mimt^Lhin^ iu IlIh Ck?* 
Ibovo hiH VH^aditioa, and ihotild haVL* oiftt^d o9t hi« Livtor^, l]aAriC> 
poor Mariu itik^n buch full tiuBHSfliun df m<^ W« luvd gi>l a|t hj >^*j 
liitiL- hlujiibt Lo llii« batik wlici^ Muriu s\u« oittiuK- 3bu wnA in t Ui-j 
vrhitQ jncL'ot, with htfir hnir, nlL bni tWL> inwatu, dmvi» upintuawt" 
fict^ with a fQEv cliro l4EavoA twiRt<d a littlo fontOAtitiUJj «in 
md(f; — Hhc was bnmtifal; uid if oror [ folt the fall fbrco 
buuPHt boitrUche, il naB thu aunuf.'ut 1 saw bmv 

■" — God hi'lp bcrT Tool- dauiftel! ab*ive nn hondwyl m 
(eaid Ui« pc'stUJlioi] ) *' bnvu bi>OD Mid in th4> eevoni p^n^i cbiudi 
and oouTOQtt Around for b&r. — but willoul oflbcl ; wo Lavi; ttill btipej 

KFtor^ her to herself; but hot- parenis, who Icunvr h*r twl, krn liop4 
Iflee npuD that epopo, and think her Ecnios nfc lost foir OTcr/" 

'An tb(? puatilliou sjKihc tlii», Maria mode acftdcuooeoKHiUaohol^ 
HO UiUiler hnd <iijerjdoiijf| that 1 6]injt]g nut nf thi? chaivi' lo hdp Ivd 
ftud foiLQil uiye^ll Rir.linit tvlwiit hi>r and hor gOAt l«fi>re I reuptid 
from my cathneiaem. Muriii IvioU'd wLetfiilly for some liino ttX >■ 
BJid IhoD »t her gmit — aud then «t mo. — ond then aI bcr goM bSB^ 
iiud t.L' im ttktnintoly.' 

Could any inipre8Bir>n be more charmioi;ly ond ilclicat<« 
Tcmlfie<l ? TliU bHlf-niiced pfniiv^ girl, 'thf^ «jr ^gikin — u- 
ftAtnc rtotcfl — yot ten tinicfl swcotnr,' ttic chirtupinx pottjHi^ 
thtt iniiti of w-nsibiliiy in bis nmj;V, we /re? ibem nil a.ad th^ 
nttnoiphcre wilb complete suddonnoBt, What a ftubj*<t To*! 
piiintcr, jrt wbftt anisl nmbl rivnl the Author? Soiiif will t4 
u« that Sterne foucded birnBult na his favijurite Ccrvantrt ft 






RAbeUU ; but iW Httvoui ili«t msJica bU bc«t dclics alike 

b ibc dpnth-brtl nf ibc elder Le Fevre ! 

' rhoro waa a franhuoes in my L'qoIu Tdly, — not IIjC ^/^^f of 
bcailiAnlj, but iLo cuiwv of it, — wUioli lei yon *t cnice into kia aool, 
ud •bovetl yi\\\ tlio icinMJtita^ of liU nAlum. Tu tbuttlii^ie nikt sumo- 
lhMi£iti Hi XoQ\a »tiii roice uxd nmuuer eup^judded* wLioh eternally 
Wokmwd to tbc tiDlortiiiiAto tu coino and lake ^I^cltL^r unJ&r Iivm ^ »o 
■bftt before mj UacJo Tobj LclU balf tiiuAtic^ tEii? kiaJ ufTvra lie wab 
Tflr^Wy lu tlie fatlmr, bud Lhe ai>a iuBi^nHiblj jiruseed ap vl^^iKt tu liiA 
kMM^ mmI Iwd tJikf^M li'ilil i\( tli>^ hreiLgt of liifl coat, and was putling 
it tovmf^ bim. Tho l^loud and dpirita of L« t^ovre, whioh wor« 
Tuiiitf ooid ftud alov irithin him, ikod w<>ro rotrmting to Iboir Uat 
dtadd, tbe bout,— nllied back ;^tlie &lm furauvk bie «jroP fur & 
imt; — be Iwikttl uji wiBL/ully in mj I'nde Tob^E Tuce . — lljtoi 
• look QT^'D bi8 l>i>y -, uud IliU /r;/nm^if, liat(L« it ivag^viu nev^r 
E«K. — Xbttur; ici^tifcuUj uLbcd ag&in; — tb'^ fibu rotiiraod lo its 
pUoe^ — the |fuU« fliUlmtiK— aU»iipd, — vital on. — IbioWd, — atopp'd 
«g&il^ — miivod, — HtoppM, — Shall I go oa? — No.' 

How oppotit0 tbU to tbe descriptive metbod! W« not only 
HcaiT tbe ^nulimlly fuut^r Ucbiag of th« be&rt, but we abarc tbe 
BJKppnic und «»rTflir, How fine, ihal phrntct of beckoning to the 
^alonuonte ' to come aad take sbcltcr under him ' I Tbe ti|;ht« 
4&D<1 flh»dowt *Tw nl] ih»>p*> wiibout ftur knowinj^ wby; we arc 
sjApatbiEcn a* well ixs tpcrtators by mn^ic — by tbe mAjpic oftbtt 
mljin Aod it t% nut mcrrlj in ibow nieriinenft that ibe aptU i* 

«xerci«#d. With wtint bjjni»<t unnlT«ctednes» is tb<? chAriwtor of 

TJdcIc Toby rrvcnlcil ! Stc^rnc vriti ni>t always a tclf-ctjnicivus 
JaggW, aa tbe following panagt* witb its inimitable * tittl« 

circle of tby pleMurca'deoiontlxatea. There is no tItilUtlon of 

tbe beartttringi bcre. 

' Hcr^— bQl wjij botv, tntber tb^n iu miy olbor part of my atory ? 
—I am utA flMo W \Ai . — lut Leru iL i»— i»y brnfl stops uiu to pny 
to tboA, mj* dair Tucl;! Tuby^ onivi fur all, Ibo Iribiita 1 nwu tby 
ioodne— ■— Hero let noe thruEt my clmir cuide^ itod kQe«l doEm upou 
w croimdi vbilst 1 am j-iuoriug fartb tb<j waniioat ^Diimuat of lovo 
Ibr Ukk^ aud Tuuciatlua for tbu oic^olki^ce of tliy chAnuler, thiil over 
?irtiM And ualutf kiudlml in n h<<]>h'^w*ri buHr^uj. — V^ju^i^ Mid oj>iii&Lrt 
Rtt for orarnifim Eirtfin tby beatl I Tboii euviodat no man'a comfortK, 
— iiNmltodFt Ml mau n^'piniitius — Ibou blackua*>djt do laait'e cboroctcr^ 
— dieTosrbdst ooniaii'ii brou] 1 (iouUy« with faitliful Triip liM^biud thee, 
Jicbil Ibou CBtublo niund ilni Uttlo circlu uf tby pleaeur-tTiis joatliug no 
Oiaton In tby way: Tor eieh uoe'it iKin^wK tliou Imdtt a t^r ; tor 
•Mb ns«^ HMd Ibou hadflt a tfliilliDg. WbiUt i luu wortb on* lo 
f«y a «i0oder, — tby Jratb frum thy diiof tu tUj IjJViUaiig ^njm i^otM 



J 



1$6 Fathtrt of Litercr^ Irn^re^fionirm in En^attd* 

n«V6r be ^rowu tip, — Whilst thcro it » rat^ and a lulf of land m the i 
SWhIj fimily, thj furtiliuaticjuit, ray do*r Uuclo Tobj, aliUL Dcrcf 
bo ibmoliftU'd/ ' 

It i* A very vilndow to ibo souL So is Trim's humorous patbot, 
' Vour Iionimr knows I have iiollb<-T wiTr hivt HjiIe). — I mn Iiarp I 
no •nrrowt in t^ii* worM/ S<i, in cipottrophiKiog i!»c (Mi|*ht« ol 
irnvrl, U tbi-' pbrast of Lt-boliliii^ ' Wrli^ii)»i», th*? nickf, ih6 
mounuioH, the cauraou, and rU itip burry whtcli Nature is lb . 
with nW her great works about her.' And tbAl m&ivvlloos 
iiit^rprntsrion fit r rurtupj' from che '.Si^ncimental Joiirnev': — 

*The jroTiQg glH mai]« mo mr:ire ft hnniblH courtesy thsD a low 
ooj>; — 'twos one of iJioeo quiet, thaukfal biiikiiigg where Lhc ^int 
bovrs itMlf doivu — tlie Itodj douji uo uoro Hitku Loll it. I uiivcf gavB 
a girl a crovii in lay Liic nkioL gave mu liatf tlw jilusMiue** | 

And it* pczidaot, ^ itic mortality of Trim'» bat '; — 

'"—Art wo not Ii<:^Te noir?'' continnod tlie OonionJ ; "and vo 
Wfi not"'^(ilT<ip]>mg bin hnt plump on tli>? groand, ami pansiiig b^fon 
bo jkroaoituecd tbc «or<l}^"gun<i[ in u luomcnt?" Tbs dcGcent of 
tho bat iniA oh if a hi«vy Juiii]) of vUy Ji«d buua knoadcl into iJio 
rrowii of it. — ^Nutbini; conid hai^ otproea^ Ibu seiitimcnt nf 
inorlatily, of wbUsli ft waa ibo tj|H! aui fjir\Tr[iniior. like it; — it fell 
lUatl ; — tbf> 0'>r-{>i)i*ars tiyc ticud upon it an ii|Hin a cwrpae; — and 
Stuaiinul: bnipt iiito a flood i^f tvure/ 

Many other illuatrntiona occur tit on^ ; but fi>r todi u* quoatioa 
(>CerniT** permtencc in the world uf stylf:, let iho reminder serve 
that, amon^ monv than onr 4if thn pbraMu soppo^ofl by the 
uiodrrn ti> bn pceuliar to Mr. RmlyaM Kipljof;, * But that b 
nitrittipr itory/ !> ilrrrivod from Siermv Tlitt mh* Iiik povper, 
< H«< tinw Kinj^, and courts, and liJkft, of alt eoK>ur« in such 
sttnri^r^ ]i)j;Uts/ to re]H?ut unoLbt'r BcriI«nco of bis own: and 
not only ktofz* and co^irtt, but waifs and «ira\s nf th^ clstterinf^ 
hi|cb*roml, uud ibc wbolc coterie of amiable eccenlrles whusv 
ervam ho loved to »kim. Tlii«, wp rppoat, wat hh power With 
ihr wrakoemsi^) inrmdicnble from his cbaractrr and Ufr, with 
bi« foiblr* ami firklrneis, we nrc iiol berr coocrroed, h l« 
«n>Mi|fb for Uft to bave maintained hU rii^St in auet'eB^iou to a 
tbrorir^ sinrnif; ihr trof iui press lot) iiU of oor titrralurr. 

In John Krata we come lo th» ^rrat4><t impmsiaoiii w« 
liavr rv<rr bail^ or, il >ceii» to Ds, arc ever likely to have ; for 
Ilia wliok eMenf«, lb» •ntiie soop* of bit atpirto|: g^niu^ is tm- 
lUMaioriUi of tho fir*t order It was not only tbal he, like Docae 
IN Ur inferior dejfrei?, songbt tr> dislil bis owo pnuhiiocu into 
HI1H4P ratlier than lo record ; ttill Ipm was be craiapc^l by tbc 
SHltimHitMl Bl»gta9ts of Scerae ; Uit bt^ore ail tbio^ 1m- was ibe 



faihtrt cf Uttrary Impretsionvm in England, 187 

inpTHMoniit of Nnlurt*. tn-mulou* tu every muod of atre, b^mmf^^i 
nreompuiionihip iL&l thi- world around ran ainhv inlL> tbf^ hcnrt 
of niMi. Krnii't mAiirrv nf ihf riiuHl nnf) viiihlr dor* nut, 
h<wrrr*T, like IVordsworih'*, vprins Irum the ob^prviinl eye of 
UDkfi(uitLi>n, or, liLr< Sl^it'llpyt, frniiL ii lirarl inibutml with lb(v 
^l^Mcal, but rAthcr from th^ 4<mi>cr, if vro mny lo ciprcAi it. It 
U «&r)iactiu^ cmiitiurtal, ImprruiimUt. TLc vcij voice ijf sucb 

* Zeplijrr penitent. 
Wlio wiw, uro Pbuibtiii muuiiLH Ull* Urmuuioul, 
FoDdloH tbe rioM«T Aniiil the RobhtTig luin*; 

' Were I hi HLich a jtI^oo, I« »un% ^Iiunld I'tay 
Thftt iii>u^}it IciH HWrji^t niiglit cull a\j tboiifjhu AWftJi 
ThAQ tb« Aoft ruktl" of u latudt'ii'it goAii 
Fianiuj; Kwuy lhc» dniitl'ilit^&'s fli^wu ; 
Tb&Ji tti« ]e];I)1 mumu of lior Jiiiulla loo« 
FMttinxftgftinjil thQuoircl u flhe goM*; 

'Tbr (1oui]«i were puiv iumI white u flocka iiovr ahora, 
An*! ff<™li friiiri ifi*.- rlwiir Ijpjuk ; nv*uc*tlj iht^y hlci>l 
On ibft bliin fialdfl of ht^ven, (Lf)<l thtm ibcrci f topt 

Bon from llio very »igli Ibit Silonco hoavo*' ; 

OU ocofco riillft A IcT^jit^L^iiM vf uti! l'» lh« aboro, 

Down wbo*4T ^r<.i-ij liack tUr frhurt-livvJ fcnm, alt hoAT, 

Bnritlii gTbluul Tvitb il wa^urtirtl imlukucu';^ 

*(^iia to blcni) tb« lilt of mclixly >villi the ^itwUtiona of colour, 

u> vonvhiiM' (imhrr Ami tnnp, niKl, out of thf ir very ■ppp&l tfi the 

f^acti to crratr in & aphcri? ut thtir own tbe translntL^^i ixiuntiir- 

VVi tml ro^ncr ipf tbit; libr thf^ f^irjliintl on the ttimhold of 

K«ptua(?*« palace to which tiUucuft iiahcn badjrmton — 

<Thero%K«e 
A i)oi4* of h&rnionj, pulBoi uiii tbroea 
Of |EU3cKtte in tho air, — 

Ruclia-Litmoikt 
Giw drufik^'it, and vrnnltl bnio iu bead and bcut. 
Dolioiona ij&ipboniH, like airy flovruni, 

Bndd«d| and lArul)'*!, and, H\\ blown* shod fcilk ahovvre , 

Of lis;!)!. Mpfl, luiiMxu IcuvoB of HJjund (liTinu.' 

It u tbla cncbnntmpat^ this ^j:ladncs« in tbe air/ that endeared 
Kenta ut ibe l^ltigliih Prr-Uaphaelltes* who wrrri? ibe firil to |i;jve 
him pf>po1nr Lionoor in liia own rountrj ; tbia, that would 
doobtleia luvr rathriiicrl bini ui mu»i^ haul not \Vu \uu c^^ 



16S J'athert cf Literary Impre*noni$m in £nglaMtlt 

iltiLiTi v^bbctl Bon^f ^^ "nc of her iwert^t lio^ers. Whocii^ 
hear walhoui tin liitlf-enrthly, haU-li^nv^nly enimti^vniMii du*^ 
most lovrlv cnrtKoiKX which llir IjiiyUti pAinlcr-tnuvicinD "<npd^^ 
(irnominninil tinii»K^ nnd whirb hrmihi'iT hj to irwak, ilip ver^ 
f.'A«cncc iiKit of ht> bc^cUc [LvpirELttQn to wtlbtkulu iImt talutii^^f 

* Tfi a drvor-niglitoil Bmninhflr, 
Too linppy, hAppy ttvo, 

I'ty brniicl«» iw'cr remember 

Tb*)U" grcou felitiity; 
Tlip norlU J^jiniuit niiilo tlii>ii^. 

Nor fruzcn tJini^tu^ j^Iih LWiu 
Fiom tiuilcliug uL the jirinift. 

* In li dr^Mxr-uiglik'd DeoeuitH^, 
Too Ltipp.v, liwppy brt-i)I(, 

Thy 1iMUiIiii|;» tm'oc rrjLiuOiW 

Ftut wiUi & Ewcvt forguttiug, 
Never, uevoi; putting 

And wbo ever pcnnn) a bonnel si> qulclLciieU wilb tLe *oul <i' 
lyric tictinty n* the «\qumEe 

■ To oQO who hoti bomi loiig m city pont^ 

"Jin very Bw*jct to look icto tbo fair 

AuJ uftiL I'aoe vi b*«vtii — Uj Lrenlbo b |iiHjtir 
To)] ill tno Ktriiltf of tfi» ):i1tu< firriininnnt 
Who u iiLori* bnppy. vhou, vnUt hutkrt'a noQE««t, 

ZWffDi'4 li<^ tluke into K^iiin picueihiit Ibir 

Of WBvy ijrau, liQd ruml^ a clihoDair 
And gtntlfl lulu «tf lovo uiiil ImtguifiliiDent ? 
fietuniing homo ut cvuiiibg, with na uOf 

dklcltitJ^ th« uotuii of Pliilornf^l. nn trjt 
WftlcLIii^ iho xuiling doijcU«t'H hri^^lit i^-MrHir^ 

He tnoiiniH ilidt day ao Boon linfi glided by ; 
K'OD likcr tto imEsa^o of oD nngcl'i' tear 

That fftlU uitougb tlio cle^r «tb^ etkatly.' 

Wc may boznnJ ihr fancy a* to Iiiiw much leu cvlcuUlly ^eri 
wculd hvtv& iT^iklc^d lh4* Uit iinai^if tn prot<^ — lui imn|^ inJ 
wLote fiiriocM, iltougti indrcd nut its purity, he vtuuM bni 
bcj^n ecrtAiD to ciN{ijett(.< with. In ihe Sbftndeiin pJano ve a. 
well IfnAgUie tia being handled tbiis — 

' Bnt I iltull Tin htiHcd flnt Wore T j^t ti> my dinpt/'T od bottom 
** It would ccTif bftvc bftp|ionod " (quoth my Un«Jo Toby* <lnkvtft^ 



V^BHV ttp cTcr 90 \\ii\i\ 'Mia>l it not buca thai Iho imtforui wui 

I >bi>i)TJ W^b J ^Hliwg TDiMt bnTo wutUi<l it, "A piat of Tftmffona, 

I I'M iVA^trli^ftTl IhatB 9kinf^i^' g'iffaw'd Or, Slop,—" It miii^t hato 

I fcoOTi ilci nkiit,'' Bait) iBj laotiicr.^*' Aiicl, faitli- 'twai ii mm/* iiyhud 

I 1'»'>m, — " An ii fjlnun your lioiicmr, t.*j1I iL«di t.litt ntury i>f tlio gipiij'tf 

I tottfK"— -TfrJI it tbjflelf, Trim"r*sum4^ toy Uu^lw. "(^>r tboii wiuit 

I bUi»i" — "Twfcs ft wench," cHjatinucJ mj Uudo, ''trlmm Trim Ibere 
•jjvwj fpOffn ilrAwniug." — "Tli^ Hriifrtriu?" iul«Trupt4Kl the doctor, - 

Hoiij lioncTcr did « kind Mttoo, but t'll awe^r Lu blusUd ut the 
*«lliiig ou'l: Uitoi, nlduing his »oira>. Ti'^ liegun — *' Tm (!iirnf*il if I 
I *ct htm t*U it noxv, — Somudo; porLnjjs, but noirS — Sixral.v, madiini, ti 
I Ixitton is wurtii uuro tkum a toiLr tu y"H. AAor fill, I prtktcQt. vhikt iJt 
I ^ t^^ ? — A fllij^^t luoiaturri fi^iu tbe snQlliug cf tiiu UuliryoiiJ glund, 
I *joUjiug more;— and Jul tli« h.>ii»Td vrniii i«*7 t«* mirrurod in tk&t 
'**'"<7>/ Htttli not iho loo-Iflimod Fftiidihngii« in liin poiuUroiw * Po 
'AvnpdUiit JL^EDAQonim ' inditod a folio Qt 10 fall nn 01 wiUi oa th« 
J^J*e«Uo upcU of tcar-boltloft ? Did not Giegorio* A^cll^i»lio^> of 
r^ >^V4fl, pTOire Ur B dciriuiiKl ration tlmt thi» \\&v; fiiiU nrrntght from tho 
P^b «€ &bvUl ? — One j>»iiy f"r Ijuiimu folly, wivl it uturtH — a Lmpid, 
P'^'mnfaio gnof. — It firli»t'4--:t ji^tidu^ a <lri[^t drip, drip of ciyobii 
P^nitJj bOkriu^ our d'dkt »p]f^rfi^ Huavouly Iju-^ ut lirtb, Llie 
">*bljlo ihritikji ty imnntt — Kmnllnr, Ktill nmnllrtr — ttll at Inn^lt '^ 
2*< iiTiowcd into tiny spatklofl jiQd dtunlc up by tho thiftty liolda," — ^^fl 
, Aiid X hong; tbvm out to dry I " «obbod Laviniit/ ^^| 

*^hu», percbancc, St«rDe after bic cnExnitcr. Uul Kcnts drurot 

^»<l »rjuK'llu<^K ^^I'Jt?^ lis by ttie biJireil iff liis w*(|suliui jKuiulite. 

^ « loic our way in lii« Ubyiinth of plow had molody. Tlu 

^y<i> rd-i J 10 plmn ic» and pictuiva dnxzlt? uk, but thclmmiui intcrfist 

[^p pomp«indi4tiofiandn fn[rftff<», Tti>«, ptrbap*, i* tlii* r^n] rMLion 

*^"y KcAls to fcwrilcd in wbiti he ilccnujd ibc llHlrriic Aj>iril. 

*V**nffl was tio Gretflc : hii attttudt? tiiAards myth and legend it 

^nii-nic-ly irtdcpeodcrLt of, even diiiordaDt IVorn, ibcir aative 

*<liMi_vnt-rnty ; bin he iniiinrtively firtt bimu)l at homn on 

"If'Bpui, at Latino), in Corinth, wilL Uic irrejponiibility oJ 

oti'-urr-wonbip, Hiid (he glamour of tljti rtid rlnssical pniitlieufi 

^TciUQcl tiietai noticed, in auch enrironmcnt, to pltimbthcdcplb4 

^' ^ou|;bl or H^nrc-U the Bprin^a of dntinr- ll &n barmiiniani 

'^ki^und for the ph^tntnftina^ria of hit gor^poout iotprea- 

*^uiD vru to be diicorercd, tutrly it iru Joitbcoaiuig hnte. 

V*^*^ vitb «vh:U PKiraordinary j^nlut did thit \ifoH;lat«{c ^troko 

ttfiom liic h«ie limljo i>fjt stale diciionrtry ! In trjring torcvivo 

^^■pirit of AlUeat be beL-imc a modem of ibv moderni, ut 



IH F^Afmrs cf Litirarrj Imprta^xonism in £t^iauiL 

' . , . whoso OuaBTQpfl 

To tnbo a fatJt:iiHl citjr of <lelighii 

O tvliAt A wrutuh in lie ! Aiicl i«licb 'tn bUr 

Aflcr lung toll Olid tnhTelling, tn mim 

Tbc kemS of hit hoj^H. how m&re Ibiin rilo I 

V<jt for tJm tiioro's rv f rosiiiuonl ot'd iu loU: 

AluILct uitj dutli he vuL nUrul. 

liVtvk from ihe fimall^i^t p*'l)t.i1<i'b4inil of doikbt 

Tint h& will ia4:)^xo ^u tnoklinj;; tugEieyH^iiihii : 

Alail he Sudfi thcjin dry ; And thea lio fc>ftui. 

And (ij^wiu'il to mouther Kilty Mjxx^dH. 

Bijt this is liunintj life: die nar> tbe ducdi^ 

lniagii)»tion'e atrafEclofl, fnr oad uigli, 

AIL buToun ; jjuanujr in U^iiiMiNr'-'i iTiia gno^ 
Tli»t th*>y BTif »>ti]l ihft fiir, Ihc: uabtla food 
Tu ntako lit ft)t4 ci:iat«iicoi and lo allow 
Hi>^ ^nict d^ath ia/ 



n Tin*' 



Tlili u the iruo province of the* tietE )inprpȣonitni t * 
QB feel eiUtonoc ; with luch *ftu" and ^«iiJ>llc food' 
poems are invtinrt tind nounihivl i lurh n * fanci«) city * 
deligbt ' Wtt3 ibi* true ^oftl o[ hia Attic pil^ioia^. Behind ^- 
tbe (angle c( bit rn^i)io1o|fy gli^aiiit th\\ fliiartng Tiiinn, ih - 
Nfiw Jcmtiilt^m of the emotions, tliia Ulopia of the ffmU^ 
w1i4frv (^xUtf^iiu« is felt and denCh ilieU is t|ui^l — from irborf 
ideal g&U^« 

' . . . hov crude aud >oro 
Tlie joiimey Kfnnevanl to habitnal tielf/ 

And sn It happens iLat the issuci nf Endyinioni of LamUf 4 
Hy))cnc>ii nre oltvu randuni »rid vveu uiiiL^nlf white tbeir ire^ 
mrnl and rplandi?! rciiinuk iictvial Miid uiaf^iiifKcnl. Mow ik* 
•nrhanlcd cit^ of deliebr towers audiblv md visibly triumphal 
ihrougti tlio very awing and quiver of the vronUl So^ 
rhjrttuns as — 

' And liko §, uov'bjru splilt did lu; piuw 
Tluoagb the gttidu uvf>mug ijiii«t in tbo «a&.' 

■ ^nd liftTfl Is rmnna pickt^it from Syriau 1reo«> 
In stfirligbi^ by tlii> ti^rou Hofl|peridoai' 

■ Hitf littflf cf smooth somiliiociiit iiu«t 
DivonoJj tinged with rose nod omcthjfsC 

* Tlio npiril calls 
Unbded ncuraiitli. vboii iviLiI it Btniya 
Tiirongb th« cild gsnlt^ii-gniUTid of bijvisli ^y^ 



.liertiTff Im^m^sm in Eit^tam 

■ Wbero aie tlic nonjE* of SjirinR * Ay, whcro vre tbcy ? 

Think iiv\ of thorn, ll^ou hiut tli/ munio U«, 
Wliil^ barn-i cloucU bloom the loft-djiiig dftji 

And touch tb(> btubUo pliUEiB wilh toey bu«; 
TL(^ !□ ft iTLiilful ohoir tbo aoiftll ^aU toouni 

Orninkinff m ihn lijfht wjni livnn nr fli^ta; 
And Ml grown la-iaha loud bl»t from liiUr bourn; 
Hcdgo-crbkuU aing ; and now witb trc^blo soit 
Tbo ludbnust tvLLillca frum a (^Milru-crcifU 
And gftth^Hng ewftltow» twiit^r fit tliu akl4i.' 

', . . The freiih tj^morfow mom 
Svoo^u Ut givir furth lift ligbt m v^rry Kiy^ra 
Of our doll, UQintf|iitthd, «iuil-pu)o<l livoi.' 

* Liko 10 a moT^cg vi&togo, A^wn ibey oamo.' 

' PorluipM tbo ■cir-mmE^ nua^ thai fauaJ i ptth 

ThrougU 11i« M(d bvfirt of Kntti. wbvn lit^k for Lom^^, 
bJlO Vtood in Uani uniti the bht^u ooru.' 

* VoifruN of aoft prtiiJiiini, nnd vjlvur ntir 

Of BtFian in boUow abeUv ; aud thcru thoM bo 
BoButify UiiQff^ mtu^o D<'Vr for tbo aarpriMi 
Of ih« Bkjr cliihir^;!!/ 

■« lo fpcftk of Ibp 

Tlmt but « mtnocnt'ei thought ia puuIoli'a pui»iug bdl ' ; 

^Thootcruul law 
Thbt fintt lu hoHUljr sliouli ba Hr^t m xuiglit ' ; 

***" *h* n^rcr loo Umilinr^ 

Bilvut upoD ft i>oak in Pftrion ' ; 



or 



'Aud thu^i 1 ebat hor uiJd| wild &yoa 
With kiaws four's— 



''P^tlHf picttirrs wiTliid piriurrs, mrlodit'v nt Anco and bur< by 

'■"tuc of ibnt ideal world wbich tbcy luminmi Wforo ua. Thry 

1^^^ the quini«*«vonop of impn^tti^niiin. But Ibcy «rc not cho 

tv^^^vt mould to which imprcttionitra can br fAabioncd- In 

^rj^^lymion, LamiA, Hyprrion, t!ir mMna outtvri^h ihp f*nt\. 

J^^ r**liw> moods, not men; rhrupBodirs often rnihcr (baa 

-^^phojii« '- TunduUttnt), prrtppriivp ttrr Ucting, Tbe «p1^n- 

^Ur is «imctim«» >lov«nly< Tbcrc I» a crcM want of tlmt 

^'lc<^ i>Uk'b ul dcoiuiKli, Not Ml lu tliUEW Lw» abort but 

ffront 



I9i Fathtrt ef hii^TdTJi fmprPusionUm in fln/^land. 



girat vtiirlit, th« 'Pol vf B&>i1* »nii the *Ete of Su AffiinL* 
'Did our gr»*l po*<V wriioa Keats Gnmewhere bctwiwn 1817 
and 181^ 'cn-r write ihort piccet, 1 meAO in tbc shpipc (»f 
talraP ThU tAfn^^ in von lion %ve\n%, indeed, of lat« j-Mirt to hare 
brrii Ji>T)ri>llcn oj a poetic cxccilencc * ; and »> tautf- the * short 
pifio*>' uT ' Fair Itabel. pour liinple UabH/ and uf ' PorohTTO 
and MadcJino/ Nov, in ihtfto poems llieri? i» not onlv wrnhh 
\,\i ]iu^[|rr]iuaD but clearnrs* of ouUiiie. eliuI the peiillrit hnininnr 
ot muEivei wiih «mouon». Moreover, in the *• Pot of Ba*il ' tbe 
]iii|)ie«>iuLji>J» of ttir la[)^uM|;c lieigLleti» t^^idi tbu clliuaji uf lli« 
Mory — 

* So tlut tuii Urutlmrh itiir] their tnurder'd iiiim 

Rocl(» past fair Floreiic«> to wtiora Arno'a •traatn 
GiirgIcA through etraighlou'd bnobSf and filiJl doth fkix 

Ititolf ^th dancirig bulniet^ t,nA thb trcain 
KiMTpA hccid ngtkiofit tlie fretiljott. Sick luid vran 

Tho broihew' faow* in iLe ford did seorn, 
LoTOTjKa'e IliiHh nith love. 'L'hoy pafls'd the wntot 
Ii^ti> A ftirc^t i^uiot fnr thn elait^litor-' 

111 our jud^tnciBt iLiU «tanva it, ol' it* kmd, siipre^me. What a 
CfttMlruphe of doom, fuill, and «us|>fMiie i« condcoftrd into the 
'two hroihrm ami iltrlr munlei'd mnn * ! Mow l»iMl^ th« 
Dktfch of the iTiurder^m to their deed is swun^ upon ui by the ' 



aoes 



XQ the furd did 



win 



■fvif^k and wnn the brother*' 

What a lint! touch of oomrut is >Lorenxo*t Cluah vrith lov«*1 ' 
With whAt an awful htish the 'forest qDietfoTlhe slau^titer'^ 
InveitK the rrime itself, of whirrh the ne»t itanva inerelv 

' There wna Loronno slain and IruTiml in* 
ThfiTD in that forc«t did hie gn«t lore oi;a«e/ 

Kverythinif is reitndned and intense; )-et all is <y>civeyed br 
■u|f|[e*litjn to our emotions. It is iinpiea^Loaitiu srfete»siiDp]e, 
luajeatic. It i« Impossible to dicst>et this ^simple pUiotnr of 
a minstrala aong*; its l>etuities ppritiFaie the ivholr. Hovr 

rinnd it the wail of the tnnnieml lovrr nhen he addreueft 
nbel iLi the vision I — 

' T am a shadow nov, alaa! aSas! I h 

Upon the akirta of ininao cature JvraUing 

Alono ; I cLnnt ali>ao the holy &ai»: 

\\\x\Ui liUlo aouutls of life are loiuiil me kndling. 

Ami i^lupsy bees ul uw>a do finldwrntJ poiH. 

And insiij a chspd \^\ the h'^tir i4 teltitg, ^ 

JNininfl Die throtign : tliess aoniids gvow rtzaagt WBkO^ 

Aud thvu art diataBt in Boniaailj/ 




ICnDcful the pbm«, * ^t-Lfisbo^ift, LoTfl'a cottain'I 

Aiul tho idck WHt oontinnnll/ luimavAb 
Of H>ao cold ticg«.. i»]d pU^ l n:>uiulolftf 
Of dcsUvdkmQbg tbc bui^ic^ aad th« Icnnn.' 

To nnr thinking, ihit Goihir imprptfemnitin, whikio Dnf^« nre 
^«rp, mclancholj, nad iiiv»tic, is wotth all the rApttirou* iiart 
(CPigciiLii pinphtriLalin of KfMiuS Grv<4*k goi)^ and ili.'mi<goJs 

Vhf * En- nf Sl A^nc:»' !• «a ptfTfrct in lU wmj* tliougli ilii 
^*y dnei oot soiLr to higli. The kejnot# u voad^fully itruck 
•1 tbe «peaiiig — 

*Tbit owl, for ftH liU fiJAthcrv, wak ft>Go1d*^ 

^^A^cniu^, ft! iIjc »lvp», «o tij speak, 4rc vjnicd^ a ihuoMjad 
lUcfhti »Eiil fe«UDgfl. W« know or noibing e|uit« compurable 
I" il, »are Cvpaccio** piciure* of tb<r Ug^id of St, Ufftuln. 
Wctd ihA 

* Soon tlvmliluig ii^ Li-r «oft uul i^Uilly ixMt> 
In ftort of WAkcfnl ■iffo«>Q, pcrfloc'd the Uy, 
Ul;lil tbc po|ip)uc] naiiutii of stuop opprMB'd 
UtJt fwottmcl UiaW. nnil rwtil futigiiM ftwmr ; 
FIditd* likf n tbnri^bl^ uitlil Ott? ini>rri>«-J4/ ; 
Blfjicfllllj liavMi'^ biilt] from jr>y tnd pnln ; 
CImtiM Jikn ft iiiitiaJ wtitrc Qo^Jirt PnyuiniA fM^ ! 
Dliudod alik« iVoTii Aimflliiiic And from rain, 
A* thongh ft ruHo nliduld nhut, iiml Le u btuS again ' — 

cilnca wilb and k^chIIhi I>v BpiriloaJ AfEnitj', tbo Gril of that 
^''^otnUe >cTti'». Pir^nftiit, lou, ttilh all Lbc Afftc of im- 
F^*i*3ciKD w ibo 

* nut to beer h#-aTl, btir hcnrt irne volnblvy* 

^'^ ^bich ike Iftir Ijinl Hou^lilon bmrcmcd tbi* iiupiT4tloti 
™ liii tiMt-kntfiirc balLnJ. And cIm» uLjoIl* c)o«e« ineD>or*Uy 
*iUi ^i^i-),. of rbliirif: <Uraui nnd fading Trf^rikd — 

' And tLi^; anj ui>ut» ; ay, a^ca loujf a^u 
ThnA* Invvn £nd nwax inut tfar? Btorm, 
Tbttt riftt tho BaroQ djuuni oi sdodt a ^vM, 
And all bin wnrrior-FTiirDttf, vrilh ibaaa und form 
Of iHtfilit niid di^iuiiEi, iiii-l Jnr^ coffiu-nurtu, 
Wirtvi long luDi^htiiinnxl, Ahgnla, ilia old, 
Diid |i(ilK}-lifiU'hM. Willi mca^ra faM didona ; 
Tbo b«ad«Qa»]i, aflT lUan^fttid avoa told. 
For %yo nTitfjvghi-Urj: »li:|rt atuoAg liia Mhc* culd.' 



184 luitheri cf Literarj/ Imptrttiattism in Engiami* 



ThiJ ti \ style ollcHjf tli»sifniUr from llw JraniAtJC furj 
Byron or SL<»I1p)'« ibriMing Dnpflrr.hliiM*tt. And lio» iliidiB 
ii is fmic whnt the rrAdinjr publio of to cJay bail «■ n nov kL 
— til c Soil iKjt uf thr tmpreiiiifiiiilfe ! That i^nfat wonl'CoAort 
should iiit«r|>rc-l Hf* and iiMurcr \>y mctod, by «uj;gc«Uoii, 
imprrjiticin, ii, a,% we lmv« «cp[i, nn »]i1 nffuir. Hnw do < 
modem n»rd-ec>|i7ri«U lH-havi>? Ol C^rlylp, of Htitkin^ boi 
iJiii^oiitriiAU'Bly Krrht iitoi aI juijiiniHii'mUi, wr iln iinl tiim 
But of Pierro Loii >nii Mr- Ku<l)ard KiplitifC- None 
Jijubt tUt ttbUtly wf «rllbcrt ll»r wry ^^[it nbility of oew. It 
tvbJit uw ii tboir abilitv Iffd to acrrc? To what do tL«? 
inlDor imitnlor* iDclincr U h ttmt inlcqirctotivc intcn^a. 
rthicb ilgnnluf^f Hnnn^, tbnt dniiity fi^ifc^tion ivbicb r^tw 
SlernCi ibftt Atptrnlicin after idcnU which iminorlalMC* KcAft^ ] 
Kv^ryonp must ^\yv \\\v nnitv^T vrblcb to himw^tf ii tmr. K~*'«>i 
"jnckra, vas dibcriininiilc « lovkcr rnii^ and pUni:, Imi^Wf^r 
nod niinv b*» lofiy, prtn*pltoii( Iru artitc- f-rl our modern 
iiDprvcaiunUu b«ar in mind tbnt what it vultfuly known «» 
'Uoalism* has indr-t-d nolhtng nccntnTily In common wiib 
iiDprnuoniam at olJ. If iinpri-MionLim ii Co be worihy ol~ £u 
aiic<?!itry. tbt i]n|n(.-%V]imul, nljribrr ou L-niitnmf un )Mprr, miAi^ 
bx bis gftKO on «oin»lbing at any rnU* i>f tbv 

' . - . Ulnry ou oilltcr *t\\\<;, IbuE miut^ro tbreut 

Wbich, ooQAcioiifi (iC be iiiUJ^L ijtrt ccitcr jr«l^ 

Tbci 4piriti]ibl ]ii« nruund Uici i:arthly lifo: 

TIh3 luw of thnt in kncwo to him ai tbi> ; 

lli# JitfUTt atiil braiu mott; tbftfv, bU fuol atay hen/ 






^T^ 



( lt»5 ) 

Abt. VIIL— 1, N0U4 on ihe Rifie, Bj tlie Hon. T. P. Fm- 

■untl^. London, 189^1 
2, The Thwrri/ and rra^ticc of Target S/iootiHff, Uy A. G, 

FAdki% M.A. Lomton, W&X 
2. Modern Rtfie Shooting, Hy 'A \frkrk>iiian.* (HcipriDtod 

from iLc ' VoIuototT Scrvjct; Ou/cUr.*) Lomloo, 1 6^h. 
■4. Iitfantry Firw Tadiet. By Cnptain C. B, Mnj'nct Royal 

CngSucvn* SvcottJ EJitiuLt, Cliatlitiu, 1*595. 
£^ Tap* Book fer MiliUxry SmuU Atthm and Ammunition^ 

LomlflD, IS'Jl. 
^. Report ami I^tttreevlin^jt (*f Uia H^ Coujrets. Loiutoiij 

1661. 

^TIO ihrtw who follow witb ftny mlerwt ihn repordi of th<^ 

.!_ <^hii>f fboi»ttPj^ cumjifULiuni nl l)i«}ej^ the iiuiiics «f ihf 

«vo writon who hfjul nur IjHt will At ](»Eut CArfT with tbi^ni n 

■vroiicbei fijf ptAClicAl faniiliiLritj' iritli llieii ^ubjccL Tbc Ifttc- 

Ilfr. Foalkc* from hU •cliool-daj'* onwani |>1iijf<yd a conipicuoui 

nui in ttit: cliiof malcLr« at Wimbledon nnJ Hitlcy; Mr, 

f^r^m&nlk hm clonr 10 100; and tlinugh *A MnrkimAit* Hrk 

o£io«<?n to remain naunvmoas, hli wcirk br^&r« on it plainly tbe 

sC«vnp of prac-ticul raLjH^rifvm^, 

TW aktm of Mr Fn^micdcB book ic to «kctcb ibc ricvolop* 

■n«?nt of rifles nnd thr projcLtifra b^longini;^ to tlicm, und to set 

fov^, in a cWr ^nd UDprntcnding fubion, tb« nii*rhnntc&L 

principle* wbicb bnvc concrolird tbat devclopmcnL Tbc writer^ 

too, hoft n^jt only n tound knowl^l^ of lh^ pnctital seiIpi of 

lil» iubjccU but bi* booli thowf, so far a> ihc limila of it allow, 

& careful And exhauKiire ■tmly of tlit- lic^-rature of the rifle. 

U^rv and xhen the stvlr^ boan lrvcfi» of ivbnt one may call 

auiuearithnrai^ Bui the«? Are fev», and thu book llirougbnut 

display* a noi^aronhjr power of iJealinp witb a lecbnicnl ■ubject 

i'^ •ucb a vay &» to make h luU'lli^iblc 4iJtl lUttrrcBtiiig Lu ibe 

■^■^iiiary Kyuian. Thr ipnoinl Inngaage of mecbnnicAJ aclvnc^ 

'• Uscil sparingly and jiuliciuualy, 

Mr. Foulk«"» book tind (h*i by ■ A MarkHniAn ' iir? In a «*D«e 
JiOf^ pr>r:ieaL They contaiq, tbat i» (o lay, a jooii iWl oKire 
^^ tUtf wny iif fulvice and sii^'^sliona m lo thv ute of the HJtc^, 
^t ^hc •ame time «-iicb wriior cloaHy unfli^rtUmiis tbut ci man 
'\^5^Tiot be a succcBsfol rillc^ibal if be irukls merely to natural 
''^'M and to good Lock, aod is ignorant of the m«?hnnical 
*^'*^Jiliuiis wliieb Imiil hU effoiti, .Aciordin^ly, t'adj of these 
J|''"it«Ti has given X skctcb, le« eiabtimle ihati Sir. F^em.^nllvV 
^^ clear imd busineaa-llkc so far as it Coca, of the Uw* nhkh 
'*^^at gorctti tba comrru^tJon nfn9«a and ammunKU<tfv. \tu^««^^ 



1% 



Modern Uife Shoot tv^. 



thU put of 'A MjirkatiiW*' work atrikt-« ui At r singiihrlj 
hnppy nlleinpt \\ aiAling tai(»nii6c truiba in a ulo*r, prtclicftl 

Tbc»c thtet booliB aro, w<* tlunk, a Vory <atiifacl(iry iltottn- 
lion i>r wb&l iW VvlunCccr uiovriurnl uniJ ilic l&bours oT the 
NntinnAl Rifle Av^ndfttion have donn for thr coiinify. It ii 
not tbc \f-t^%i among tbmr ecrvkc» tf> bAvt- L^alW into tf^iutt^Dce, 
uuUiJe thi! Aruiv, h niimlH-r vif |ipitiiri> kf^#"nlj Intifrpit^d in 
§; nncry and f apcibic ol' brinjriiijz t> bc^nr on ibc problcmt of Uic 
Mubj«:t bi*tb Uriiiieil iiatfllj^'tiiLt- ami pijicdcal r«[rrimcp-, Wi? 
ffieaily <l[>ubl whether, forty ycsirs ago, cjvilijint ivould bai-i* 
Iffren found with thr? prnctlcal knowlcfJgc ncctlful u» pfixlocr 
book*. W4> af^ very c^rtajn tbai, fortj y«an agu, Kucb booJu 
would bavc found but fntr civilian render*. 

Captnin M^^ne'* book on 'Infantry Fir« TACtict' U man> 
diatinctly fUdric;tic i;i parpowt than citbrr of tbc tbr<v itlrc«dy 
inpnTtoniMl, anH, ac might br PiprrtciJ in cbi* worb of a 
prnlcasional lojd^cr, it dcaU wttb tbc fubjcct in<nc t^xduaivcly 
Irotu a nulilary poljit uf view. It lUAy b» luuknl t>ti ju la 
& m«ia«ui^ «LjppIctncniing them. tJndorlvin^ tbo «ho!« of 
CapUin Maynv^a work is Ltir tliuruugbly sound rnatcnij<»n thnt 
eEfecUv^n^x in indiiidual ihooiing, wbetb^r due U> p«TBonal 
akill or to improvement* in tircarmai ja vAiuabIc onlv »o itx M 
it «nahb-« the injirkiinaii fo play hii parE more ellidrntlv as put 
of &n ur)£ani£cd Torre, U i» clcnr tbfvcforo tbai, iu all attcmpta 
in dpvrlopr Jntlividiial skill or to imprnrr thr riA«% nn 
condition •hoald be introducod wliicb i& i»oon»ittcrtt wilb 
tbt' end to Uu finally »ou^bl, ibat i>f cffcctivi- or|,'au£z4?d &rt-. 
And no QUO ca.n bavo carefully followed the hulory of rifIo< 
ahooijnx sinci? tbt? fouudatioit of the N.iLional Hiilc A^mcinUoa 
and ni.it ivi^ ihhl thorp havr bcnn fimr« wh^n thcr st^nrfh for mere 
accuracy al the tiirjfd has led to fdr^ctfalncis of military 
condiUoDK, and thnt ihp (y>n)ii(ifiTQrionB ^E fonh by Captain 
IVlaynr tnu»l be conHtantly kept in view alike by ri8c-«bou Bad 
liflck-maken. 

Th« book wliicb «ppi?ara fut bat one oo oar liti, *Tbe 
OfTl<:ial 'WvX BiHik of Military Stnall Aruii,* cnrrio tbe<ie- 
taiiod hittory of thi* ttubject back to a point «arJior than tfattt 
cbi>ie[i by Sir. I'rcinnntlr. It givoa contutUjiuraiy kketcbcs of 
the • Konn^'ti ' used by tool and borcp toMim ipfiprcii^rly in Ebff 
uuddlt- K)i tbc litloL-nth crntury. Uql* jb t(^mpl?d I>j think that 
lb»y mo*l have dp-mandcd cTcnifrcaicr cYinrago fram ibe fthootn- 
tbiui from tbc Kcipicat. Bnt it is witb riflci, not fircorin* 
gcneralLy, ihnt w<- are couci'ined. As a military weapon tbe 
title &»t cdmc to tbc front in Amcric-*, wbcrc th« valuer of ao 




Modem Riflf. Shooting. 197 

arm of pr^cialon mkid iimde luelf felt m v»vi>dlAniJ vnnikic. 
Omcl<|ock'« d«fi>at w*< due, not only to hi» ^wn coni^mptuou* 
i^nor^cico *>i t)i« ptctilicLr ctmclitioat under which he nad to 
^g1>t, bui nUo Ea ihv itfTpctivi* mnrkfimiin«h!p nf Frrnt^h itTPguUr 
'y*>"|>j«nd ihrif lodlnn ollic», ormcc! wilh hunting riflcf. Al 
S^r^^toyi, (li* il4<Uljvr.il*T airn of an Arnvrknn nftrinitr) <lepri»Tid 
HuTfwovnfi of his hp»t |[ih(iT<linntr, Kr**cr» 'I he y«*^i^ which 

■ nveQt4r«no»; no««rth«<less, the nrnult o/ ibo bftttlo of the 
AInijt ^re tticf olil smnoth borfr iu ilf^thMow^ Rc«uLm of 
* Punci ' will Ternvmber the* horrifiod Hoo of the eldcHy ■plntc«T 
^n L.f{x;b'« picture as tibt.' lltileiia Li> tho ]ttt>-i- ju whjcb eU& wHect 
n»n<)un(^(?t that bo ba« nbknilonoi] liii old Hrowa Uoit in favour 
**f hii ' brAVtifal Miuir," But at ?x jHialinLc for <:nilEAEis rillc- 
•hoTHin^- (h*n W4< n# lancb ih^ <'Kdtiiivii liobby of r few 
^nthuftiuU A> golf wiia south of lb e Tweed twenty years ft jfo, 
v>t] ^tf^n amoni; th^ni long-rung^ fthootlng wai uukmittn. 

WUb the Voluiilrrrr morament, and a« ft contcqacnn; the 
J^jruMtiitn of the Niuonn! Rifln AsAJkHAiIoitf r?Qiiii* a revijlutiou, 
Tft* Voluolcera bad not been lo rxirtcnt*? Iwu year* wbon it 
•^ccam* cJenr lh*l t:iri»t"t*iSo.>fioi; wa* defioitrl^' taking III 
P'lMre amonf tlir niAnly rxrrciac-* of ICnglikbiaea ; and that 
*Utt|evej mi^hc hv tbe ilftficirnctrs of the Vijluul**tr force in 
*'^l], in or^nizaliuo, or in coinmiiaariat, it hnd in it the 
''^ttking of an rttncLivfr boilv of miirkainnn. And It aoon btfcarne 
^'^HT too thit the Vo]uiit««r movement^ a^^ttni; mainly through 
*^o National UiQ^ At»yjt:iuLio(i. wtiicli it Lad CJillcd into 
**Mleuce, wa« destined to do anothor woik, and, t-siimatirtg Eu 
•Jp^icc* at their very lon^e»t, to giTc the inilltaiy nuthorillet of 
^'^tf eonnlry inv^lnahlf* lii>!p jn the ta«k of lupplvin^ the Armj 
'^it.b a weapoQ of preciuon. 

At w» hnv^ already irnptioil, rif1r*tbowinf( prpvloun to the 

y^oJuntcer movement hnd l>wn ihc pursuit cstcludrely tti the 

*^fewrtta(ker and of n frw eiiLbMaiiiu who^ prDWf<» waa whtJly 

^^^klfiiown 10 ibo t^ncral publie. One* tOcU forinr<l a noteworthy 

**^k brtwfir-ii tfiP peui and future of rlflR^nhootin^. Thirty 

>"*«ra Wore the Volunteer morement few nam«*« hud h^^n naftre 

^^tivpicmius in the world of sjfurt thau t!uit of Captain llorkktio 

^^Jii. To th« ^oQnl puVilic fio waa be«t known ai probably 

***c finest living ^cnr-shot and tlie owijci of ihc fninoua vtRcpte- 

*ba*frt Clinker and Sinniher, But he bad folly n< (pwMl titlev 

*^ (ttDC u » dn^fttitlkirr nnd m larniet-tboi. Hii aon Inward* 

*H»n a lad jti«t ahijut lo matrtL^titate at CaTii1»rifip<?, showeH hnw 

^honiiMblr he bad inhrriud and l<T»rnt bis latSor'a craft by 

*^*iTjing off lb* (^ito^fi't i'riM at the firrt \Viinb\ttlai\ M«flAtt« 

VDk 



lU 



Modern Eific Sh^lir^. 



in Iti60. CapUin Koss bimiolf, with nvrvo and «^«l^n 
uiiimpairt'il bv iitrArl^ tjxijr jenn, E>imv?lf at once appenJCU ^ 
the si?ene nt a compkuouitly fUrCPMful COfrtp^lUor in ihr- eiUa- 
niililarj tutnpctiuons nl Wimbldon, unci hii example wftt 
fblloned, (H>J imlj by Eits^niil, Ijui bj iwu mort* ioqk. 1m fuel, 
it mryy be doubted vrhi^tliLir & li>ii^'rAnpT ooinpctiEioa bcCtreca 
Eogluad And Scoihuul niiuld havif Ukkf^n pltunr At all in ttwtr 
varly dftys if the R»ii family hud nut iWnitliDiI it;« nacleut of 

ir cbi* NAtjonnl Uifln Asiodation hnd confintKt Itfclf 10 lift 
iihvious ^nd primnrv duty, tb;it ol' fnatcnoE VMuntrcr »liooiin^, 
it would no douljt 3iuw di:>ne tomt^Uiing Ci> mat'> oiir niixiliEtry 
Jurc4?B more tiHcfal, but it >vuiild not hnvc contributes! nny;binf; 
toward! vnlvicg thu importani nmblem, — whai KhuuM 1*^ ibe 
Arm of tbc futUTO? Fur the Enfield riSe was iiLAeeunit« at 
any diAtanc^ Ixryond five bunilre<] ^nrdi, and hopclcrjiiilv uainut- 
worthy at aucb n mnge ns eigbl hundred, nnd no pra^tic^ wilb 
It i-uuid havo dijLF art^thing hj develope an Arm <>f prr^riiti'U. 
Hut happily thi^ rulers of cbr^ N'.iiiooal Rifle AiE<>c]>tir)a 
took A wide view of ibelr duties, and Inn^-rnner cumixHi- 
noDi, wilh tiftev deviating Irdiii itrlct military cnodiiioiu, at 
0J3CG formcHi part of tbolr pm^rainmc. The Queen's I'rurCt too, 
was not mei^ly a riiinpeittiut) with the fi^rriiv nTtii at llir 
iirdinury military dittaiict^o. The Aocond and mom important 
tin^R i>r \i wn« sboi wiili small-borp riflpi, confunnin^ in ntbrr 
rnvpei^td tu luilit^try rL-Kulatioai, ehosco by a competition amonf* 
^uiimakci'Jt. I'u:ihvrm4>rtr, tbe (^uu«t of long-ran^' ib^Hjliiig 
wot ^&\KX\y adi'anocd hr tbn M«tabU«biiiant of a compeEuioa to 
whiub W(? bate atreudy refrTrrd, In I ^tj^ tbal *lAUDcb friend 
to rifle-alifHXing, tbi> pr4>Ki<i]t ICarl of WornyM, gava ibr Kleho 
ShicJd to be competed for at ionf- rao^ft Wtwcen KnjfUnd aod 
:!!lcotland, and in I8ti!> Ireland wm admiiie(3 at a ihinl torn* 
jtctitori Tbc pi^AiEioEi of tbe lasl-namrd country in ibc mat^ 
I* not witbikiii intf'rr^T a» illuitrutlng the inbie of tirict 
oo-opcntiop in nflt'ihioting. The abiencc of Volunteer* io 
Ireland, and i:viiMf(|ueutly tbr amall numbcM of iboic who 
tarood iboir aitontion to rilli!-»bootin{;, lo^ined nt fint likely 
to be fatal buidraiices to lunnpM. Tbia, bnwcvcr, wm <x>unttfr- 
bftlnACMl, firtily, by ibe fat^t that there wai ni> abort-rang^ 
military shooting to dtalract tbe allentloii of oompctltoro, but 

Srobnbty even iii<jn? by ihff r:bci that ihi> compeliton, bein^ 
rawii nlmotti cxeluiiveW fram two amall club?, iboir of Dublin 
and Hrlfoat, bad a knnwledf^e of oneanotheri thoolin^^ and felt 
on t*prU de corps hardly to lie found among: oampetitor* cboMin 
fnvin a witirr anm. How t1ii« acted ia best pruved by tbia lact 

thAt 



Motion Rijf4 Shvatinff. 



IM 



«9l^'^i'«ii timers >iicro3*fuL 

-^^nnihrr imporinnt nnp loimnlii th«> fnrth«^riiiio«* of long* 

'^'■^l?^ ihootiag wai taken in 1464. The CambridcR VolunU^r 

Oorjif \\!\^ i\\vn \\\v t'ooil forlvne nol iftily to iiunil>^r nmonj^ lE* 

>ti «* Ti^ b<!rs KdwnnJ Roiu, but aUo <» hJ\v« fcr it* oomirinmUn^ 

olTicTr ooc of the finrst Ifin^'FAniEe Bhoti cTrt known, Oolonrl 

H^li«r. Fuitb^rrmrfrp, it poBMiv^ pvrbHpt tbe bou ranKo in 

^ngliind, cit<^niliiig Ko 1100 jraidi. This bappj* cvnjtincttun 

of CLrcu(iittaiioc*B l«d to the (arm^ilion uf ii tong-ran^fc club, not 

'^'■rilrx) tfi m^'Dibf r« of tbc Utinrrsil/, and tioIJiog an aiiiiual 

covBipriiiion. Ii waa al one nf tlicie co>np<-ii(iont thai C^pfkin 

■to(»j of whom wt- have nlrendr opoki-a, heat, vrhen in bit 

Uxi^-«iith y^nr, n lii>Ul whirb inrlnflofl ni^Arlv all xht* fint'C-ltus 

■^Of'mnj^ >h<tu in the kin|£dom. And it ij also wortb noticing 

Jc^W ihr Mi*tfon) rifl«, which vrlth its ihallow groovei Aad 

>*^vn»iin^ tpiral mnrki^d i^n cniiivly n<]W dov«lopin<rnt in U>0 

pi'ttctlce iif rifle-miiking, made its fimt publk njiprnrani^r whei) 

^** 1^^, in tb« handa ol CoIwk-1 (allerivnTds Sir ElLniry) Hallordf 

'^ wan iIk- f'bmbrii1|^»- <-«p, 

The retvmji of the fimt Elcho Shield nmtcb CiirniRh ru good 
* ^uge 01 one could find wf ibe grnerfll progreia of IciinK^-mnp? 
^boAtinf. ^Vithojt f;<»ing into •lAtivticnl dciaiJv^ wbicli to tfa^ 
B^ucmlicT of reader* noald coarcy mr definite meaning, wd 
^ftv thordj ttato tbc ca«- tliui. In the firtt mntebf that sliot in 
^Bfii, no coni[wtit^r bit the bullWjr jiHivr ttutn tliirf^f^n lirtirs, 
*tlJ one mmprtitor nnlr bit ii fivp titne*. No csHnprdior 
^Orapli<i4n| bta «corc wiiboui misiin^ ibr ttiT|;ct >«vrn tim^A, aod 
■*Hf rnnip<*iitor miftpd \\ no Irw thfln rhiTlj-ihrrf? iimr<. Th^ 
^Oodttiont of wind and light under wbicb iUe mntvh ia «bot 
^wy M> much llinl iinliiiit^ t;in hardir b«> >ald ti> givi^ even an 
^Pffmimaco f^uido to what arn normal n^aulta. Bui, speaking; 
VcfKrall^, one mar inj i\\^\ under ordiaary miidiiioni »ny 
*^c>Qtp*Utor would bo ciidaoiferioj; tU« succkm of td* aidv wbu 
^■d not place two iboU out <^f c^^cij three in the biill'a*cy(% and 
****! Ihc pro«pcctft of n leaio would look very block i/, not a 
^^;rle comprtitur, but the wliulo ci|-bt cuoipctilora logctbcri 
'^Uicd thn targaC oa oft«n na ooven titnoi. 

i| oecd liAidly be »aid (bat only a portton of this cbvige, 
P'^'bablr Dot the ehivf [lortloa, ik du«< to mUnac? in individual 
£~f^li. HiiUn|r, projcc-ti]e», tiehtti hare nli been rewlutii>nixed, 
' W marking So thoae diyc only indicntnt the i-otin* oP lh^ nhol, 
^'l left the exact poiiiion to he aicertfuned aoiwewhai <'oa- 
^'^'Ctunlly by a man at the firing-point with n Crle-»c:o|ie. Th« 
^^ <>f 'coaching' — that ia to s^y, of utUtninit t4> tbv ultooat all 



800 



Modern Rijht ShmtiTtg. 



tliat can be Imrnl both by iliTcci ubsorvaljon ani] alio lofcn^ 
from tli9 result of cnch shot as lo changes c^f win<!, light, fttid { 
oo-^inatrfti] of Icavinj; ejtch competitor to biiown ^mduice, ha) 
btf^n bioujUt to pi^rfecfion, Th* uniwnnl Aclopticia, ten, i 
the bnck poMllon, n change due inninlT to the l>rilUju:it re*iA, 
ncliii-vnti U\ Ami-nL'nn innrkKmeii wtio innd^ ut4^ df il, Ij 
LaJ an cvrn iron- iniportrmt r»u1l on ituitchc*, tucb as ^ 
PIrho Ahirli], ibnn <m iniiividuAl sf om t fiir the? Kuprrlartt 
of lli« back position \m not «o much in (he fact tbat «rtt4} 
in^lvidLiul »)ioE ia firr-il with ^n^Al^r itrodincts ^ ^b«t theve? J 
Ices (lab;(or, &nd indeed with computent iLod exp^rlcnc^^ ftbob 
no O^ii^r, of ELu piratic iboL bi-tij^ tiuLtioitJuglv diLtl. Tbui 
tfoeh saropiaive thoi mnv he tnkcn ft* n guii)i> lo the itrengtb 4>l 
ihe wind, with « ilrgrfc of LT.-rl»lutv wtiioh J>«vct cvold b< 
ftilainoi! whnn ronipotii'>r« «hot in tlio prone potition. 

While on the lubjcci of ihi^ bach position, we nmj notiDC ' 
•om^what Intereitic^ Axtcrtwry which Mr. Frt-aiAfltle bnJ 
nnoBTtlictJ. H« quoir« (p. IG) from ' A Hjjlory of the W«f *^ 
IttilnprndriiH-,' tvrilTen in ITtij, tbn foUnwicig ilesmpii'm <* 
Colonel hcr;;u*o«, a lead^rr of ineffubr troops on tlic lwy*li* 
tifl^*, who 1W1I Ml tli« buttle of Ktng*« Muuntaint fought tn SVaI 
(Jnmlinn ia I7W. 

' U« W(U9 perhn];iit tho boitt niarkuiiEUi livinj;, nod protnhlj bfoii|tl! 
llio tui "f riJfl<^'shootiJl>j to ita lugbi^i&t point <if pcrfuctinu. He tnMl 
iiivenlr'il n gun of diAt kind tipoii ii nuw <yiiiiitri]i?tit>n, vrtich vna mI 
to hDV«4 fjir «ie0ed«d in fncility aud cxKrutiuu iknjrthing of tha mA 
hefoie known; ttid L9 i« aiid to h&vo groutlj outiono «ten US 
Aluurlcau LulJ^us in ll^u uil[<jiLLii«A and ([uickui^n uf Imnij* ui 
lontllng aniT in tlio corlf^iTjfy of fi^ltlni^ thn niark, /ytTf^ vjmo iAi? bad 
or bdl^ uid every other po±sihlQ poinuen i>f tho body.' 

Mi. FicinAntle alui rcntnulucei frum a bnnl vnittcn cslHj "I 
the prevent cvniur^ by Ljtekivl Baker, and valJinl <Refl]4vk««l 
Riltc GunHt^ twv *Iikg^liir mid knlv^estin^' piiuth. Our nrpc! 
t«nt« a Volunieor in aniforin on bis bad, [^iminff, with Ibo sii:t 
of his rille tvistetl, an it is ocL-uiujiaJlj in tbe prcMtitdai 
roiinil oni^ fnot. I'hr olhrr print repretifnu a startllAg fom 
tbe prone position. The tnarksjnnn bns dii-cstcd bimaclfof 9 
shako^ vhieh, plnred on the ground before bim, a^rv^s a« a r^ 
forbisnHc bmrrcll A reviewer of Mr. I'rcm&ntLca bouJf M 
jilg«j|Ot]sljr and plaiiciblv cug^ted thnl (he height of 4 
ibftko va* iletii^nt^ to fit it for this purpoM?. 

In (h^ jptir IrtlU :* Congresii of Kttle-^hritt wat hipjil 
Loudon. It appears to bare bocn open to all who cared to yif 
half a ]^ujiiea for a fickfl. nciil it bnd no eJin-utife yowttt 
Nevcrthelei4f their dcbaics «cctn lo have been caxried ui) in 

cmupjcvHi< 



in IV J 
rvHiVW 



^fochtn Rijic Shcotif'^, 



201 



(ioni oL^uprnt lliTHR il:iy*, ami it i* iioti-wonbv iLat ilit* uptQiD)- 
<U^-'t ditcttuion «rs4« bvLd undvT ib« c-hairman»hip of Mr. WiU 
liaui Fonicr, not /ct a Calnnrt MiitUlcr, 

Tlw Report u of t-erv gioal intcrrit, &f sfaoivingf what ibn 

Icncitn^ rillc-aLoiA of tbat (Jay tliou^bt vn « gootl naQy qvc4ti4>ns 

«hii^ liATc Mnce Ii«"n vtarmlv dcbntod, fliid how far llipiraoti- 

cipi«ij;iiii mil lL<^ir TMbrA har« bi-cn fulfillrd. It la aliiL> wortb 

tf>1]ring (Juti, on morr ibnn onct imporl^ni point, ^hr; Nfttinpnl 

Etif]t Auociatiuii b<u, in ftoiiie cases ralhcr tardilj, and u ibo 

nsoh of Hariiin{f failurvs, mInpEeH ibr fovthotls TCCtimmeDded 

by ihij CoEi^rco. T^rrc wns, fi>r cxampli?, a cwnscntoa of 

apiQiiMi ihat ibr aiinitnuin nutnbtr uf shuts sbuuld be seveu 

iasiaul of Arc, nad tl)<:< Asii^rjuli>>n, After some )rcAE», definitely 

vluptcd ibot cbttngi^ Tbr (^oEil'cif^nci; furthc^rnidrc tcxxim- 

neaded tbc «nc:nuia^cm<?til ol Eoc(jnd-r:ii« ib»tf, not as waa 

>ka«i] ufteu suggi'stcxi b) liAadiciippiti^, btil [albri b^ diuiinisliiiif 

die indiTiduai t-alup and ^nlargin^ tbc nambcT ct prbes, and 

Ibc policy of tl^ AsaocMtion bos stcadilj toodc^ In tbai 

dUfnitm. Tbe Coafafence^ loo, vxproBiad ft dvcidsJ opinion u 

to tbo cxpcdicAi^^ of niAkJAj; nub ci>nipctiti«n, i>r at Ic^aat cacb 

uuiSoct stag* of pwrv compcrifion, tnli*> plav^ on the simr day, 

■O Uiat &U co]»|ictttL>rs migni, as fjir us poasiblr^ ab<ji>l undrrtb* 

■kut cOflidUirifit iif wiitd and stinoiplm^- Prt^m :bis po'icy ihv 

v^tiioQfd HtilL- Assurlslion jcraduAlfy drifted awtiy. LooC'raaci? 

coaprtitloria «Hi.-rt' ^stablishi^d, Inrrrssio^ y<-»r by year in im* 

pu«t4Ace, wtiicb ran on for M^rcral days, and for nrbicb a com* 

Jt*<Huix might vaier any uumbL-tuf timirs with ibe rni«^ limitotioa 

tbu fa« muld not ftb^'oi iwjc:e <>ti the samA morning or afi«rnoiMi. 

A* a co;iS(-i|uc-itcf? A (<:w first-rAlr scopes EiuLib- m cast wnuiicr 

jWilyjt4;d 5alj«c^]u«^ut shooting, nnd durhij; a sptrll o{ Vjiid vr 

*^t tbc tai^f-ls uij|;bt bavc btx-ti sl-tij lUuidiii^ tdlr foe btKir% if 

1*^ for di\-i together. Moreover, the system bore hardly on 

^***y sbots irbo were occupied in rarioits covpetllloDs, aoil 

^W eoMffiqarDlIy rould nai pirk thf*ir limp. Socb was tls* 

***>^eclion created by ihc svst<-m that in 1692 ibc Aavjciaiioa 

'^■Qit bafk ib^ce ■ ht*dii)TiiHl' rr>mpi>lilli>os Into a trfOpdafy 

I^'^cr, and arranged all the principal maichrs tbnMlflttftft too 

*^ce?ting on wliac has ixivu cotlpd ibe 'aboulder to sbonliW 

^J^*t«D, wbcrcby all tho competitors for any one prise are abo<4- 

^^ at the tame range siinuluuieously. In doling tbi* tbrt wvrr 

*^ply rcvortinj^ to a principle whicb hod bevn daMy usd 

**ttpbatjially laid donu bj iht Cuagreas of 18G4. 

It i« aluk interesting to find tliat tbttbattU bad fllnwly li|,im 
^ bdulf of strictly uiilttary shoolinjr na ■frfWl' < riJkJ 




' faacjr ' tlKKtin^ : wc thai] enJunvour to ihciw ili4t wo u»c rtic 
InUer terin iii no invjtlioua at*fi%e. The cai« tor ibn fcnner«i> 

Sat ict*rly And cflTeciivclj^ bjr Lord Ducic, himBclf no attta pn- 
irmrr wjlli lli« inalcLi ritle Utted wtHi api^ture dgtfU. Ttiftt 
wt^apon, ko tAiJ, would be u*cfu1 ^ if the HriiUb wldicr wm 
plwEi^'B crMaia nf mtM-tiTig wtib A black i^ncmy, if the ^ooi) 
upi>ii which thai cDcmj Atuotl wpro ftlwnys Guv«rftl with nav; 
und fiiTrhpr, if ibr rnrmv wnuld hr in rornptoixani la tn ills' 
p&nsc with hi» clutbci. And it h&ft b^cn wiiivd u> tbu 
criticitui, ibal siri»? long-range sbooUiif; iUicH ;Mit tt*at tbu pi«?r 
f>f judjfifig diitA(ii!c, it would be ni?i?dJiil tot Iha nude etumj 
III m:uk liific wbilc &iglil]iig-»h<jts wrri? bemjc fucd. 

Neri^r(bi<lir«ft, wi!^ tbtnk that Lord Duc»i>, in a *om«wfabC 
BaUuD-iikr fAiluixt, icmovcil half the »tinff <ri bii curve aiul 
chaQgcd il inlo toxnetbm); like a blomng, by aaolb«r puia^ 
in bin I^tttj; — 

'I am cMsnvinocd lliml it U novv no Ij^ugtir Uio itondiait ban^ oS 
doorotft oyo tLat will wii^ 

'Ljititf down ^m-4 i^iitclicall)' ft porfuct ru»t; lh« ftportun'^i:^^ 
clmnt 0$ idl huzo (ill lub-riLblu w*tJhthi^r), and mnW my diort vig^ 
Clonal in y*»ir lonit ught, 

'Tho roiU cikiU tioiv lic« in wat^^bin^ tiro nind ikcd tho ligbl, IM 
kcvpiikg the rific m good cocditiou, in careful tacuupulatKio i& Icodui^^ 
ttud in luivLUi^ l)ii3 liHbt iLuiniuuiUvu/ 

li not ihat nnitLli4-r uray of cnyin^ thnt npr-rturi^'iijibu grt rfi. -J 
of tbe pcrtonal dcinont of error, And turniib the beat menat ^zjt 
iPiiCing «yaU*infl of fiHing hmiI vftriptii«« ni ftmiminIiIon,>itd tn 
woikinfi: by exncriment towards nfi iiLcal mi[ilarf tveapoa!* 

Tbut »ide ot llie L'lui- vras urll puL iia n. |Ki]>c?r rnul At C 
i^ngTfitt by Mr. John Ki^by, ]M^\y the Sap<irin1<Woot of i- 
Govornnirol Small Anns r»ic:U)ry nt KnfirbL TUr pvp" »^' t^ 
furth«T nottfworlby u i(*Ttiri(7 furtb viTy dearly what the wb^^Iik 
AiiD of ibc NutloiiiLl Uillt: A»V'jcintioa uugbl tu I.ht, and 
ire ibink, allowmg lor cerUin ctcvUUoiu and iupcrf^ciioov 
in tLc mAin b&s boon. 

* Tinsrci En uiio further matter, wbieh, as it onm«« otrtcllf vitdar 
boad of ^Cfuund pritK^iflost I iwl I <-niiDot paiui ovat alloi;;Dlbcri 
that i*, llio J'lilo by wbiab wu ou^jhl to bo guided in lnyicg dowa 
oozLdltii>ii« of any ujiudi. U appuurs Ui ukc luaulfuit tliot m e% 
cum «e ahiTiUd ^t a(Ji>k^ttniij Tho ohj<<;t wbidi IIil* luatdi t« iiit«i 
to promote If it bu lo oncuura^o V<Juulo4jrA to «t1u& proficM. 
witk thLir re^uuoutol rifli^«, iboa numifoiilly that Hllo cnly abauli 
UH-d, nuil all ihc tu^H filiimld b*f uicidtlli^d un tbn iniliauy staniLitri 
with tJm addition tfiat hh rtliMiling at a targol »t m«a4W«il dJctaOf 
is only lb« firA atop towimla tbo f'Uiaiont vac of Ui« rifto in ww. Ar 



^ff)lt'rn BifU Shooting. 203 

ixftoro ilkiiii<iii sJtouH l« givcu tbiin W luthctti> lecn Jono to 
tZBMlckctt ao vraiigml llmt llie pmticivu(;y uf iLv uuuipvlikirtt ia 
r«ft^^g illjitftiiiOi^ i^Vnlftttna f.liA i>1eTn1.irtrt fir SnUirm^illabt ningr^. 
ftS^ tb* feLIowanoa for vind, ^l^Hv^ring tljoir fim wilh rapidity and 
i»Ci<Tiiirj «■ ID file-firing. &c. i^,, tuay b^^ ta^ttil and ronardcd. I 
ir^wmrt bnl tbiuk tbal muh caiitnttai nrc cf moro practical n&ltia ii; u 
fXS^IitaT^ ]t(i]nt tif TiFW lliin Ibc aamrying niiii^aHioii at matcltcvi Ht 
900. A(N^ ud «UCr nrd«. 

'AtQooff Ibfl otW objoetfl wLicL &r« ir«ll worUij tliftt apooid 

VTiKiit [if rifl<--»ln**»EiTiu iiA M Jirjiltl^y, umnly, a»>d BnifrR^fic pa^rmir. 
i^nl Igftin tho vticmlulioc of iinprovcxncntx in tiic iiiaiitifiLCltir«} of 
r^An. If Ukdrafoiv il l« prupcBud in uiy ocntctt to imito tUoGu tw<# 
fajt'Tiarif^ purp^Mtftllw grejit«Bl latitude sbuuld Ik ^1t(}U in tJju 
UfciMir of ftjwriiira or other aig1iU« uf hjh^IaI and cuh11> iiirjectflrH, 
ftc^ Jr.; and Cif nDoh a iifttiir« ar« t1)« miull-bora CAntfRU ivl 

'TWo U, howoT«r, Hnothcr ni^d a moul imxirrtaat object wUcEi 
luj auJ ougtt tu be jiruiuulwl by mniLn of m^tchcv, wiUi conditiifUB 
■nuible t0 thai eod. Aurl tint ih xhti iniprovWD«iit of our military 
VB. llMt« abould W Ibo naiiibM with riflM initebld for sorrico 
«Uaded to is tlio proiEruuioot and tlie •aiatvooo «f mob uatchoi 
WbII t^irilato poworfullj iLo ]nipri>T«i[[«iit of mQitary riflo*. 
Vb» arrctr idjiuttnontit, wind-ftmiR™. Kiphr-covtmi, iipcthiT* -mitfliW, 
■tOBiiiiiitioi) mull u would not be luitablo for j^rricc, nLould be 
pKibibLtcd^ aunt Uiv 4X^iiiti'>na cLuuId U: in uraogcd net to eupply a 
MM of Ibtf tilSi'iiJuc^ Ltf ILl' mmpoii in u luilitary irujul uf tiuWi »ug1i 
M OM^ (uiil r^iiirilr loading, dTiraUMfty, nr-u-ltfimlliT to foul, ftc 
Tiw<etna1«hcui wiiuld, 1 thmk, U^ biffbly pojuilitr, Tboy woald opi^n 
^UrGcId 10 mciaj & slHlfril iliot, tvIio, ni»l fiiniing Eufflt^ioul r«wird 
^hbakill in Ibe tipc cif Ihe Knficld riffo only, is jtt tittwillinj; Ui 
■kr Ihe liittf wilb ibu tmujll-bfuvi i;uni|HitItore undor ihu jiiiM3iit 
ntn.' (fi«poH of Ci>Qgf04«. if. 1T7, 174.) 

It ia b^rdly too mpcb to lay tbat ibr whole etpi^ncncf^ of ib^^ 
A*fc)fiarion, dnrlng the lime vbirh buK in:rrTPDi-U, illutirAtca 
I'^Kiuidiw^i of the view* *ct forlh in tho abovi* {^Klraot, Ti>t» 
^■oprtUiOfU for rifl?« of uu intt^rriKr^tiiitc t;bAr&vii'i— ^tnUitarj' 
■mi, tlut it to 4aiy, but not confarming lo m\\ the cxutinj^ 
^<>^MiEncat rc|Eu1alu>ns — wrrc gradoiJIj' Aod Uriittttivdjr iotro- 
^ncwj till th*y Ukraine ftOP ftf lb*» moil <^napioDoiifi antl 
^■nfteitiiip fcnlurira of ibt annual mcctin^i. IF ihcj Arc c!tioto<r<l 
^° niinnion. i( it 4intv tH-cnnsL- Thrv Latc* t]r>[i« ihpir work 
f'^'^Qf tilr, and hare ia Exinjunciion wilb other iollorncci called 
Uito bring a fioTi^rnmrnt riHr which irnuli cluvr vn the he«l> 
<*' Ibv inatcti hilt-. 

Mr. Rtgbjr alio faniUbeii a full junlLrtcntion for tibc maich 
■iit^ Willi iU dabomtP 4JgbU and applixmc^i, uafil for acttjal 

BCTvice 



204 



Modo^ Jlifk Shooting, 



verriofl in the flcUl. But it mutt alw^yw he hoinc in mind tb: 
%bm toflg-rniig'' Mil*-, thotjgb Jr. nrwH nm hr ir*p!f a iriiliuLf)' tm, 
mutt be »uch m to carrj- ai onward In tbi> ]»ro<WM of diKO*cc«l{ 
mnd tecrinjc t^i'^ li<-'^t intlilar^' !irm&. The non-mllilsi^ cos* 
ditii>nB uupcrimi^dHcd miuc bo dcfliifnod tnrrcly to ^t rid uf 
cbuitTn fliki! til ir«t a\iiic vxAci\y the mililjuj fitueu U lU 
W4?Jtpcn; tboj idluC be *uch tbat tkoir remorU will mtn^i 
<iimiui*U tLv aci-iir;icy ami [iut dcairny the dSdencj of tltf 
ncxpoa. ThcTo wiLs n timo when tlie Aciociaticirip and bdcn^ 
the fric-uds <if iocig-r^H^ »tiuutln^, ^'cdrrallj- A>i^l ^ 
wbolnaiMii^ trcth, Ami ivhtfii ihi^ causff wnft I'cry mucb coiiaagvnd 
ibctrby* The episode forms A wmcvrhtit wter»iiD£ lod 
iiutnicUvft cbjipin- in ihr? hi«[i>ry of nfir-thooring, and nev^ 
Tcnturc ibcicforc U» IcJl it in dc^aiJ. 

In 1B74 B leam coinpiHed of lii Irishni«*n 4:raMnl tJse 
Atlantic to aboot a lubtch at New Voik a^ia»t « t^tun cboM 
fr.im thr wholn nf ihr Uniirfi Staten. The mau^b wcu In U 
iiicnticaJ id diauaoe c<^miit4[>nd witti tbat ior xiiv l^lcbo SbMfd 
Little yvtia thrti liUcittn in thia rt^unir^ ha to ibe pow«r> of ibr 
Amoricans nt long rnngoa; imlt^cd, it wtu gmmralljr tbvcifbi 
thai accurate niarkdiLaiiKhip at short diitanon, vuuuliaf. V*^ 
th«ir tlrtinj^ pi>iDt, Tbe lri»h woro all armed witb Kig^ 
niunto load lug iiflvs ; ihi'ii opponents with Americau bmdt- 
taatlcn, i'he Irith tccun, thoitgb a alrot}}; 001^, wai tM 
al>sulutelj ibe hc-st tliul i.ou]d U.- found; thry were *bootii| 
umlrr new and tmnfwhnt (r\iii^ !tiirn£ph4>r]c ennditiiia*, ana 
tliejpmbablj held their oppoiicDts rather chL-ap. Cometivcfid/ 
llie dpfeat of tin* Iritb hy th? v^y narn>w margin <il liini 
pomtJ could liardij be looked on aj conclusive cither a* b>lfa* 
merits of the tompeiirori i>r ihcjr rr-ijHrdLTe aruia. By ftf Iv 
uiost aigrificaut IciituTe of tb< lunccii iv.-u Ibat ibo Aiurmtfv 
«w«l their siii*ri*si to the nhocfting of one man, Mr, I'uIwLi 
who mado ciifht point* moro than any of ihi* Iriih, and «bo» 
icvre bad U|i to lli»t time m-vei been uppr^fLchiTil in anj ul! tbr 
Elcbo Shield malebes. Ho shot, a« we have «aid, with ■ 
breecb-luadrr and al»i on his back. 

Tbn leason giT«Q by Mr. Fulton'* peTformfuicie waa soon tnoA 
cmphntieAlij enforced. In \^7b and in ItJtO Amcricau WV* 
risited IwlaAd, and each tlm« dt^ftai^'d a cuTi*fiilIy cbolCB tfJ 
T4p]Tici:kiaii>e Irttb icwax oa ila own ^Tound ; and thlti '^ 
shoLild be nh«*rt'rd, was at a lime when lir-land was mOT'^ 
than liolding 1(5 own in the Intcruntional eompccitioiU *'^ 
Wimbledon. Nor was ihni alt. In IhTfi, the year uf ^ 
Philadelphia Exhibition, u competition was held at New Von< 
JU wliiob li-aois froui Scotland, Ireland, and Cntinda nil fo^ 




Mt>*ifm Rtfie Sh^in^t 



ti>b 



I nnil «i*ric ScaIjmi by the AmiMicfini, while thcf mnali w«» 
tlut-iilJj lourinitrrd by & uiAtvb in lIw »uiijl- yr&r tvtwceti 
Lnsb and an ArooTit^nn trnm. In tho following ^«ar a 

from Great Briu!n onU lirkml, cnrcfull/ cho«:n nnd 
orgMtiacnl, triMi iu luck AguinM tb# Ameiicant and fared 
titer. 

Jt teri^ft of rprenr* 1nuj[lit Britith riHrmt^ri tw<i It^aons. 
AmcrKAHk nil shot Jn tbo bnck prrBitiori, wLicb prcirjoaa 
374 hafi «nly brrn ndo^iird \yy n fr* compciiuirt hpre 
i^re, Tbe •ucctih cil' tbo Auitrican* effectively jrare 
4Vkihb1ow to tbe i>M pmnc: pi>»iitoiL rxcept wldi milUary 
I EAjcliib riticmpn, toi>f had been iti ft Cdmploccni nm) 
ftkftt uuinti-lligvm fubiuu plodding un wjtU tbe muzytr- 
r «■ ft LuTcrl weapon, r^^grinlleat nf the ffict that it wu 
tly rvfpudcd o-t itbai^lctu Un military purpcuei. Th« oim- 
KD that oo onridj;* could be inveniecl wriicli would clein 
lurd M dfcctircly «« Ibe w<uJ »>cd vrhb tbo niUA^lv-lufuJt^r, 
io finnlv rootwl tbat no feriou^ atr^tnpl wa« beinff made to 
apr a bnrecb-loiidn for Jon^roni^ pmcttco. Tbe tocccM 
lie Amrri^nn* annibiUted tbe intix:rWi>ader as it h»d 
liUied tbe prone position. But unhoitpily the hreccb- 
T <i$ \u^ hy th^ Ajfi«nmitit mn% every ivltit »« rniicb a toy, 

of a11 prAelicnt use cxcepi for tcirj^et purpnsoa, &> tfie 
|e-|ondrr: for jiftn pvi-ry shot an rlibf^rnli* proerEi r| 
ing wiu ^onir tbroo]>b belorv nnothr-r «b{it w» fircdn En 
tbr reji»ini« which b;il tlie AmericTnt to ndi^pl llir- lirei^cb- 
ft bad nbfjlutvly no cunnrotion irtth tb^ reason* trhicb 
f tt vaIuaIjIc for mllil«ry ptirpoM^i It was iiivft'^rixl /%% n 
t wenpon limply because it cotiM be cleaned between thit 
ifA&d thus tbe barrel euuld b<.' brought crny E)mc< lo ji aV^tn 
lifnrmitT unfutainabte with ihc muz/lr-jonrier. Tb* writer 
mbrrt beArintr ^^^ <■' <h^ tno»i diitiiigtii^iLed Uinfc-ransc 
i in Aai^rJos ftny thAi if bn wAntod t'> ra.ike a hig tctvn he 
> Me hit brcffOb-loftdcr i il be wiuitcd nn enjoyAbJe day 
fie rtngr, b«* look his inUKzlr'Inad^r. An tncident wbic!h 
rted in 11^74 ought ft have wnmed till |>fLni^ of tbi' 
nimbly Dn^UAlnrtory tiAlure of ibe Amrtii:^!! nysieEii tti 
'innjce ihootin^^ AfCirr tbi* innlHi At Ni>w York above 
tiijnedf & Bf^ouud uiAtcU vr»L> HTiniiffnti rtLtbtn* to trnt tbe 
lU of ibe rifles than p1 the luen, Tbe Ainoricans irore to 
I their br<?i»:h-1ij>ailtfrs, lbi» tluir irithuut clcamng. Tbe 
LSCV w&t k ibiuvuid yiirdftt A>id i'Qch compeiitor na4 tn fire 
Lty-flvc shots. Tbe result W4» an utter and hopeless brcidt- 
n on ibe puit of tb^ breedi-Io^lt^r. Tbe be«i Americui 
B mu beloM the vor»t Iriih. Cue AniGri<^n COOipMiUif 

onlv 




206 



Mwfmt Itifit Shooting. 



only hit iht? target four lim», and bad to r4*cire froai ^ 
coVklciX wilb ao !□ capacitated gQi!* leering ten »hoca lUll 
unfirwt. 

It ft^cm* iutotiUhin£ that DritUh nRcmca sbould, «fccrfacb 
n Irtion, in tlieSr deair*? fur nier« taiwt tiocuiBf j, liAvc uto|itnJ 
nol onlj' tbr breech -loader, bui ibe AmmcAc mrihod of ubf 
IE. Ncvc^rthHc»£, ihx". k^itiziiAir nim of Inng-rnng^ «ho<i(in]£, 
1h(* devi<ii>pinput ul s iniltlarv nllc, nav «cl oAjde in Javourof 
lii|^li scoring. Ry l^r*l iLc mii7/Ic'W<lrr had viriunlU d* 
ftpprarncl from rill L^g-h-c<E&it cumpetilion* nt \Vjmblcd<fn, »J 
an niJHirlUKfiil uf mda aiiil lun^-liaatlliH) brtubt'^, ft handfiil uf 
ptitchoi Ard a on of wntcr, were to bit tfien iLmoiw tb^ Hppti- 
%x\r^.% i>r every long-rn&g'e thoL A bariuil canriicd on under 
ihcat^ oondiiiont was hoc likely to «n]Ut riH^ruiti, and u« <ia 
boldly itouliE thai, if this atntc of thinga l^nkd been sulTfmi U> 
CMiciou4^f tonif-rangp ilior>ling wmlJ have died out brtv, 4ft Ii 
bUf ire bvHevr, on lEit? ulbcr ^tJc of lb« AitanCtc Tbfi difr 
mmrrtrc And ntim1irnuKTi«i uf ihc itycirm fnrriHl mpn, hnnvro; 
ti> look lor IL mnedv, h was luund thrit by careful trcaioicnC'r' 
itie eAriridg<< BaliHfiictory mulEi c-uuld hf« got, and In It^^^l 
ricnrdng b«twc<^n ahotj wt^t drfinilcly Jib»li>faed nt WimMcidtiD. 
Ae lh« wtmr time, wit- mn Lirdly >ay (hnt ilii* whnli- Abuv mu 
cot rid of, shicii thi> <-unil>ri>u« and uiimiliiAry practice of 
hl^iwins: ibriiugli tLe lutrn^I tj> moi«UTn ihf^ foLilin^ wnt ilUl 
permitted and vtrj' |i*fncrally piufticcil. NotcHhcltss, «ini' 
tbr* nbulllion of clraiiififf <ijji? amy fairly any thnt the lonj^rtfif 
(^OiinpfiticiottB of the NntionAl Hido AMOcUlion, uid ttLAf 
throughout the country wlucli are indirectly dcpctidcni upon ib 
havo been dicing thffif lejfidmjtli* work in imiotf >j»Ifib( nt 
riniiifi; An<l am munition W mjlilary purpiitea. Xor I* ib"* 
:tnv doubr itiiJt iTiiuh i<tpi>riiiip<nla1 vrork of the frreatcrt vilar 
hAB l>ccn done bv oinatonr* tthnve traimn^ ai riflemen hu he^^ 
mainly ^«in«l at VVtmbleilon nnd BUtpy, nnd irhiiHr inrrroiio 
tht; Nubji'Ct bwa been creftl«ii and kept aiire by the mcelio;^^ 
the AMcic^iJitian. 

By the inirodiKiion of the LeeMetforvl na the aceeptHi 
novmiinifCit arm ibe h^IiuU^ tiluAiiiia ban been yreatU cbitn^- 
There \t no longer »ny \%\dc gulf botween ihn mntHi tifle*""' 
ther Tt-xuUtimi siiio, Com|>Ptitiuii3 for lonjc-rangc riiln o(bJi 
ihan tbo«* of Goremmpni pattnrn, vet conforming lo mlKu'? 
renuiremcnt*, aocm to have [o*C their meaning. In ibe (i*/> ^' 
the Marllni lUcb cvimpe^lllonc were the only menn* wbercl*.^ 
the «kill of th«; markaman uainj; a purely cnlliTaty ve>p**> 
codid be ie«leil at long illktancei; now ihe Lf*e- M<?tfi'«U v 
jimply vulbcieot for that parpo«e. If il:o object be to u*^ 




Modfrn Rijie Shooting* 



207 



Btra* of liTf«cb BcUon, *ii a c^tibi*^ ur trarinilge other tlian 
m* of tbo L«(^Metfoni^ tbat mu bo p(trf«ct]y wttU <]on« by 
impclUlooi irhrrc apenarc-si^bu arc allowed, Tbat tiju ooi 
nn tbfr onw bith^rtu. 80 long ai a itiailmum briiv ot' '4^0 
Utllowcd in tbc mMcti rifle, a* Iia* been bitlurrto clir case, 
IT «/ the forrign militiry nll«, mrh ai tbe Mnnnlic-hrr or 
Ipur^r. carrjiufc a ^i^bt bullot, wtrrc in >irou^ f>r vAHAblr 
indi *n wTfirlv hnnilir^pprH n» tu W pr*rtlraHy nut of fh<* 
impctitiun. The National Ritlc A>«DC»ur>ti ba«, however, 
>v ilefmiiely aUTjiUril Elif rwluciion of bum m final; and 
wiifZ^ lb« prccUe ci>nditii>na ivhiob will be required in ltt97 
tt nut yt't ilcclftrwl, it may *nfi'lj Iw auujnvd ilint no borr 
cewlinf; '31.5 will bt» {>frriuttiHi. In ncci>]>ting tbitt bore, 
Kb ibiT miUiArv nnlborilirA ami rboKc ni tbr Natiimjtl \K'\t[e 
n»Q4tjnn are adoptinf; the principle clearly nml f^ffinbly «ct 
nb by Captain Ma^iir, ibat mere tari^ct acc^jr^icy ia not the 
llythmg to b* iofight in a military rille, and that, cvnn apart 
Dn lucb contidrt^tifma ai tbc WL^igbt of ibe arm irtJ the 
PBunltinn, ttiv gT^at(>r tuflcfpiihiliiy of thi* hulini 10 lut<>ral 
ittdi i> tiol loo tieaTj n pcicc 10 pay Jor a Hnttcr irajccC'>ry : 
T| » afiionr viti tee nn a tnoim-nt't rr^tln-riort, the ilitier 
htrictory lesson* ihr ^fTrct of an cm>r in juclf-in^ the distance 
^r objrrrt firei) ar ; and it ia doe Ipm nbvioUEtlmt at in waf ih^ 
"pfKi lii^ at 11 a> a rale extended laten^Uj, lateral Accuracy a» 
Kuiirwl itith venlraT is a cmnpanilivf^ly unimprjnant mnlier. 
JfaMK^iMj atujiitd l>L^ tempted lo think that bccnuse ib<r Lrp- 
^^d readies ibe inaxiitiutn of AL-t-uracy ijeeded fur tniliury 
hpevM, thervlnro lon^ran^ «hooling with apoftiira-tif^hcs Iiak 
tvr^ iu pvnctjral purpone ami become a mere ornanieutrt) 
BCttpltriuneni, it it due^ we ihink, dilfiouh to dtKnbate birn. 
W^imtion of liflc may in iu main nuilinrt bn »Pitled ; thai 
rcvtvidgfe it *fi«uredJy very far from a final volation. At 
l*wac tbe Lei^MetfoTtl cartrid^ labours under two ilcfects^^ 
H iMciefii flopping pivrer of ihr bullfi and ihe eorio«lve 
l^of ibr cxptooive, cordite. Mr Frfrtnantle baa a i^tHxi ileal 
ruj tin iIh- f\tiX of tliet^ pjiintt. Hf* ijuute« sei'eral itivCNnreii 
b*re the Let^Mctford hullf't baa p*A4ed ri|;bl tbroii^rh a mui 
MiintiP hot little injary- In tlieCliiind cainpai^D a ncilive \% 
>>ilu bare received bU vroundi, and two or three dn^a later 
^htie walkrci nine milea Into botpLtnl cnmplainitig of a itlff 
M[l And, u Mr. Fr^mnntle pointi MUt. thii i% of ppoaliar 
^iqruncc lu ibi* Diitlsh soMici, iiiticb r>r who»r? fi|:liling hai 
^wdo04» Againil sni'agcE, Nincc it u 'a weU*rern^ni>ed iacl 
tail te^jnUe* a mucb more oeverv W"Lind to stop the ruiU of n 
lUA^uiBj than tb«t of a w^ll-careil-frn- Knropfttn aoldivr/ 
^H Nnw, 



208 



3foilf^m Itijle Shootiit/f. 



yiavif Inf^t rKperiinenls— sucb, at Icjut, ni tluiM to mIi)^ 
ibe Biilt^y compMitioDB lend Uiemtti>lir«« — c&nnut xntn^sn ifae 
8t[v|)jjijifr power uf Xhc bullet; imlccd, l\\n is ju&t one uf tfas 
nointi whL*rc ihtr critcrioTi of accunKy n« tetted at th* urgrlii 
inadri^datL* ; bul target piiKUct! cau sLoir wbctbrr chuijjti 
mnf3<* lor thc^ «-tkp of int'traufd itnpping pnvr^r hiivp or bAri>iinl 
impaired nccaracy, 

Agnin. the di*]r»**rtntw Infliip-nre of cordir* In \\iv harr^] mvf 
hAvc been cinjEgcfAtcd, Ami il mny be pouible bj^ jirompl ooi 
cnif-ful di-iuiinif i« nrtimtizp it: bul Ibv MoldiL-r bping wbnlhi* 
i>, il 10 wry irrtdin that tbc- inllitonrv will W fril, &ncl ivbi:k;T«r 
ciui invent AH r]cpli>4ivi; frcr from the ilntwInf^B uf r»rdiFi> wil) 
be doinfc nn incalculable icrvjcr, for the use of an rxploiirp 
ubicli dc«tru)'H iLu baiTt?! is umnJft'fiCl^ nut uiiri^ly mmri^itt 
in limo of pr-cu^t-, but nclUAlly dunffcroui in war. And ben* 
afaiir, >ii tbr Iqng^rangc cnnipelilians Ai Bi«lcy, Oiiin^nin«nt 
CAn hAT« ibU work of fipf*nnnpni done to th«ir band wjtb'JdC 

VVf* bnve dvprlE 10 full^ on one dde of lb** qoMitoit of riB^- 
ali<ii>ltrt^ ttiAt ytr i^mi oaly con«idrr oilirr MjK-cts of il »oxii«wbat 
runrtrHy. .Mr. Ri)fby,m thp pnppr fri>m wbrrh we ha«v ftln^j- 
({u*>1vd, apeak s o\ * <:ncoijrrk;>in;; v'ubinln'rv to nllain proGcicacj'' 
with ibrir r(*giiiiPiiu[ Tif^ra/ nn nnr itf the nl]jc>'t< to bp tougbt- 
A >tndy of the program m a of nni* ol' tho Xotlotifd Hiflc Aav^-^ 
cittlioEi iriifetiiiftn ivtil vbow huw tliHt body lini aim-ftrd ttis 
object QA iti pTimAry end. No doubt odo honra from lime ^^ 
tiiniT coniplftinlA ihnt cvvD in the lo^irallnl jliirttv inlHtArT 
depjtrtnieui ol the tnc-oting ton much Btr<.iM is laid on nocunc^i 
tihtrtt ob(«ini:il bj >i kh\^rifici- (;f tbc cojidillout wLucb votzlil 
bare lo be obtervcd in icn) warfare. 

To tbat critkiuR th^u are. we think, tno jtnswcra to %it 
fHAfle. In the firtt placp a cArefuT aludy <?f thi> prcgramm^ vr 311 
aboir tbnt in lUc Li»t ^tca^ which wm i;ol uinrknl by sdv spetriail 
innovation in ibis w*y, ov^r firo hondrtd puundt, to lay notbi «g 
of cbnllcn^c cup^ wfia given to becoiD|>etrd fr>r wjtb re)culat& *'0 
riOes, in mai^bei wlurre mere aeeitra^v wnn not the tole^ of^ro 
ooi tho chief object^ but wboro jt hud In be combined witi) 
ntpiiUty, ftiitialuneity of fire, powor of judging <iL«tnrfrrt tm^n^ 
tleAling with moving objeeldf or with runaiof, fi<it«t^i <"* 
c^cliiJ^. It il Uur tijnt tb^r publlr Aimts not lienr mur^i of siJa 
compel itioDtf a* comparted with tho Queen'* or 1*^1 nn? of Wal^i 
|»TUX-!t. ntrl why? Latgcly becauie in mi»*t of tl»f»ff cruppHi* 
lioofl exedlenriT ia onlv tolWti^'i* and iir>t irdividunL Let thf 
diiplny of »ki|i be in wUnt dernrtnu-ni one nuiy cluHnc, mc^^ 
OT athletic^ conipicuoua indtvidtial excclloiice it whftt ihr 



Modem R^Jtc Shooting, 



tJO^IitttJon ot ib^ publii^ fut«ni upon. Tti« pr«?cifle> propor* 
tion in whiob tbc Uh> vcnnc^ prise ftind* oi the AflsociatjoD 
■hnali] bf? AlIoitnHinf i^iurvf iirf?iiH>nnblr rnaRer for fliHcUHiiin. 
Ail ttiJiE w<f woiild point out i> that iri'liviJuul ihootiag, tb<iij||;h 
thfmoit pniiittrt'^nt fr-ALLiro* of ttir* Ftihlrv meetings, ki far from 
monopolumfi tbc prizi? IJ>L 

Tbf-re i» anutber eiOc tu tbt in&itn< The winner of tlie 
Q[)««fi'i Prixa ii nrobftbty for prAcii^^nL military purport Tprr 
Liule more VAluablc tban tbe man who c^n just get bU marks^ 
(Un'i htilge. But chi« ciipw-ity iif (be inrlividunl vrinni^r if a 
vvrj* incomplete mfroKurr of the value i>f Aucb a com pet j linn, 
U & vtry rtlitnnble boJvufmen will forgi»rp h^ di-grruUng a 
conpuivon, a <^uccci's winner J* in tbe sboi>tine; worli] what a 
^aulbfirlJ prize <>i is in thcr fanning worbL Tbcprizr ticnativ 
pmbkhly not what ib^cpicun* would cboo«c to<line ofT, ^vrtainty 
Ar^wbtt lb« fr^rrucr would clioose for profit. Uut br aorvcr« to 
thoir what can be done, and be iiKea d Btandard to aim at. So 
Uic cuAieace of a great competilion like tbe (jucenV with Lt4 
hug icring of prizei culmiriaiin|f in wtint is virtunlly ihi* 
*^i«npiooBhip o[ tbe year« *Uiniikt» shooiinic in every corp« 
vkiidi com^B under itt influifrior, :tn<l affr^-lEi imiinvtiy inany 
vho never take pait in it. It \% the old tlory of the huaband- 
Jtiiii and tbe pot of RuIJ, In reaching for a aucccia which U 
^y Witliin reach of tlie f^w^ th^ many attain that amount of 
■tttterr over ibejr rifle which i* a nmlful cundilion i^f clf]i:ii;nt 
K>lHWth]p. No dotibi ib;il doet not inet<t \hv ftrgurn«nr often 
BVEvd, that tbe Volunteer force !■ divided into » little rvriat>x:racy 
^J^itbHl ihoiii and a ^rrat mau who rjin hanlly ihoj>t al all. 
^'ut can only be remedied bv exte^nded action operatinj; in 
diObrcQL local itiei, and whollv beyond the r^soiircrra of fhr 
^■kmal Rifla A»odatioa. What that body nrnty, wo think, 
*^iin for ttaetf i;> tbe matter is, tbal it does not a Httlo to 
f»»*dy that •tate of thingin 

And tbii brings ui to the third and last requiiite laid down 
^7 Mr. Ri|^by in bis p«p<^r, ' rh^ t»nfvmr?iy<-«ii'nT of rirte th^^iirtiiig 
** • hcaitbTt manly, and icicniifie ptitlimc' (The loiljci are 
^r, liinbyV) In duit, it «vmi lo uk, lin the ariiwpr to n goctd 
^ «^ vaf%0 talk that one bean &■ to tho policy of the 
-^ktional Ril!e Aavnriaiion. There nrc thoH? who denounnn its 
■••liiiif* a« * picnic*/ and who clamoiif for a Urg<*r amount oi 
■vUtuy adminiatration tn tbe eonduct of tbeni. Wr should 
*<nbd nefa critic*, in tho 6rst place, that tbe competitor! at 
R«lfj con»i»l Urgely ni Volunteers who are already freely 
C^ng np a ^ood deal nf time lo the public aervice. Tr» many 
^Uwia Ute Bi«ley Biectio^ ia their one aanuol hoUdoy ; it ii to 

VoL 185.— Ao, 36Q. p tbea 



dio 



Modem Hifie Shooting. 



ttuon ivhftt iix wci^kfl in Scotland or ainoDg iha Alpi &i« lo 
their more favoured nclgbbours, ;xnd lbc> havc^ surctj a liftiLlo 
&ik that notbinir «lioii1d lie f^niili^l which mnkei ihefr holMtt 
brifhicr ftnd moir nliiflctivc^ provided il no w*j iiilcrfcrr* niib 
the mnin purpose of \ht* meelin^, llii? ilicpla^' of tbf hifbMc 
ord<T of ikiJI with lEiu rilU', A% l^or \\\ii inureiur of di*ciplinr> 
Wff would rrmind mtr rrculcTi ihni n leciinn, ftnd a nnC unini- 
portant scctioa, not cnlj ol tb? comprtUort, but ovoi of Ibow 
who control it, ar^ civiliAni (using (he- word noi in it« ordiiui; 
■(fQfo, but ju excltiditi^ Volunteers), while ercMi tha VoInacMn 
Ui<-re are mcrtfl jr bioug:hl lugi'lbfrr for tUe ucciftjun Kud not baunii 
to^vthoT by AHV orgnnir lie, ITiw i« a hixlv oo onmpoAOil U> bt 
m&dc aubjt^cttoan/thi^i^ cbat can be called duciplinc, tojMn^ 
practice iii if^nt-pitchin^T strict tneftt r4*guUtioni, or acy of ibr 
tQcidcnta wbicb properly enough belong to tbc conduct offtiep- 
iiient«l trmnp? We cannot help ihinJkinfr thai the mere icrm 
* camp * ft<>mrboiv mUlriuls pcnuna a» ttig^olinK •omcthiDf 
military-- Thry forgrt ihat ihi? r^mp in ihln raw? aioiptv mran 
the ckif?ape«t and moat c:onv<:aieDt way, indt-c^d the only wir* ^ 
hoirsiikg A lar^r budj tif ci>mpetilori» jind dniM' wbo han* in 
manajjr ttic compoiitionA, cloai> to tho Tango. Und«T neb 
citi:u[n»inuLT5 iht? utuioit tlmi the AitucEatiuti c^n do ia tu 
permit, witbin Ita own bounda, tb^ formation of rei^uMt*) 
Campf, which can prairtiae such itmounl of drill na K^tnt good 
|u ihejr roBpective inetuherc. If anyone cboosea to any tbftt t 
large nationiil Vt^luiLtci-r Camp for udxcil purpo»ir« of drill aiJ«l 
»booling would be better than the preflent mixed e&nip f>f 
Voluateefi and civilians for ahooEiou solely, one can odj 
answer aa iVJr, Binglcy anvwcrcd hJa liitrr when <he vaggfftcd 
that a ball 'would he much more mtional if convcriotic* 
tui^ead of dancnif^ wrrt* m;tde the i.in.ler <if the day*: * Mud) 
rnori? rAiioiml. 1 darcany, but not near lo m^ich like n ball,* Il it 
at IcMi lery cert:iin that such a uirrlin^ wuuM not be, what 
the* Atcorintii>o uicctinf-B urr cotmpolled to he, practically lalf' 
tupiH>rlijt£. 

Thia view, of courte, doei &ol ignore the fact that all the 
ahouliitg rn^uirr* Ut br conducli^l under atiict reguU'.iu&», mid 
therefore with atrict discipline, that much of il ia militaty, and 
that to aucb thoDtiof; strict inilicary discipline Is applicahlf. 
Apart frfim chal^ il aor-mt \n at ihat nil which ibn Aft*ociati:iQ 
Cftn reasonably be naked to do ia, to see thai the V'oluDlcrra do 
not learn any tinmiiirnry hnhita. and ihai iitich general discipline 
is rnfotccfl aa Is needful for the main object in band, ^ood 
ahootnig. As to the first pohit^ no one who remembers tin? 
slovenly costumes, hall-uailotin, half-mufci. which were to b« 

too 



Sfotlcm Rifir Skootivg. 



«u 



tnonlj Men nt VVioiblcttcin some fifteen yenrm u^o, iukJI 
nr pnrMut ilijia|VjjraiaiiL-F. um duubt Ui« iinjtxureciiriU 
U been vrrou^ht. On ili« Intter pi>mt it is, w« Ihiok, 
Dttcli to my tbnt nil the Aumtiation bu to do i^ U> 
K mftnjr to protect itiemvefi'^B nj^ainit \\i# few. The 
on ftre not cbtldrc-j>- Tiiough ib<- roliinicn' oftf^n 
> 6UW, at we have tait!, for fl boliJaj, jd be also 
1«IT vitli a vcrj (l«fiail« and kuoub pLiqMJK'« and f;ot 
five handrcd nmrs in he auch a Hippoclid^f a*, nfter 
d£ practice, to daticc avay hU obancc ia iU-linicd 

kc who hns the intercBt (if the Volunlccr movement Ml 

k but rr^CTt tbjit [leitbi^r x\\v National Rille AiuiL-tntiim 

other LnnufrnciT hns florcf^rdvd \u eivini: riflu-aliuotini; 

plftcc ttmoiif ihir rcco^^iitird uilib^ck punuiu of \\in 

Our Univenilitfjt bavi.> r«Ti^r l>t<<ii th« ho:nr*i of rifie« 
L^ftl (brv nii^iit bi; riprctrd Cu be. Not, lud^red, tbat 
■ been wnniin^ in individuEillr dUlingutthed iboti. 
pthe Queen'* Prior fell to the lot of n Cjimbrid^c 
ciuatr, Mr Mumphrr. Only a« Uii^ nfl liMft5, an 
TOhtaaDi Mr. Kinlcn, ihootin^ for Scolland, m'tJri tbe 
icon in tbv International inQit'h : nnd in pr<-viuui yc^ar*, 
I, thootin^ for Ln^Und nnd UcUntl rtwporlivrly, b&vc 

tb« «4tnB? vucccH. Vrt it i^nnn<kt br laid :ha[ th«* 
iTcnitj matcbtv havo i-vtr «xcit«d an>tbitij; Ukc thn 
»mt whioli MtflfJu^a t<* other conirHtK 
thootinff, no doubt, su^m in popuJarity from ita totftl 
luit oUF uiaj tbll apt'L-laculjir iiili'ii^at. Lt^l on suppite 
oking <in iikt ibif ICJchi> Shield miitt^h. Whikl do^s he 
knot of people are sittinf logetb^^r. One Euokt ut ihc 
rnogh a t«Wco[i«. An^rTi^r is closely w»tdun^- x\it 
if lb« fl«e» ibnm^h » binocLiUr, A lUiril U poriug 
|u1er of figure* in a laibion v^hich tuggL'tu ibM bo U 
ring lo find Kn^lcr by nii;nns of ibc S^uoday Ictler ; &i 
of fact, hi? i« ronildt^ring the Torre nf the ivind at 
f th« lut balf>d<u»Tn >boLt. After a inmute or m of 
1 cnrttitl Alton, a T«>pnri it hnnrd and a ptifT of ftnio1<«* 

Kberc amonK the icc\ nl the jcroup whioh wc jiAvtr 
id iJie *j]ettaii:>r ihcu lc;iin» that the real perfiirnierf 
me will appear iti ihe morrow't paper with tbe 
ilj of tucccH oi dikgrncc of failurr altacbril to il, ii 
irhoie protlrat^ lii*uro aurrounded by counteltoTi liu 
hit notice. No doul>t in n great cc^mpelition^ 

En'i Pfixa or the Elcho Shield, when tho »nd 
p2 U 



sii 



Mbflffm RifU SAcoeiti^. 



it n«ar and thn strtiggic rum do«A, <<xciti»n«ritt bACOOMi laiMH 
anil conto^iout. Hut tjiat is brcAii>c 

< That iiim1« mttiit bo n tni^hty m!inito 
Wbtm n crotvd hon 1>nt one ct^iul within iL' 

Tbc iotcrett U thiit of a conTt'alnd election rather lluo of U 
ftthlrtk 4:onCr>«t, TlinrE? i% no outWArd nnrl rjRtblr nurlr d 
irKlividual Bkill. Ivx<y<pi hv th^ mnrkiii;; on the tArpei tbMVil 
nodiirig Ilk h-ll tUr lonkc-r^nn whettier lie it watching iht tSii% 
of a Queen *ft Pnvie winner or a. man wbo hu fttm^lnd «iii «f 
ihe secauil lIilsi. 

Another drawback to tbc popuUrilj^ o( rlS^-thoGlittg bii 
been that by far t\ic muat aitroclive form of it, long-nap 
•h<H>(ing, haa been hitherin nUi>ni1nil wilb contidenbJ* jciud 
eipenftc, A pood lorijEf-rnngc ntlc with its Appurtmsacei cdM 
ni Ien«t l«enrv-livp pniiriiFs, niid 7i youn^ man thinkc isifl 
before be invota ibnt num in a purtuil in whicb lus 
nnd hii rnpiicilj nr*" in ypt vinumlt} iinmmT. The ui 
of the Lee-Muttord for th« Martini may do not « tittle lo obri 
thU It wilt put an arm of pn^oiamn adapli^ to lung nnj^H 
the h^ncU of everyone wbo ihooti At all. lVh*t wiil h? 
tftrH:t In tlie oi>iiipcliuo[i* At pr«T!»eijL open tti mntrb riftrv, — I 
i« to sAj, to riflei fuied wilh np^trfurf^-aigLta nnd mor Able Wi 
gauges, — it is uol very cosy lo foreiee. On ihrr une b 
coit of fitting n Li>k>.\f<>ifiiril with tbi*s« appliimcet wiiJ 
sioalL Oa the other hAnd, ibe cfTccli v^neas of lie Lee-^^M^a 
eren wilh its ordinary military *igbts, will pdrbnpt diouDi 
the deiirc for a more einct weapon. 

Unhappily there ii a lerlfiut i^t-nff lo ih« adi-wilnge wb 
rifle-vhdoling will dcrirv frfim the new tcrrice Am* As 
well kriciwn, ihr^ estra iIiKiantv iravt-ll^d by iho L«*-Al« 
bulletf aLbeLt not mure than three hundred yArdf, ha* aI 
led hi the eoudt^tn nation <if timuv rftnges ai iinMf^, ll 
possible that n paitial mmcfly may he found in the Adoption 
ft bullet with more 'stopping power' than ihni now in nj 
for ih& w<n« quality wbicb will make it more cfl"«tiiY. l 
tflnd^rey to become deformed or to biimk up «n vtriking 
object, will obvEmiKly levien the lendenry ii> TJcocbd. Aod 
is to be obscTTc<i tbnt it i» terdly only from ricncb^U tlut 4ing| 
is lo be experircK lVli(sr« over the target ta^a b« inteTcopWd bf 
luflicientiy high buU : the clianoe of a rifle being l«t off |^til 
bigb In i\ta air ii nimply on^* of a number of ooniingeneiet, i 
of which imply either <oinc fault in tbc conBtructlon of the h 
or gnft* ratelesaneia on the j)art of the sboncer. No range <1 



Modern Hijio ^/tootin^. 



J15 



trd agiilnu %ach BCcicJ«nia; Ili« sap«r]orit)' of k ran;^ which 
irda agftiast 1 per cent, of ihcm m AgAiQti onr wbich 
ikiH no prtivinion U not worth con«Ul«rinff, 
One tocAiurc that b?i4 Lioen su^g«»t««l u th« u»« of & 
owjI djargt. Wc will nil uay thni the rrmwiy U wnrw 
Iho di*i>iuo, h\tt wc cortainlr do say tUcLt it wouJtl ix? but n 
bW pftltiAtiTv for a thnrnughlv nnftntufEi^-uiry tf«tp of nlTiirt, 
u mrevly poisibk Ui ovcrralc the crila vrhich En^^l^t rojuU 
m ibe ciUlnnce if xwct ftpli of a in munition of wiMy 
ffprmC forvi», 'prMCtiec* Aiupiunilion nixj 'a^rvjcc * aininiini- 
n, EiHAgio*- a LnUnlion gt^in^ into octioT) nUbnul m single 
nn knoving thtt Gichlla;; ol hie rillp with itiv full chftTg«». 
^n« ibe pftDic if A rumour gift tiljoiir th«t tno or thrcrc 
im^nlfl hBcl by jniBcbkncv bad the ^prnclice' ammuDition 
oat to ihcnn. Lot II he tuppoMxl that \>y n EftrKT 
pendiiurr of (jovornmcnt inonrj lafc miff^ra tin found for 
rt^uUr furore. What would be the fat* ol the great Volun- 
mntpPtiliniiK ai Hittpy whfn oop-half of (hi* forrr vt^t 
inH on sak rfttijfpj with ' Kfricc ' MJimunitioD^ while lh« 
lirr hsJf had only tw^n nlhmrd ' prnciirr ' ntn munition? And 
f it rf!ncmhfr<id ihM Anything wbich lowor* the standi^ril of 
uluutevr xbo'iUb^ nt Bitlrv will in all likr[ihnoit cnny with U 
lowfrinff of the •Undard of ihooting throu^houi tbo whol^ of 
Thoff ineml)erB of thr reguUr wrvJce who hji« 
the Armr Eight t'luh, nod have thereby dt>n« much to 
the atuidjard of miWtnsy abof>tiii^, vruuld* we anr Burc> be 
itf (int to ftcliQOW?Mign the value <if the leesons tcarnt at 
Wiipbledon [U]d Biilrj, and thr- fiimului wbich the bboutin^ 
fcn» bill giv^n to their efTortSK Tbo annual match between 
■be liifTcrrni brftocboa of ihr service hui ctctcd In ihc >atnc way. 
If tanffie« rannot h^ found, and thr rrdured char]^ mutt be 
lOplflTru a* a mean? of utilising tboae nlrrady in vxiatcncft, it 
■ It Ifmn not loo murh to a&k rhai i( thouhl bo only tiied by 
\pH from whom wild ihnu may be expect«d^ Allow a! 1oa*C 
htrj man who bai th^it inlo ibe firii olnwa lo u»e iho full 
Aaqpe; tbon at itf wor«t lb«rc wouhl be in every corpt a der- 
bin aumli«r of men whn konw the lighting for the full thargr. 
Waal of ranf^ea and want of oUtot^ra i««m to ho the tvo 
lifficultira uodrr which VoloiiWrei coijw, eapociJIj in cxmntry 
Istricta^ now labour. The leisured and landed claKBVt <'an do 
biog to supplj bolh waat»i and tbeie are few tcrvicci by 
tb#y can moro cwrtainly and more pfTccth-oly securp ths 
oi their countrvmcu. 



AttT. 




J 




( 214 ) 



Art. IX.— 1. //wtorr/ ofiht United Stattafrcm the 
if 1850. By J, R RhfMiPi. Vol. IIL 
Cindon, lli'J5. 

IN f/tf United Stateit of Aaifriea d^tuf^fftt 1^1 attd I 

B)' J, C, Ri>pe%. Part 1. To tlic Opealn; dC llw C 

p&ii;nB oi l^^if. Loniion, 11^95- 

JJ, ^^rnWn Lin/:oht. By J, T. Monc^ Jr. Ti 

4, Mt-Cleiliini Oteit Siortj. Th War for the Cni^n, 
Soldii^r icho fout/kt w, tkt Cittticnt it/iC dincttJit^am 
Jielatiaita iv it anil £o t}tcin. By G. B, McClrllui, 
MMJOT-Cipneml commanfllng thp Annifri. London, 183 

i 

IllII^ItL It [it-iljtfp* nil [icrloil lu bUiory, vhiib lb« tol] 
eicflplinn of the Napoleonic ef», ibe Jttcmtitre of «l 
13 >ii Krgi? as tbul i^f tlj(- AmErioA^ CWil War. It ia a [ff 
full of iocii;li?iLl, nnrl 'luminjiiffd 81 chp tairo iim« by 
imjioainf jiciKinftlttici, Ltncoln and (jr«at. Aft yet rtt i 
not be laid to harr any wholly »t]«fw:tOTy mccOUDI «I 
Hul»t*ft impanini nnd ndiiiiMble HlMory of tiwi United S>l 
ftiopi thori on ihr? v\e of ihi^ vrA.r. Though M«ttn, Nic 
and Hny'a LUe o( Abmham LidooIii d«aU witU ll>edct«ibol 
wnr 8» well nn wiilj tlif lifr nf dm greAt prriiAgnniiEt, iu r 
ift lomcrwhikt impnirod bv the Narthcro partiatit)' of iU mi 
N»i tlkAL rliis i» any diabunuur lu tbrm; ua Lbi- ixjntidiy, I 
fttirio*t filial regard And AfTV^ction for Ibo great I'maidml, « 
they xervrd tti posti uriut:h latluiatc confidcaccv U oolj lul 
A[id cradjEuble |o (h^in, liiipwrEiAlity wm innponlbk d 
new ^crucraijui) IW ariirn. l.ii»tlj Mr. Rbodc* and Mr. S 
have tbii (^cftl rcqiiiiiti? of ihp hUlorian: Iboy wril* wh 
prejudice or blu — witiiuui rv«u an unconMriuui bioA. J 
iwrilcrs arc by initalmi'nfa giving ut a uorihy bUu^n' cf 
time Ot the two, Mr. Khodcp'» Hiitorv doaU mare ioll^' 
th(» imlitirAl tiTQAtion, He* diow« u« d^morrntii; intdiul 
under the jcvcrc strcji of tvar. h'or Kaicl<^n^ ^^ fttndy of 
|>t-nml tannot but jirovtr iiiiiiu elite. We tiand to-'d^y oil 
ov<T of An * irropT<fa>ihlo cfmtlicE/ irbicb may Ik: postponed 
can scarcely be uvcrU^l. And, lo quo1« Prcudrnt Unooln; 

'Human nAtiLr« will not ohiuigo. In obt futuro great mt 
Iriol, L-ujiLjioriHl with tli» lutti of ihvi, ve aball Ieuti- oa niaak an 
■troM^« 04 «iJly 8nd km wiau» aw b^ Aod as good. Let ns l^f^^ 
etudy tbu uioidcLtfl uf tbia, m pbiloiopby to l4asi visdom fnmi.' 



A^r^ham Lirtcoliis H'<ar Ptdittf, 



815 



la lOfDC way«, no doiibtt ih« Ciril W&r dors not rpBCiBb!« 
vxy Hm^g!** in which wr nrr likrly lo br rng:»g«l, ja»t im ihfi 
AaiKririiLn Coiutitution dtwi not in mAZiy rnpc^rts rrpruduco 
ouTflwn, A (livil Alt must nrrfssftrilv liriHjr iliffii^ullW -if lis 
own. The enemy within will bn far more numcroui and uPtive 
tWvthcrc tlic fTiirmy wuhciut ii cif dlfTerrnt uaticmalily, ait^l 
VKDMaMt*^ by clofn ti«« <tf blootl. Th* nnlural Avnnion lo a 
Eternal strife wili fonUr the Hc«ire for cnnciliation and com- 
pnmiv lo an exlraonltnary i.l«^rt*f, nnd «ill inipir^ *trtv\ tho 
mwi |i«tnotic with a dl>tn»iplc)r thr^ wAr> h'Arnkoicr Adri>tLnc;«», 
fv givfttrriUti-cmAnsbip, will be demanded itMitx ih^ democraitr 
Ituttr irbo h&« U> (kal wilh tfain iiilt-'mal rivi.'rsii>n ami dutiutr, 
loio fnom him vho mn r<*]vrl aiirh nirnnmi^nu aa odinUE nnd 
nnpftdinltc. V«t ibc iamc plicnomenon, thI^ o&me peat-'e-ftt* 
*o_f-pricp p&rty ia likrly ift 4-xnt in Hnglmm), vrUpn the ii 
lifbtiD^ Tor hor life. It mnr be Ipm viKoroDi Mid rnrmidftUlc, 
W nune iht* less it will have In be entuuniried by lb*! 
^iPMniin, Th*« wa» » strong P*'^,* f"f psjto** in .iriilocratic 
bBtUnd, during oui ii-rrjble i»Iru;^g1e with FTincv? and in the 
twIiPf war of Iht Amen^an rebi?liion. The oppoiitiou of Fox 
tr> ihc war meaitinrs r>f NorEb and Pitt it piLiiiltel tir Vallsn- 
digtkun'i oppotiiion to Lincoln** war mcunrci, though Koi 
^u % %icxur and nobler man than VnUindifihAin. His 
fUmi^iir for ri^ftoc jn l^OH wnt not 1rfa« futile nnd fnolifth ihjtn 
Mr. Gtcrlcv* whimpriin^s in IHiH: hi> poiiiontle n;irli»n- 
ihip tii ibf Amf<rjcnn intur^nit in 1 777 wnt nut morv? injuruitii 
fnbuti»cU' nnd bis country ibaii VAtlnndifhniii'» ihnmpionahjp 
of ilr Scjuihpmer* in 1HR2-,S. The f^wnin^ of the Whi>r» 
iipOQ Napoleon wna far Ifit excriuablc than the ddmiraticn of 
tW faihJoiiftbV New Vofk^ra for Ji-fTfTfton naviiu Lady 
nAlUad't iwooninjc "t Ibe news of her dear idol'* def«^al at 
"kEirrluu w;u iiiftnilfly in^vn* odiuun tLuu the wrLTet rupinin^'a 
4t£i* Northern DnrnocTntii when Atlant^i and Mobile ' knocked 
^ planks ' »ut ui their cinti-pitrKJiic platfornu In short, us 
Ljncvln aaid, after Thue^did***, human nature d<ws not change, 
ttd ui attitude of bitter opposition i* paIuiaI to iodic minda. 

Th« gvneral aimilaritj' of Britifth and Aciertcaii Institution! 
-*lfce devotion of both peoples to the aonic lUeala of rcprcacn- 
tUiie govrrnment, librny, and progre« — and \\\r inherent 
'^[fibUneea of ibcf two national «hara?terd, override x\i*s 
"JiJriT-ni-va in thi* ConitJtutions of t?ut iwo rountni^s^ Tlu* 
■Sclent vaa ocrtainly more hrmly lealed than Any Pnmo 
Koisser. He li-nm upcnj the lolid supihiri ola popaUr vote, 
^\dkt thooftb by na mi^Ans unanimous, y«t jcuve a snnction to 
^ acts. He ci^uld \xi ciitLclicd but not called to order or 

oiul«d 



'«« 



Abraham Lineoh't fftrr P^ictf. 



ouftt«d fn^in ojTtct* hy liii nwn impatient party or br tti^ 
opfioaltJoD. He vr» hntnpcrc<i 1>v « wrjtlcn Cooaliimion^ bar 
rTf*D in thii tb<^ wiflclom of thi^ fnthm litr! lirfc liw>pholB W 
T i porous [ict ion in rnior;*€n<:v> Hr wiu tticrtr in powvr Irir n 
tfrm of v^Hri. mitli njcumaml of tln^ Arnicn) tcrirn^b of die 
nntion : Mc io itnpoic hii will upon luldicn and failon, iiu) 
abip h» itfiiJovT^ itiufie wliti did itul laUsf^ him. WitL Uic it*r 

Eowors ivhit^h h« migbl anfc-lv ^\^tl ba mighl hnvn tntiJ'- 
imiclf A military dcapoL PinccU olnac in a position t>^ 
ftupr^m^ ronAdfiTice At tb# h^nd of x grpni nation, if hr hv^ 
been unrnitbful to his tiu»r, he irtiffbt bjirc; [oondcd a dvnut*. 
It ii to the honour Jind glorv if r>ur nicr ibal its rr-cipi'-nii of 
po«i«r nr<r rnti^l/ <>r rn^vnr uiibkitUruI, We bonoirra WAihinjE^tnti, 
B Wellington, a Graiil, nr>t less li>r tbc cniJociCv which mjilir* 
Ihem the orpanlzvrt or the wcnjiuns of vfctory, than for \\¥t 
Roman aimplicilv^ die more tliaii Hoinnn greaEnc-t* of cbAfacin, 
nbith carries Ibem untAint^t) by t^lfiih ambition through ih« 
firrcrr furnaci; of succr», and t^nablcB clirm lo lajr dovrn tbtir 
power when ibr ncciition for its riprrisn hn* pnurcl, and to go 
numbly bnck. like Ctnfinnatus, to tht? inctmipicuout qnicluiJe 
of everynJay life. Kv<rn JrtfTerHOii Davis wna formi bv 
cin^umslnnccs rather than impellnJ by bis own will to bii 
miliury dirtntotsbip in thr ^ulb. 

Ai the President wa« independent of Coric;re», to CoDOtMt 
was indrpcniirnt of tbt^ Proidcnir wbiUt in tnielADtt the lioiise 
of Commons j;<*neni1ly follows and obeys tbe Priui^ MinisiM, 
who is its virtoa) cboicr. And thus wi^ shall find tlat C%nEr<«s 
spftnt no cmAll part of its timr in tbwnilinit and opposing the 

IPrciidcnl. 'Deliver mc from my Iricnda.'^i* a va^mir wbich 
must bavo ofEen brr'ii in Litii.-oln's mind. An vloacd uMmblv 
is alwriys graspingr of power, always s^kinfr to uke to it««lf 
functions wbicb are not its a^w ; ajid tbiii fraiure apiwrarsia the 
history of the Aniericnn House, Ihouph such encroAcbmcnts 
atp more diflivult with a written Constitution. Another pieal 
PinbArrnsamtenr w»i( the SjHte »vtTrir. whtcli htid To li*» trenteJ 
with jcaloua tcitdcrneis by \hr Ksrcutive. 'i'bc war itself was 
to settle wheilier ihr Slate hnd ilrlrgatrd power to th<? Ceoirsl 
Government, or the Central Uovrrnmcnt to tbe titaie, so ihat, 
with the large rights of trir-^inrrnment wbii^b ih/v- Siauft 
pofcecsed, all mnunc-r of obstades could be placed in tb« way 
of tbe Central Ex(:t:iitive by a diaUiyal eiei.'uiivtr in any Stair. 
Tbii was ^cn io tbo mae of New York, when tbal most 
imp^irtant Stale passed into ihc bands of the opposition : it 
bIbo prpvpned Tigorrm* action at the outset of the war, and led 
fofiitffonicw hat comic spectacle of a Kentucky, proicttedly loyal 



(A- 




AbntttarH LiatoitiA tVnr Policy, 



217 



to \]at Unioii, but aI ili« inmt? tiiiii^ ntrLiIml Ixrlwetfti Xortb aiitl 
Soath. The roar oi Xht* puns, Vm^t^vor, quicklv rv^^iii]^ 
Kentucky to A yv\%f^T and taunJor policy. 

A Anal flitfHruliy in Lincoln's wny wm tW Tw-t tlml 1i4> w&t 
ibe innnediMe Cftoic of WM'. lilt rTlectii>i» bftd prcclpiUtcd 
ifap irrvpmiible ronflirt. Tlk^ rc>ii«rjirii«nf <« ui l\\\% fact tnact 
lkftT0 w«igho<1 upr>n the mind of n tend<rr-buiirUHt rtml inr-]»ifr- 
Hiolv mAn like a lihtil nf leAil. He* vm% not Allownl Ui forget 
il, bul WAB ronaliinlly rcmindnl of it by lijf tattiotic oppon^nU. 
Virt bim, iu » ii.'[iEte, thviv lens aj]<I hundiTfd» uf tlKtusamls wvr« | 
walking the bnrfl pE4tb« of wAr anil wftlering the *oil wilh tbcir . 
blood. F4>r liim lor Nortb was giving ihc flower of iu youlb ; I 
Agftinti him thp Sodih i(« whol«^ manhood. Ai»i tbnuf^h h« J 
Md ifae strength of virion nhJcli rnAblcii him to diiccrrn ihc 
nral irulb in lli« baL'kgnmtifl — rhnt itif' tiruj^j^^e liml Ui coniv^ 
Attd mi^ht comtf wjih mori' ndvantufzt: in l^ril thnn in Itiil of 
]{t8l— ^*f do jr*l knnw thai hii hi?Ari wn* i*-rj brj»vv- * My 
bFATt/ he >aid to a 1^ricnd,jUBl b«iorv liu U<<itjftbiir(; ft^iM^ch, * ii 
Jikc k«d within uir, Ami 1 (cr\ »l cfmrs iik<* hiiiiiif^ in dtrp 
darkoe«».' Had Lincoln been of weaker mould, bii vm conf- 
icitQttoiisncM mmfi have diapoanl faim to get nd of bi» kloo4~ 
gailliopta Hy catni^rttmup or loiaT larrpnd^T. 

Thr President of the Unitc>d States i« niecicd in -Novcinbcr, 
tiQl br diirf not enti^r oflit^ till tlif fiAlttw'uig Mircb. Tbf^nr t« 
bj tbc L'onilitation nu inlcTTc^nam at lour roonlha, during; 
■birb the Preiideut in oflit-e ii a merr? cUict«lilrd lay figure, 
«biUt tbe FresidtfOt elect it at>io[ateiy belpleii and pf>werJ«tts. 
Tb« cleciion bail aoundcd lb« alarm lo ibe Soulhr which tia^l 
tint four moDths lor intrigue and preparation. PretidenI 
IkKhukao, in the twilight ol hji Icim uf utHcr, wiu an honest 
hhtx^ile : a Southerner hy s^nipnEhy if Noithcrn bj birih ; 
fnyiit^ muchf but doing nothing: ceosrlcsply naiir muring, 
'AflCT i»« the didu|^,' and anxious cbtefly lo pMsrpr>nr iho 
OMoiog struggle lo tiis luccvunr's term, Koond him was a 
Ckliinel ready i» tcmpuriie and uiake toncrtaioiis — viewing 
^altera with Southern rtlhrr than with Nortbein vjft^ Of its 
mtmhrit tcvcral were ardent Sccruionitts, aod not one was a 
Hrviiuofia Feiteraliit, The -South was on tire with pastion at 
tlr tn<re sug|:rbtii^ of a ' ItUvk llepublicAD Pieai^JetjE,* drrad- 
Jog more than death rhe terrible ipertre of a aerviln iniurrection, 
sod persuaded Ibat Lincoln wai a loolisb cxtn-uiiil who would 
nab Slaveholder! nf thpir prnpcrij, and imperil their livea by 
an etnancipation of the slaves. One State wru alrvaxlr in open 
armed rerolt : others were preparing to follow. The Nuilh 
bad, Uka our Eoglartd of to-day, refused lo rvcof^uis iW iXa-v^n 



Ahrahtijn L(n^lfi*s War PoHerf, 

WforphflTifl ; nnd with tbr nrqr nppriuirh of wnr» wn* gTnnfnv, 

Ennic-itrickrn, divided. 'I'hc Abulitiooials hftii ditcovercd th&l 
incoln wai <iUp sl-ivt'-l^oUTkd iif llllnoiB/ The Rcpublinr^ 
pnriy, wljtcti ]iml cfii)^)^!! Lincoln, wob doubunfi; Ibo iviMinm »^ 
iti dimi^f^ tmO. now tlmt (lie runtlii-'l niii loomliiic up tirar «-^ 
bttiLd, wBt rtfOoiliEig in terror sn<1 flwQH)' from ihi> id^* of CitIl ^ 
VV^Hi. TIjc l)fjii<>t:iH(« tVL-Er? rcAo[ut«lv for pcaor At WiV pvir^^^ 
and with nil Thi> fervour itf |iDrlisan« diMiuunt'^d the actiOD <^^C 
tbcir opponents, aft li tbc«c aiid tbc«r onlv' "^ctt tv tilsmc f' 
ihc pprilnut potilinn of the Un>(«l Sin[»- The^n^ woi ft gm«T 
demon] ixntion^ tucb a« tnt^ht pcibaps onlj' be pxpeclcid in 
potlliciil aooiet^ wliich bud rrfuud m jnok tiii! pmblocn i 
bUvcTj fairlj in the fni*e, which had teen making cooM<siifl 

»rirr umccMKm to wrong f^jr uJore than & |*riieratiou, ai^ 

whiobf tr> rc^tain ih« »|mpathy nf the Soalb, bad ficquinc^ ^w^ ^ 
the niQiiLJ iniqoicv ol ibe Mexican war. Tbc North hod poB^ ^ 
OR enormouB pri^- and r^cpivH! nothing in reiurn. Trad^ a 
buiincsa inlcnats were clomorous far a Further sacriSoc 
duty nnd honour, and it tnigbi have wmni to *rifen » k 
oLttcrvcr that the North was di^ad to i^raat td^uli and nob 
ft»pirAtJi"US- Ami j-^c, fl« wt now scp thr iruth. it wot tNil 
leadership that was required. The Iead<?r wb> nt bund, tbou 
jew men injaglned it in the winter of 18(^0, 

The President elnct, Abraham Lincoln, was A Souiboravr «:^ 
that Mtigular claw kpi^wn as the *ipcan whitc.^ by bitlh, Tt^- _^ 
*mf«ftn while*' gr^nt qiialiriei — bis slinplkiijr, hit unAinrhin^^^B 
Cnuni£%, his atrangc wniward tendcrnoi, and bis bi^b M1IEM^^3 
a( pr^rsonnl LnnmiT— wf^re in Linroln'i clmmcter Th«> bftO 
qualili«i — the »biitlcft»ne3a, ihL* Inck of rnor^Vjaitid thof«TDcity — - 
ivrrr wantiug. A& a bov Lincoln had lived the hard. EnurrmblcV 
un<'ullured, but at the? ftiLne timo not unhealtliy lif« of a 
fruntivraman. Ho bad known lluJe jcjj and much torrow \ boL 
it I* by iorrow and trial that the worlds grvAt cn&n ar« aaDtf«lcd 
and diacipltncd. When in bis mcUncholj, nejlettcil boybooJ, 
he earned bj hf>nfat w^rk a dollar. * th^ wortd/ hr floid afCfT- 
ward», * seemed wider and fairrr bcrore mc 1 was a meat 
bopt*fuI and ihougLit'ul hoj from that lime.' till lifi? waa on« 
fNmtintioui stru^^t^, but be wna (ver upon ibe upward plane, 
raim-labourcr, rail-spUiter, stump-ofator, b^>at[nan, storekeeper, 
land-«UTv<»yi>ri lawyer^ and Con^reotnau, h« had Mouch«td on 
the whole sad pUnct of man/ and knew with intjmatr: svmpatbv 
every furet of life. A resident in Illinois be cyplfied the Wnt 
in i(> coarsrnt'sa and shrewd LuEnoiir. His dwncatic Hfo was 
unhappy, nnd Jor solace he had been driven to poHtio. He 
esmed % icrcat name as a debater in bit contests with 

Senator 








,tJicol 



^Wff. 



Sen&tor OoukIoa, ;lui1 a» an orator bv a s{M.-L'C'b of nrinarkablc 

tvcnglh toid to^lra! fivcn ilnliv^trod In Nf^w Vi>rk, Itui he h»il 

tieen elecCed I'rcuUcnt rAthcr for hi* Jncoiupicaaiitn«s> than for 

111* gr^Al qGmllliei, Hi* li«n«tjr v/m inflpHl prnv^Thial, yet 

tioacuy ij DO n^ommcn'lAtian to an AmcTimn — or Lngliih — 

vTUicaa, A iludent of hi« t-arly ipei'eh^s cnnnui but [ye struck 

by tbvir IcfttncM, sinccrrilj, mcdi'miioi], ^nil ilispiiiAtonAEcoif*!. 

Hr liad CDEivtctEDiiii mihrr ibin M-niimrtiU, 4ml jtEi ' iinMndtbpT- 

iuhy*i iiatrcd ol Slavery' wn* ono of hii convictionK. la tlie 

winUFT of 18C0 Ld wa> mi uuUiinlr uiikiiown mnrtt tbough 

«vca tbca hi« fricndi toretold that be wouJtl bo cqucil to tlie 

MDCrgClK/, la furm hf< wns uri^-^inl^, tall, apd a.nliw&rd; LlB 

fftoc-, furrowftd wiiti thr hMiry Uiioa of car?, hftd a commnndiog 

ca»t; iwd bU «jm, ilfcp-iel brlow the high chr^r^k-bunM, 

vtucb BUgg^tt^I Indian nxtcvtuy, rofl^^ctnl ih» in^indiolv of a 

brooding. Ascetic minJ, ' 1 never «aw ao sad & fACc,' said i>nc 

wlir> knf'w bim wt^lL 

After Jjti election, in tbe droary intonrcnuia of abAmc and 
dissKter ti) iKr North, hr rom1urtr<l himtr-lf wtlh Hriuliim and 
diKnCioQ. Morti he shoirfd bim»ctf a true tr^di^r ol wt^tt. 
lie beadrc] bU party otT a iJHii^rnus »iid u»eWi comprmnisc, 
irbiefa wtjuld have obaodonfd all that iho lifpublienas bad wivii 
by hja «fl(rL-lLuH. ' I uiu iiifle^ibli.-.* be wtutr; tii Scw^ird, wbu 
wxs ihffn no^tiatjtig with th4» &<ruih«rnAr* ; *l am for no 
oomproiniic . . . which permits the eiteruion of ibc inati- 
toiioR, on toil ow ned by thv natiun/ * Hold lirni as ft 
«bain of fttcrl,' be ivrutc< to anolhirr supporter. Hut ho was 
irady lo be JLisl and eoncilinlory — so long ns Slnv^y was not 
ritccdcd. He wn* nilliag to give asaumqces that fu^itivj- 
slawa should b« suTTPndprrd by th(> Northern Stains, His just 
O0t:r9 were spLirDfxl br the Soiuh^ drunk as it «as wttb m^*^ and 
i'car ?even 8tACjf<i iivtrre out o( tbtf Uninn, and tix moro weic 
^ATcnn^ when the time cj^ame for him lo frnter oHiec. 

\eYtrr agniti rtrivs he t« leiriiitj Jn life, hU active li>wn of 

^J*ringfield. Oiily Jn d«*nth hii IjiKJy was to relrAPfl* that very 

J*>Urnry u|k>[) which lu; has now si*lcing ociL A strong proenti* 

"■f^nt of eominf^ death added ti> his natural sorrow at pntiing 

"^Oi bift old /tiejids and aMocjAtJons, and goiii^ foilb to a new, 

*^^l«ier, aad more erJtiea) world. The depreision whkh came 

■*I*Od bim may well cxpUin the erron ut taate and jad^mont 

^' which be HAS undoubtrrily guihv <^n this journey. He wat 

'''^^tcd by thodsoDds, but, as Mr. Rhodes 3Ay». moat of bis 

E^^«4rhe-t liAd ^H^tTer not huve bi>i^n d^ltvfr^l. He minimised 

^*^ dan|^cr of wAr, which mAv or may not hATc been wisie i he 

*^ un one; uccuion nbaidutely ridiculnns ; and he ufTended 

squeamish 








8S0 Afrrafiam Uncohts Witr Polit^tf. 

>qucnnti»1i opinimk W a cDiiiparisi>i] of tliv Sou1L«tr tli^'orv of 
Ihe Union to q * Iree-love arrnngeniciil/ In Pbilftdf^lniiik, 
however, lie »Uuck a liigher noic?. Tiicre in lUe lndcp«oiIenc< 
Hall wbrTn thp groni D^dArniion bad bo^n paiwd nnii »doptrdt 
tb«TL- tvhf^rcr in the lost ind pomp of ilcoth four Toara Utcr bu 
fcimlv Am 1(} liif. }w nllirineil tlinl * fif WiiuUl milii>r Iw 
niiaaainntcd on thnt >pot, tliAn »urrr^n<icr Ihi^ grrat irDlimnciU 
111* llir Dediirntiiiu/ Hr plainly Wiinircl ttie Snuib ibai, if il 
VMd forc<>, Toroi* would Iw eik(-J by hiiii, but h« di4 thU in tbr 
frntlcit and kinclcst oiAEini^r, 

H^re, too, hv received from mora thbTi one 10UTC« Inibroittiio^^g 
<»r H plot AgairiBt bi« life. He was to be killeii as be P>***^i^^| 
thmugb Ralriinore^ a city Southrm hv posiikn ami tymnathj^^^B 
He could not disrcgnrtl the urgent warninjr' of bii frieoiU. J^-^ 1 
«rrrrl nfgbt jtiurnry, )ie(itTif tlic jirojuibfil Iimc, wah dpriili^rL 
upon. He Ult Harriibiirg in a special train at ni|ctiC, Aod llk^p 
li'lej^rnph witex vrere cue ihnt tio news uf liis u)oveuieiiti uii^b^- 
he fonparded. In this discouraging wav^ and uodcr lb<9' 
*rhc>IW grountllesa imputation of pertonal coKAvdice, he cntcmft- 
WAshit^gion : a ruler who was not ssft* in bi« own country or~ 
capital. From hints whidi he sftrrwanis drop|»wi, we gather 
tliJit hi* r«p<^nie<t of hit adicn, and thm hr would bnv« prefrrrrrl 
to iaC6 the danger boldly, 'A bravL* man dies hut once*,' b<7 
■aid Id hl« friends nftrn ; ' atiMMinaiion ii not an Aiiirricats 
crime.' He was to pay the price for his ma^naninuty uul tnu^ 
in his fellow -country men's cLar&cter. 

And here we mav pause to consider the queftinn whether 
Lincoln was right or wrong in Uerlining to atcf-pl the com- 
pmnnist* which the Nnrih rert^inly, and (he Soaih probably, 
would have Ijeen glad lo snnciinn. Was he right in oTcTtidinfr 
wirh bis individual judginf^ni the* judgmenii ai his supporti'TS 
nnd opponents? The moat Radical of bis own party wtT« 
paralysrd with foar, 'Poor, silly old fifrrlny,' as the *New 
York Hi^rald' oalied the editor of th? *New York Tribuiu^' 
with A just apprebirnsion of his actubl woith, was roundl; 
deciariDg thut be * would riot stand up for coercion, for sub* 
jugaliou ' vi the ftecrdiij^ States. The Abolilionist VV'eiideU 
Phillipi, who rnuld nev«r agree with any reasonable being ffif 
two mintites together, was busy asserting, ^ Ihere is no longjer 
ft Union. Mr. JefT^^rion Davis it an||^y and Mr. Abraham 
Lincoln ia mad, and they ogrcc to 6ght , , , Wc are in no 
i-unditjon I» fight . . . Nothing but inadnns cnn pnoroke w/ 
And if these culture, omniscient, B^U-appaint^d badera of th« 
pcM^ple, ihf eilitorA *nd orators, thought ihin ; if Sr ward, tUi 
ablest Hepublifan statesman, at it vas supposed, a man who 

bad 



Ahrmham Lincoijt'x War FoKty, 



221 



ftil l>««n SfrriAUii And ntn miw Liiiniln'ii PriTinir*r, w\io hnti xh« 

vmai^a of cdacatiun, and, it mij^Lt be cundndcii, of wider 

pHliotl iuftiff^t and eii^wririiCtf— if Seward was uf lUtfir 

. piDion, could ito Iflinaii rail-ipliltcr ttatid out n^ia«e chair 

hf redj tendered ndvlce ? 

[ $«ward, Grm*l*v, Fhillipe^ and (h(» leader* of ibe KepuhlicAQ 

^ftrtj |f«acr&ilyt bjbd the convcrfr of Lincoln*! mind on itic 

■natter of Slarn'y : itiey had Brniiinenta, but not ct>nv]etioni. 

TUejr wcio not fircpAn:d t<) aunci br titcirddibrr&ta JudgTront 

b^CftUM- ibcy hul nut nrrived At n delibcrati- judgment. They 

were the frotb carried lo and Iro upon ibc euvfcLOC oi tUc deep 

wiil«n, ajid tbv ciirri^nu Ih^Iow h^d n»L ceasf-d to flow ttejvlily 

in tbe old direction. To divine the exiiicncc of tboc runi^nts, 

ta kiMMT )ht*ii dimrtion, to lUAkcr unir uf tlieui, lliikt in tlctnucmtii: 

•taMnMnahlp is mMtius. There was no indication on iho 

KifTttCe- Tbc wlkofe Nuith wu appareoUjV solid hi contxriuion 

and peac>e< It i* always bhrri lo hrinp^ a d(<mooracy to tho 

fighting point. War is not, ni Lincoln oner sjiid, * wn^d witli 

cJder *quirt« charged witb low-waTer': it inrcdvy* triali and 

boxdabips. mucilation, tortuns and death. Mud wtU always 

«ay, Wv will yinld juit n HitTp more, for what i« thai which we 

Mtc yielding; in comparison with tht* porionai risk and busineis 

loss of a war? [[ is thnn that thi^y nrrd ta Xw tohl, at Pericles 

ti>|<l the AtboDians : ' J( you yield to tbem in a small matter, 

tli0\ will ibiok that yott are afraid, and will inimedintely 

dictate aoino more oppri<-uivc condition . , , Whortrfort* make 

an your mlndt inthirr m ftiyc way <mnc for all ; iir if ym) an* 

KoinjC to war, then on no pk*a f^ri^at or <tna|l to ifive way ui aiJ.* 

Ma Lincoln ibc fulUiTy of cuncoslon was vltvhjuH^ * Wbai will 

«aUafv ibeiD ? ' he had asked in bit ffrent «peccb at New )~ork a 

yewLt iNrfore ; * This and tbii only ; ccom to call Slavery wrong 

^nd Join with ihitm in railing ir rigbi.' A« a clear concise 

mumokajy of the situation, these words arc abmliitidy faultl^n. 

15ut afl«r all hit elTortt Uy rlrn bit young parly — for the 

Kepoblicaos wcio Tno»lly the yoan^ in<in of the counlry— with 

kiis own lofty ideals of duty nnd fidelity ij» right, and after 

prcocbiax ^ >^ ibai the oauM mast still ^i> forward <?ven in the 

jtf^ of a hundrril defraii, he still found that thr voung and 

l^encroas minds of the nation wf<re wedded in appearance rather 

bD tbai jHilrry of i-a|HHEJ<'iii:y which !s inairs wiiidiini, than to 

tbe policy of doinp iJi^ht wbirh is (icd's. 

[t is the duty ut the stateMnan to leud^ not to follow, or rather 
La know when 10 lead and whvn to fMlow. 

■ Ite BtatMman,' aaja Mr. \V. L^ Newiaan, ' 14 ruvoalod to an as a 
oioral aod spiritual fcrco-a power oapablo of impaitiag to the 

natiunal 



Atra/iCttt Lincoln'* ffar Foiic^ 





2i2 



DAtional chfcT&ctcr a Ljont for icood or ill, a mofttw of lowtting 

«1vvntlug It.* 

Tills, we uiav tftkt- it, WI4* Linct.ilii** vjrw, tt> it U ih** vn-w <^J 

ft dcpp and <'ani<fit student of pclitical pbilottophjr. Natiocaa^ 

cbtuavter^a hi^\x Bvnw o( daty and Lononr—is n more vacrvcff 

thing ihnn evt^u pri>pt;rtv or human life. Aod ut vriiki \^tft 

vriidoin and umwerving hnnn«M Lincoln, vrhiUt h« did not teA, 

dill OCX nt ihv tnmi* limp thnnk friim the iTr^prevdblA oonflU^- 

^ Thr Union ' waj hii watchword : * ihc Union mmt «Dd •hill 

bp prr^rrvnl.' Rui kiKiwiiif; the temper v( his |ieop1e, nnd (he 

great pulicical aUvAiiU^ ^hji'li wixjid itccrur t» hiin vim iht 

firm U\nw virnrk hy tlin Smith, hp nnitrd trith inrxhjuiidhir 

pQticQcr, oulwailini; Prtfaidi>Dt Davia dud the Sontht^ro Confode- 

nc^, till lUiT ijnir- uli^n ihf-ir rin^^iLlcra ahnuld gri nut ofliAnd, 

At WMhiDK^on the Preiidpnl elirct lound ihM 4t thi« tnprvntc 

moment, wLiIbI tbp I4^lit-li) o/ StfUth Cmidinii werr beBiefciag 

P'ort Sumtor ivilh ilB infiaLteiimnl garriutn, ihcri* wa> ncthlngf 

but intrigue nn<l personal jealoiisj. The Kepuhlican pcit/ wft* 

U ^et only «n 3iggr4>gKtP of fArtionn fighting lor pUfo and profit. 

With great msgLianiinity adiI political invigtitLtncatnhaJduaie 

bift heat to tifiite it. He had aivcn bU imporTftni rivali Cor 

ill* Prcaidential nomination — Reward, Chaie, Cajneroo, aod 

nfle«>& — 4pau in hIi Cnbinet. To thc^nf*, nho all rffprpipoted 

ditfnrcnt Stales and cliiTerent interests, bt? added Blair, Smilh. 

and Wf-lles. Blair ami Hnt^s WPte it*nn SLuifhnldhig Stales 

which wcro yd wavering: it was impoMiblo In obEAJn a loj&l 

Southernrr fnim the sei^eded StJvit^s, thciugb the nttrmpt ynu 

modo. 'If the twelve Apr)etleft had to be cboten nowadayt,' 

Mid Lincoln^ ' the ahiiekt of hic^ililv wculd have to br hreded* 

M» tniniitvj of * all the lalentK * met with no faronr fram the 

ejL^liemiitB of his ottit party. ^ So conatilulcd as to ensure a 

ditgradeful vurrendcr to the South,' wa« one criticinm. * An 

atttoitinciit of rival*, one atump-ij>«ak'-'r from Indiana [Brnith} I 

And two representativfti of the Hlair family ' [Bati»R Ami Ulairl, * 

wa* anotbcn Seward wai very vridety disliked and diitnifttcdt 

Ml a philofiopbic poliEirinii in li>Figui> with ■ oiirrupl |>arty io bit 

own ?^1Ate- Me was vain, weak, and <ronhumed with idcaa of 

his own importance — 'u milUtoiir niund ttir n<<<:k of Lincoln,' 

the RadiL^ait <-allnl liini- Cbnsr, 1hou';h a VL^ry able man and 

nn ihe whole ttrirUy btmeat, waa noi abiive iiilrijj;uing agi^kirut 

Lincoln^ and wn.» *o firmly ti^nvincpil of bU own rectittido and,^ 

impAeity that he looked dowa upon the l^nidecil^B meaner 

racter. Of bim Lirtcoln anid gently, * He baa Ihe Wbii«* Houi 

fever/ Cimcr<»n aocn became im|ti]»iib1e tUruugh the coTtii|W 

tifla which prevailed ir hit dfrpArtmeni, end wm replac«<d by 




AfMiam Lvicoln's War Piilky. 

'Drinocnil, who liRif callnl Lincnln a ^ lov^ 

, ainl openly ioftulioil liim. Furiomly «neT|celii?, 

piilimi, iitsiucfie, Sittiiluii ^cl iL'jii.li.'rinl liU ^xjuiicrjr amil Lit 

r«:?»idoDt ^f^^l tcrvicoiif though hv wn.i, ai Mr. Ropoa caIIi him, 

ri iia*ciijlc ui^irpltttn' Tbc utlict member* of ibe CaUiact 

-■» bonountblf' nn#n, but ftltAin**i] little proini(i«n(y» in ih^ war, 

^»l Lincoln drove thU fr^ctiou* team vritb iucccm, (bn[ tic 

^aml, afl^r a ilight prpliminnry tiiivlt-^ the cordial aid nf 

vrard, mj* no liulc for hi« inoL It it nTsotr^Sf^vranl^ft infiniur 

ii that hr? rrrogniK^fl bii mniic-r nml irrvpj blm faiibfully. 

Hi» ioBUinin^ioii took i>lari> un(I(*r pftiiiful circuni»tancc«. 

Iiclboagtil nautl, »« Mr. Mi>r»e i^i^m, havir hern in hit Miiitil 

tl*5*i he W(U (Jpitinrd, pcrhapi, lo be the intl of the PrciidcaU of 

lla<T Uaiccil SL:Lt4?i. Sn.-fS9LOik Iei ihv South; diiuutuii la th^- 

^43nli; tiouon in tbn Army, Navy, ftnd Ciril Servic:!! ; mclnn- 

<=lioly pfuphccici ; icmcxiU appreUcuBioa ; n acoM; tb&t Kiinr 

L^rribU CAUmity wa« »C hand - roporttnl plots to Ufiuts 

*^ u}iui|e;(i>n ; rumourt tbat his aiiauinatinD w:u purpotcd ; 

«i|iirLbbW amonjjcir hit ttipjx^rt^rt ; crl^f I'll' iJ^'f^nnr^r and tb« 

Ufttip of armed uiri gftlhcring in ilifr jcccded SUli^. — «il tliirsc 

itaingv ciiitR) lo rnintrrvr hitn and finrr him to rxirrmo 

''^tuarM. Tbc Norlb* d':iubun^ lii* cn|)M'it\, ivm walL^bini^ 

IcMtraUy l»i b(* ■hniilH make some false 5lr[i- Thi* cnpitnl wa« 

gHAhicd with CAvnlry and artUUrj; tbe iminenin jfutbennK to 

^bii^h 1»* made bin iiiHugural spr-rch, stood nalchjii)^ Liiii in 

" vrut «jtpcctftli<kn oEiomc sudden d^Lsb by con«piraton. IIU voiee, 

pi'^liied in 4'»|irn-nir sjieakiiig, niii^ nut to ibc rut audii^nt^- 

""^"h a pl&jmivc, patbetrc note, tlis nddreaa wna tt^nder and 

^Wiioble lo tin- South. It breathrd hive, liot firr and tUugliler. 

'' Appealed to the deepest (^m^^tioru and bigbeii ptivtions in 

^'bciicon citiiifnai tUeir Irjve for ihc Union, ihcir lubmiielim to 

*^o«iJotioiini government, thHr re^'crcnce for kw. It nwinv) 

'"* ^outb thill there *boald be no coercton, but that the Uaion 

y*>nld nnd tbould defend iuMf, h dwelt on the pbyxical 

^'^P^inibililv of teimralLOD. It wai conhdcnt of the ultiinnle 

^Untph of Ood'c jiulice, wtielher \\\v Almij^hty was on the 

?*d^ of tbe North or of the ?>oaib, lu noleoin appool to the 

"''i!*id*"ntial nath ' in prptrrvc, piotpct, nnd drfenil ' the Oi>vrrr- 

'^'^tit wa» tbrillinjf. At «a«b freib exprevHir>n of rirmness, a 

S*%iiteb«rr went up. * 1u yoar baodv mj diMH^Lislird cuuntty- 

^^n, and not In mine, it the mocnonfotia U«uf of Civil War . . , 

"* miKt not b<? r-nemici,' wias tlie cloMr. To ibu, at Seward't 

'^ll^ettion, Linoctln hfld .idded an eiaborale mctnphor out of 

k^^pin^ with ibe limpHcity of tbc? apeccb. But ibe itatciimin- 
*blp, llie taate, tUe ton^* of ihe whole were ftdminble; and when 
Lincoln 





224 Abrahtim Lincofnt H'ar /Vir^. 







Linrdn turned from tiii Auilieiice in ukcr lU« rintb, it vu 
by m(Ml llint the ti*A'ler hn<3 come. 

A iiii>iilU 111' |>.'^tieril WHitin^ jntfrVfnccI bclwerrn i\xf. \i\xwiM%-M^ 
tion anU the oullireik ol wnr. Ltnoln ha« been blaminl S^o 
nol tulun^ itie bull \ty \\ir. Iiorns and n<it •trlklng in tbi* p«rii-»<l 
but we, with thi? wiadom which c^omet lo the hiBtr>riftn ftfur t.t>«i 
event, CAD ftcc that he wcu right. He had three object* in !><« 
Pubinii [htU^y, First, he hoped ihnt nrtth sober second th(»ii^^< 
iho unmcnacpd Sccedera wouhl petecivc tbiit iheif fe(W» w<?r* 
UriMmdlt-ii, Aii^ would return ci> ihv Linton fold, TcijitttiK tlii' 
biip^ tli«rc{ wisru dtatliict il^ns r>f some rcMctioti ; and if SuiaC^ 
bnd not ' fired the Southern heart, it ia juat poMibU^ tbAi ilx? 
quirre) might ha«'4* bveii poatponed. The $ece<»ioii loderVr 
however^ kueM^ their dun^trr And were det^ruilned upon violcJic 
men^urea, tnigiing lo the cownrdk^e of the North. Second, hf» 
dtvired X<t vtiti over x\\<^ Uordor tStatca, which wi^re sl^reboldin^ 
but At rh^ «Ainc limo inrlinnl li>WArds the Unlon^ Th«*aie wfn* 
MAr>lnnd, Delaware, Virginia, Nurtb CaroUoA, Kcntuckt* 
Tenneiaer, Mistouri, and Arkanwui. If iLej all went, the 
causal of the Union beOAme almott hopelcin. VVnchin^OQ) ibt 
Oipitnl, muit go witli MarjUad to the South; it could not 
postibljr be held. Tried by its reauUs, ih** Border State policy 
WA9 eminently auccrsaf Lib VjT^inm, North C'ArolioA, TeniicsMVt 
nod ArkanrtJii weri? hi»t Indf^ed, but the other brand* were 
plucked Uitiu the burning- Third, Lincoln hod to secure the 
Milid «Ljppnr( fit' ihc North, whete be had only a burp mAJurit^ 
ol PreaidentiAl votei. Tbia support he could only obbua br a 
moderate, cautiouM policy. Ho was to save the UdEoii ratner 
tbon to Abo]i4b Slavery. 

The luiUtary weakocu of the North w« ■elf-cvideni. The 
Army nNd Nrvv w^^re eciremelv tntall, and worp fiut lo<ia^ tbeir 
beat oHit^cre by reiignation. The character of the popuUtMO 
was indiHifJAl rnrhf*r thnn miltury. There was a wide-ipread 
delusion thai the iVorthcrnera were inferior in pb^^que, dr<ef^ 
mination, and soldierly (|ua)itiea to the Si)uthrrni^ra, The 
capital lay on the outer ed^ of the Northern territory — 
auppnaing that Marjbmd could be rcUunril — ^nd waa thut 
mueh eipose<.l to Bltael(> The Southern press was alftMlj 
booktli)^ thtLt ihc Seccaatunitt Jla^ would c|uic;kly float orertbe 
VVofihiagton Capitol. On the other hand, tbo Noiib wa« ttlf- 
depL-nUcnt ; it bad ^rcai wealth. maauioctDrrs, a^ttctilturc;, 
■hipping, and iu rnilway ayarem was Immensely raperior U 
that ot^ the South. It was disunited ; but under^yidg the 
oulvriea of the peaci^ai- any -price inen wns an ardent pttnotiam. 
Tb« South WAV practically aolid in dofenco oj its cherished 

* insiiiuiiooA 



insitfulirtQ,' ' Tiic uunltcrflbW iletcrminslicn of xhe SnutU li 

ov^nhrntt th<f OovcTTnmrnT/ wr'>l(f n Si>uili<^rner rjf Noflti^m 

I, 'aj th« only icJ'u^c wbicb U left lo it (torn ihe»« 

ble vmng« . . . On lU^ fluorpfi of |fa» movement 

dj mj cTnry interest, tho safety of my roof fri>iTi ihn 

TVbmul, anil nf my irire iiml children Ir^m rbf* pniton nml 

;ho d*|;i^r/ Nnt Tttriicr*s Anil Jolin Urovvti's aUf-mjns u* 

excite M urrvile insnrrcrtitin hmi ilonn chf'ir wnrh. Biu if the 

^Qtfc v«s solid, il« populatioD, even includini: Vira:!!)!^, North 

CAraliim, TeiinrMm*, nml ArkHn»A<, Hrhirli ultimately seceded, 

■rftstraall. Th1^ Itcc whites of the Snuth were cfimjtalfi^ by 

G«iier»I Julwl Karly, a SoulUenicr, al 3,MJ,0fH> . ai the Noitli, at 

il.6U0/X)O, T hut' is to say, the North Um] four mea to xhv 

^uihs one. The South* o^ain, baid iii> wenllti i^.\oc)>t Cl'IIoii-^ 

oa Ri40iif:icrijr4*t. no ironirorks, no business ca^^icitv. Its 

r%iln^« vrcrc few, badly conslructctl, indifferently sujiplled 

«uli rjillmff stiMrL, &nd tviuld ni>i frrnn the wnnt of iron be kept 

^tt food repair. For this reu«<>n» thtwly and by degrees the 

^vsaugtt nt Ehn inierinr linni pniird fmva its hmnils. At troops 

could not be easily moved or tmnifcrrcU over the vast dLstancet 

t/ »i1. It had no «hlp|>iik^ i>r aeniiien. and voa\i.\ only 

HQlVOTis^t tbtf semblr^nce ol n aavy. Ii lust its sf^a commuuica' 

tups nhen thr ffucu ijj>eued un Sumter. On the other hand, 

■upopdalion wn« iaurpd to fi«<]d sport* and a Life in ihd opita 

f ■ !l h^i) IS rtiss »f planter ((entry who would f^ll nAturfttly 

Kttn tlfe pUce of ofhcer^^ und it had for privates its 'moan 

*bit#«/ who neie l>y tliLir firiimessi heioism, and Jevoijou to 

prT>T« on a handrod b^ttlnEicIdE tbat the derogalnrr opitbirt wns 

lot^Uidv app]ie<l to ibctn- 

Tbe hhicksdi* quickly mfld* ih* Snmh — wblrh hwl not hhd 
^■oimmon »cnsc or prudence to forward its cotton crop before 
'b( imthrenk of war to neutral ^wrts — 'like ' a man with a full 
P'Jiv in the dcKrt/ U is idl-T to admire l^sldcnt Datlt^t 
'dmiiii Sim live* (juflliiicn when we rpiij^inbrr this fat*! ifliCt- He 
*^ in truth, in every [H>ssiht<' vnj Linooln^s inferior. He 
^ s^iillf<mAii| hAil A military mhunlion, nn<! be!ivvi-d in hit 
*^^n*: bat sinecriiy aad linL* mantii?r> did not atone for his 
"l^itikfs. lie Ljuanekled witli bis ^euerais, stood on his 
^ignih', cnnsidArcd himself a heftvc-n-sent strategist, nnd falleci 
'*toTiibibU in the regions of finance. And thm, whilst a Urge 
^^*f* tui the CTVfllt of fh^ Northern siiernss helrm^s to J.Inci>ln, 
^ *aiia| share of repronrb for the -Southern lailurir most he 
^^UM, on imparlial i:on«ideniTion. to .ft-tTi-rBon Davis. 

*ht S^uUi had one advonta^e of great niiiilATy valui;. It 

**> fighting nn iht* defensive in a brokpn^ wotH|«l cnontry 

^"wL 165.— Ab. 069. Q which 



vhich ih« Soutk«rnpr« Alvn« knew wdl. U hiul tho iiiien^r 
lin» ; iu rapiin! lay fiitibpT fnim iu fninTirr tbcui thr Nurtbrra 
capital i and it could mnt(« lull ut« of eartdivorkft and onUr&cb- 
meilTt. It hwJ lliv llirrfT nblrrtE grnfinU At the! cimUcI, — Let; 

Jobntton, and Jnckion, nil Vir^inianfi. It had too the advaafag* 
in btrgitminjt its prt-parutiuiia W war avmrr initottia nb«Ai) of 
the North, nnd, hul Jfffi^non IHvifl pnaBFurd the grcftt capadu 
with nhjch he II trrediicd. miizhc hnvc uicd ihU adv^nUfie bn 
rnpturinj^ Watbingt>*n. It had ihp support of a laijrn prtw 

IfnrEj In the Ni>idi. with the citrcmc mombcTa of Hfbicfa il* 
eadcM wr*rr* in t'ommunicalirrn' Su thai i^real ni the ckVIaiui* 
look n^aintt It, thry did iiot »r«Tn to terrible in lt^61. !■ 
ntuxrJt'd Uii frrp prrsK, il tn»k anray the right of free ipHcb. il 
handed fivrly mni ol Union ayrnpathica in Eut TenariMOi ili 
C<>ii^rr*a i]rb»r.p(l in sf^trr, and it fnrcf^l upiin llic hnodi of ill 
Pi««idpiit B DiilLinTy dictatorahip. It did &U Ehia in ihc hol^ 
cuuEiir of Slat'ery. And jel iLa uiifjiUnj iiif; lirttnaiii and dctc^ 
mination, though displayed in ihc worat cf cauaca, hoiie voci, 
nnd jufttty waii, Inr ihc Confcdcricy the admimtton of roaiktiuj' 
At laai lit pnil^iice v/m 4iihau8Trd. Linrrdn announce to 
the Soudi ilifti hp intonilcd ti> rrpnviaion Kort SumM-r» Ha 
had diidainrd Seward** mad riiibuiicrinf^ idra i>r a war wlih 
England, France, and Spain al once, 1o reunite the North ami 
South, Hi» pyi* »na on tho work in hand. Thf* onuwrr nf th'' 
South tvaa the thundrr of tht^ giint homhardmj; Sumter* Tbtt 
at ]«U the tpark fiTeil th^ ddrinntii, pjtiirnt pnirlotiam nf tbr 
North, The xreat wnr Prciidcnl Icopt into the laddlc of ctie 
frettinff Kictrd ; tt fell hU apaiv DougUs, Liuroln^a oM 
opponent and th« i^horiahcd londar of th<r TVorlhnm IVmocftti, 
atoned on the eve »f dr;ith Un the wrun^a and iiiiatakra of iliv 
poller whieh he bud ^uataini^d in )ii« life-, and taUi^I to :liv 
Unii>n- ^imultuneoualy came Lincoln's cnll for T5/1W thrc 
ffioDlha' Militia, to ennbl^ him * Fo eteeuTP the lawi/ The 
Border Stntea reapi>nd«d with angry conluittcly : ttie Novtb, 
ablati* with rjipe, enthumaiieally. It wni a jn^at nwak^nlng- 
The tonic of the battle-fire wna alr^iHcJy working ihe etfbfl 
whieh liinrnln hnd rxperwd and fntrneen. Thr MuM^rhinrtl* 
ariiaiuiat *the ^rejuy mwhanie*/ stood to ariij«. 'I ho * dud W 
of Ni-w Voik iMii»[eieii in muilial uir^y for the lit^bt. Tbr 
frri>ai Wciit, deeply moved, b^t^t"'^ ^^ miuter the aturdy fronti«r^ 
men who neie tv act the MUviiMppi free. The ailcnt crjoJ 
hundred 1 of thousand i, * Efnw lonv, O Lord \ hoir long?* VM 
aniwered at laU, The pc»eteia reflected that jErenl inaijnct df 
MTlf«tarriBi:e when iJie i^ioy In the Ut^r daya of the war ; — 
■ ha He dii^l ti> niuko nion holy. \f>i ua dio to iiiak» moa fML* 



The Mutiny viftt-«on£f< Mohn Hrown't Wly/ r^caJlcd th9 

mctnciry fif |]i»t mitgxiidHl hrrn, who h^l fciT^n hi* liiV lu a 

pn>ICBt Af^Sont wn>r>c. It told tbr Tc>lufit«<Tr« that tb« Sualh 

^Dulal hill ihi- voEnrii*^, hui vtnM nni kill rhn rMimr nf lihf^riv. 

^RtioutJAjC ****^ liftillc-CTf oi freedom* wa» bcarxi cvcrvwhcre. 

The (If^p eimttioni 'if atk vuitl^Tinmnfrniiir rnir w^ri? rLttriif Irt 

'^ lurfkoo in ihi\t luiiiultuont nphcftvhl 4>f pnaiion, Anij 1h* 

Niiitbx^vc itn\y ijf h» lipst ynrnL Jiium.iIiatK. p»rr*, ]nw)fr«, 

politiciona^ oiMrcliantt, tittod tid^ br ftid« tvitb ihv ^nill b&iMt, 

<^?finD boj, tuid ihr Ubourcr. ' My Godl In lliink of killing 

•uch aien 1 ' wm lUt Trflc-Limu of a Kocii-ral wUl» w^UbtfU tbu 

■natter inp< 111 t>f onv ir^imc^nL 

Tltem »cr© gloomy diy> in Waihin^n. The South «« 

^^t fit? too, and wa» tbreatcniag the capital. Virginia Imd 

Mndffd : Mitr^ljiEid was nitvi^Hn^; ihr orffjinirprl C*ov^inmi»nt 

illkie Nonb fru iioUlcd jxmi in daaK^^r. U had tau^til indeed 

UjFnewi of ihe kindling North^ bui lT(»0|wdid not cviinc*. lo 

*bHe boQra of ^onvrine anxiety, Lincoln'* outvard demennour 

*« i^*[m ami rdinpimrii. On April \% the day "f ibn pr«ela- 

QiLtiAa ol the t>r)(;knd« of ibo &i>uthf<rn convt, ttie firtt anried 

iTpqup from the Nijrlh, n Maauchuarlti rcgiinrnt^ 'trrivrd, It 

hki) fou|;bt iti way thrtiuj^h tbe itreets <%( Bikltiuiore bctoro a 

^rii^j> uiob, and abed llit^ llrst bluud i1iliw» during i\in war. 

Bottbi* road waa d<itifd behind it: the Marvlandcrra brnko the 

I lidaajra and CQt the lelegraphB. 90 that VVnihiogtmi, ivitb a 

■ili^iraniy gamfckn, w^ now indrod » lH>h-rkgt}rr«id ciiy, A 

r™u Conmiltee, with t'andt and delej;\:ed power*, had^ tt ia 

, Vur, bven already planle<l in rbe N4>rEh ; but would ibe 

UhnbrrDera, without the official junction of thi: Uovrrnmecit, 

pBv* thr cflEiriiCie [o brii(b aaidi* the? pr<>Epiii ni Mnrylind and 

r vnc* tbo needed Iroupi ihroj^b? It looked ni tbuu^b tbcj 

**uU not. Lincrdrit waiiioi;; jn flnxifiua paiiencv, waa b^ard 

Jf tuj Secretary to cry in aDguiah, ^Wby don't Ihey cotnc? 

^V <l*'n*t LLiey umie?* Add yrl lu ibe sLreitB id this t^iiEbiuu 

* ku ablt> 10 Htun ealmly X<> a B^ptiat minuter of BalTicnorv 

'W rraturrd ti» fidrive iionL-eiiiwii and mrrcodci, * Vou would 

W* ni"* br^ak mv ijiktfi And turr^ndfr tin* fiiiv^rnrni>j^t wiCtujut 

' ^tm ? ' br aofweretl. ' There it no VVaihin£tim in ibat ; iiu 

^lori in thai : no manhood or honour in Ihnt/ At la»l tti« 

iThopi cafno, Ualtiuiore waj fteiied and held* i^ad WaihiiijEtoii 

*C»in eoubl brrathe frenly. 

Uitic^c early daji of the war, the i^realnets of the emcrnemiy 
J^ppttfd Linrnlr) to ovrr*Ti*p tbn nmsTitnfionaT powrrt *»l ih» 
"'tfideai. Hii call to arniif hi> proclamation of LhE> Idm^kad*^ 
^ Lis autpenduan of the HabrHU Corpna Act, which w» biuml 



tarn 



irwotng 9Far 



*liq/. 




nccrsaATV, well? all, in iW strict scnaeofilip Mattl^ i\\cga\. Tbr 
UiUT mi>aat]ri» lifr linfcnflptl in nn a;1m)rab|p StaW jiaper *Ae> 
aU thrr Ijttvi bat uiir Iq go uncxct:utcd/ he ajtkcd, 'adJ tbr 
Guveminertl itfc-tf ro g^ to p[en?9 \^tl ihaC vm? bv ecf^uudV 
Tb(^ pie* of uc^ccMitj wiu AbuniUnt juali5cntii>[i, JW defj^ lill 
Congri^jic m^t vrouliL linvp Imv^ii I'atal. Rm jutt at Piii'« n*p»' 
(fl tLu Haboru Cur|>u> Aut wemi ficrcTlr di!<ijouno47d hy tbi^ ^Vhi|[^ 
ivho poiild not ■c'lf or unilc^rfitAnil th;tt ltbi*rtF may hr M 
prcacrvcil hy a EcinporAry EcuriBcc oi Jibcrt/i «o Linoola «u 
anulljvmHlitei] Uy VAlImnJij^luLm «ti<l llie rtlr«fiii« DriniotTiUjir 
bib arbilior^ ocU- The natioii at Ur^ ftuppoitml iln FrcndMi; 
U ii;U, iirrUnpa, a thitll i>f prldi.- At Lii ri^tri^v aiiJ rG»luU'>rL 
Tbo &rri>4t« tut^dr* wcro in no cmc aa yol viihtit-iiv^. Socmioniit 
Mai'yiftniitrj, rebel »pio and ftympAlLiMrr*^ ni\d h frvr »alitim 
juLimalUu w^r« iinmurcd in vanou« lurlr^Mvc. Tbe diilnu^ 
□cwa|ju[H;f« ill thr; Nonh were tALight iIihI tbcr* vr-u M~! 
but not li(*cnre,' by the (•xainjilf* of the Npw Vi>rk • Dailj^ K 
vrbicb had distin^iiL^brd iUclf for fU)-rant sfJitioQ. 
jonrnnl wi» i^vcliirlrii froTii ihi? mAil'trrvirr, nnii viu in 
way »uppii:HAL-d. Tbo noloiioua 'Journal at Commerce/ 
ever, ttHH Hbic in Aurvivi? t.Eie ini^iL«ur<>b nlrued s^jiiiiit il, 
continued In <lo cu much bniio as it poflalbtv C4>ul<l. 
^ llt-rald^ bad b«vu leuiporuiilv luinened lu UniouUm byiU 
thracht of A gT<TAi mob lo wrcol: lU office* if it did aoi ibov 
JoyaUy, anU tbc viituons Mr. Bennclt'a lortilotJc to ptlaa^t 
wac not projif agaimt nlftrm for bic prrim-rty. 

The (Jttfi^irf of a lif^f prc»B w&t Iiri^bttucd by tbc Ivt 
tbnt in X i:ivit war lUi-rc wai mom than ever to niunpiM*!!^ 
nnd that a plauaible vatr lor surrrndcr cuuld alvmyj be ou^ 
oui. Aud \4'i, prtivuW it WHK inodi»rftif< in ton«, tb« pm 
WAk pcimitEcd to criticise finely, Ai ini^rbl be ejipeci^. it 
did iiitrdcuUbk iniidiivf; cliuugb* on tEie otber bcuiU, whrv 
it WA> in ibo bandi of loyal men, who, unlike * poor lilly c^ 
{iTrr1(<y/ h^d luurAj^tf An<L iMinviuiuti*, it ^tirrt'd and roiaiJ 
tbc nali<jn, V«t tf<r ibink thsil Iho vvil ooiwvt^-bed tbe E^' 
Tb^ nrwii]Kiprr rdilor ii jiilutanly a timc-wrtrr; \ic \w ^ 
make hii juuinal pay, :irki in America tu tn* KonKatiotthL K* 
dot** u'jt i:onaidiTi' wbvtbcr tbv publicitU'jn of » purticctlaj i^ 
will Hnma^ bl* eounlry or co«t valuable ViveA. H« doo 
not know tbe ulterior aiiu* of bii GorerninenC. Hii critlcinoi 
wbicb 14 %<* tfilmnry In pence, it dans4»roui in vrar, b^mnf' 
it provokrs iniittu&t ol tbc Adminiitralii3n, wkieb thoold tJi"> 
b*- tru*l«i lit nil b»7Ardt. So tUo American n^portcn b.-rr<w* 
out ihcr riclaiU nnd dctiinnliim of ciEpcditiiftii, nud cdtU" 
pnblUhrd their rtrpurt*- War cfirrptpindrnta, a virriliUf 

pUf 




AtraJtam lAncoFiiB H'ar Poitry, 



%%% 



;ne of ih« gtnfvrvU in command, liun^ n>Dnd \\\^ h^Ail- 
They Attocht^d lhemst'lv« to pftUioaUr ni*n — 
ty t<f iiK'uinpf*t4*iil olUcei B ; tiv tbi* ^rt^4l l<^a(Ieri of tLe 
UdiiaJ Suom' arm im— Grant, Shermstn, and Shoridnn — [ook«d 
apon tbcm witb tbc uTiocst disguvl. Tbcsc incDinpctenl men 
iliM irampotJ^ ; and fliun tn their pikper dAdnmarjon* no lmi« 
of BhCtclUD*! And Frcmont*s reputation wiu due. 

Sbctmui Iwtniyi nn tt1inr>«t wliiinsicnl Iiairrd of ttir ror* 
iMpottd^nt*^ Thpy lurnishM ih^^ Si}uth<<rn Ic^adcrv, Ue savB) 
«itn UmitIt uid nhund^nE informJilioti. Thry «Pt <hn sirmy 
kgtiait tli« oountrjr by ulwnvB pusbin^, in ttioir nrticlcCi the 
vldic-rs fMwud on fill vorts of d(?«pcrAie uniiciiakitii-s. 'V\v^y 
■t the privAl«« nifainil thr gcncrntc, Th*v bptroyed McDow*ll'i 
noTtmeqt on Maumas, uiid Graat's nprdlciuii agaimt Vicks* 
htiTj, 'l i*y, with ihr pfPM tinfrTiPrcd,* he cried, * w(» nr*» 
(k«tMl«d to the end of lime,' The prcw jl was which nearly 
lirpriTtd ihr nxiiiirv "f fir«rit hy its irinreprrsentnljima of ihv 
Utdc of 'Stiili>th. The pmi Asicverated that Shermjin wna a 
hnalac nod cownnL lu r«lufti be laid hi« hnnds upon th«? 
■dioaccofT^vpondenUi niifi wAiicCually preparing to bang chotn, 
■^ hi* brother, Senntor Sherman, di»uiuled hinu GvAQti OQ 
^rw <iec&*i^(i| <WI a rrtrrvcpond'Mi who hnd Iibrlli<d bU army 
'^ honrback. wjtt» n Inrgf^ plncnrd oi) biK back, to thtr rtTeol 
^JU'tbU VM (he (raduerr of the loldier/and flrid*^Ted him lo 
W led blonj; ibe advatK^ ballltvline* where he undcrwi^nt »* 
IfTel^ baptism of 5tT^, Thf^e nevoritlrK^ it may w^lt l>i> lii>li«'Vint, 
^ bot m^ke Ibcm iov«d ; and tbvy fnriber pri>poaed 'co con- 
"Ctijii ihr i»tfW5pa|N?r men.* Thua iltev were generally abuM*dt 
»ct th*T TO«0 rather in tpitc of the newapapere <hnn hecaufle of 
^*«fn, Tbeif experience, taken with tbe behaviour of the 
rc^neh pri*a« in l^70-.], ta-mU ii« n «Ab:taT^' ivnrnin^. A Btn«t 
'*BM*lbip of war new* appears to be an ^btrdule neeeuity ia 
^ time iif grare iialiunal danger. Our great ediruri Are 
'^biifM upri|;bt and patriotic men, but it ii not tho f-rviit 
MVipuprra which will Save t<i Iw feared. In jurtinn to nil an 
Am will be n^d^U impoiiiij^ the sev^reit ]>ena]tie« npn-n any 
^ivulfaiimk "f (iijtitary news. 

The telej{raph wires aE Waihinglon were at an early date in 
^f' W4f seized and luanlpulateil by cht? VVur iVparltiirrnt. yei in 
f^Wdf thia ceniofihip news of grefll militATy imporlance gol 
"•thow or other into the iVorllern pre». It was parueuiorly 
'^md, in tb^ otvLtrse of 1^t5i\ to keep tbe rvirLfonnn^'nl of 
■tiMiicrm at Chatlanooftot quiet. Two array eorpa were vent 
"Q by nuJ from the Ann^ uf tbe Potinnjic^ which wok then 
"^vtentwi by Lfe. Tho corr««pood«ntc Jn Wathingtoo w«r« 



no 



Abraham Lincoin'$ H^ar J\>tie^. 



n 



n$k*fd U> kc«p tilnnc?, and the niorc0icnf hnd i^ppamnllr •■ 
notice, nrhcn »UilUcDiy on September 20 the Neir Y 
' Ev«'Tiiii^ Prt»t ' piitiliatiHl a iM Jinrl il^tailf^l acoouni of It, 
(titi^t [cJl ogt, (hiA h&fi no scrioua result, bui it mi^bt ^ 
fwini^rivatity havp done grr&t <lazna^ ro ilie Union nlwiiL 
iliuMrntca the n<rceB>it} of « uilitari^ crjisorstiip tui<l ol^ p 
Inw*. OffuturN? ihr inonnpolixmian nf the irlr-^^h wba it 
iitiolber prjevutiLiiT l>y tLitf Doinocrats, And IwcAmc 4 IreUi oi 
in xUvi |ii)tiiii]r ji[i|H'»(:bmoikL iif J.incolo^ 

Lincoln tia» been taken ■evOTcI^ to tuk for tho inadtq 
u» whi^'b Liu niuEle of iLtf firsi (IubL of jxipuUr rntbu»iuii 
ib» Nnrtb, Uk bft^l eallml tirat for 75,000 lbre« taoB 
Militia; ibcn iot 4:2,000 ihtce jear>* volunteers, for £f, 
vddltioiial Bolditri for the refEuUr Arinv, und lor 1^000 lor 
Nii¥v, ■ ^r*n<l total of 157,000 mctu Wbcn w<? f«ttmnb«ri 
nJL iLew nf tB weir oi dimbtl'ul conviltuiionalitv. ibat be bv 
■iiir«e it)r Nnriti tuuLiouilv aud to rclrttin iroin unduly aJarni 
it, we fthnil ngT<^ mibrr with Mr. Koprjs, tliiti ibe F'mH 
'etiow'cd a <vm|>»hc(ision ot the ma.|<niiud« <il th« taftk t» 
him wbk'h wu» hardly to be i^ipecif'd, cmmideriaK that 
waa the ftrit linie in his Ufo tbat he bad bad 1o dral wilb 
iniUiarj 4jUi?itiiin.* Hp nsked for ojurdLrt 40tV^^f' "^"* * 
Con^T^ta tiK'i in Jul^. On the otbt^r hand, t^^vident DavU 
cnUed out l(4^,tHKr incn, uf whom hf, ytt ttianv wifr^ arui^ i 
tb^ nioht indilterent muikuls- Thi* baUnce a( oumbon 
thus benviij on lUo aide of the North, at w&s u«-Lcasary, m 
the North wa* engaging upon & tvar of conqce^t. For ii 
pQriv3ic>ed (cn^-ral*, however, to etuploy buck numbers < 
flUCCfiSs was no easy latk ; and though ir was cvitnntorilt belli 
in the boulh that one tioutbemrr w^j as icoekJ as live Vaoli 
ibp Inn Tfiiwui* iljni ill th#* ftrHt liHiiJ*', HI tlir crtticml (H 
the South couhl ooiLcentrat^ n |>Tcator ivrct^ tlinii the North. 

U 13 raij [n inll mm io nrnis, nud :uit di^^tult, Bviib hud 
copaciiji, to or^iLniev thoin into Ktmii^i^ but it la no ci^y t« 
find ^DTf&U at a momenta notice. Suctrai in war, wbern 
iDiliViduiil combatant* aru «i'vnly matcbpil in coum^pe 
cndurwJHr, 4 4U biiidlj he obuir^rd eict-|it by au|nriiur 1*1-11 
<bip bnodtin^r luperior numberc, Tbi« nat not a hoi 
«ttu^|ik- ijf dytJasEicB, but & vtar waged mx ciEhcr tiJv 
peoptei fnr iilc or death. Foi tv> long ymrs tiw Xurth Hi 
grope in Toin Jet generals of tried capacity and ctiarnclc 
Ipad il> anntpa. Vttr two y^ara therv w»a a cotiilant mccet 
oi men : loinr of them in their private Capacity of the \ug 
worth, lonif- of ihem tteutrnonta of great ability under a vu 
mind ; but vJl incDpuhlo of thonsvlvoa conducting nitb fiic 

■.1 



kMt! a^^fiiire vr^r upnn tli^ Soutb. Tliej Ici! tbeir (tallanC 
■nidirti u\ bid^'uDK, oft^ii in^W*, »l»ii^'hi<>r. They wt*re 
Mlniftnl in onr intlanrf, a1 lonalf irilh nrdour and (li-vi>liori, 
Thi*T w«r« with iin<? ricrption limirsilj^ tuppiirlrcl bv tbi* 
Ivt'^utirr, itnd wtirt* <»n<r and nil chliciAod, bnnu«cc), luid 
ffTiUtrrl }iv ib<T EiTmpontibli? pnna itnJ bv tb» »iitr|ili>1]i nf 
diBp^if. But, with i^nc viot-ption, th^y nehkved no ivbuIu 
Tby matltf ariuu-a MrLIcb tbc> uuulJ imc u««; (brv lacked 
mlumitv, vi)r<>UT» pAtidcnl intijibt. Tb«v did not umlcralrind 
tbc luipaLimcF of ilniiucncjt or ii'Alt£E? luAt Liiii:ulti (uuld not 
«^)t fof 4tir#r, Th#v totvud lb«ir country lo xhn tmit of Ibeir 
poircr; bat, u G^rcat [zcncTnli, tbr}' <rmcrg<rd from ibe vrar 

Amon£;«1 tW c^riicr ^rnrraU appoinlcd several iren^ abfeiw 
Jutrlr iticiipiib)(^. Tbe nppciinttntrntK w(>n< d^^ m nu imnll 
dqirM t« poliiicaJ coDtidirralionat wbtcb ni^oannrily iniarfpr^d 
amr:liviih ihr j^iirrlj miliury, T.incroln bad (» ^ivi? tctminnndt 
Tu hit p&r(r npponi-nu in tho North, tbnC bv mt^hl sifcan* tli« 
■uppnn fjf tliiit itri-ticin iif tlif^ DrtiiiKT^kTi uliioJi uan M'jilijun r>r 
\\» pToarriuion ot thr war. He Imd lo conc^ilinte liii own sitlo, 
f*iiituUrlj iIjc i-xirrmUt», WitLout ijupitSou be »Low«I beie 
NuncK^^iknrM of chnract^r not lo b« «ip«icl(*d from a man at 
liUilcr<rnittiiatioii und bing^hf^tdcitiipai. On thn otbrr hand, 
^■baoli;ttv iicnornncc of military atTAirn moK lj« rem^rnbtred. 
^ bul nut llvrd iniicb in VVnMliington, and yttLt not, llko 
J'flmun Dtviii nmuciintrr] nitb llic rapuciiy 'if tli^ varicfiu 
•fiom in the Arm/. Darij had bcld 1b«- poat oi Si-tTctarj- r(>r 
^•r. and knrw bi* mrn wHI, nrnrral Sirutt, linndn'i 
^itiw-r, a stimriArbQt imwibJe vcWran ol ibu Mczit^n ^Va^, waa 
^wlly e<^«jd Ci> lis duttvi, and bail icm bit favouivf? com- 
>iftiiil«n ranf:e Uiriniclv^a on tl^c fiidc of ttic Giafcdcrctcy. So 
>* *u tbjit Limxiln plm^d tii t'lnmiMid al lIar|iii(^B Ft^rry, 
'^'^wiil E'A^trrvcin, a Btriing prn-Sl avciy I)*?m<j»^rat, who bud 
■•"fti with crdlU in Ibc war of I8l:i wilb I^ogland. but ^rbo 
•« nbviuatly unAlteil by bJi prcat nire fi>r ^i^rjou* work. He 
tbowfcl mnariiabic pu«illaniiiiity and incapacity, and apon bit 
ibuLiUlf<ra, moie than ui^on any other's, mti tbe blain^ fi>r tbe 
^Hi M Bidi Kun, nncc bf limply declined to nif^ve at tbc 
^tji:*! momrni. A ■n^md bul [ippninimcnt wm Prrmnnt, ibo 
'^^Micikn candidbt« of 1^&t> lur ibfr Prr^df-ncT* and a 
HitifH] fut'oiiiiti^ wiib tbr a^Kiliiion wirtg *tX tb^ Ki'publirjtn 
_P*ty, 'Itc indocnTV of ibc Hlaita platx-d Sim in fommftnd 
^'^ tW iui|it7it4iit drpirlmeiil uf MiuoEiri, wbcfitf br* ijukKly 
Bi^ifp«Ud bia absolute unlilnoM* Ho b^d ng inlcnt for 
*^Dbatlon: be waft gnilty of uTcrlotikiiig gn>» (nUmanAgc 

[n«ni 



I 



SS2 Ahm/ntm Liucolris 'far I^dic^, 

nirnl anil corrujiLiuu ; hv allciialed itir ivmpftthy ol b** 
ftubardioftte irenc^rali, nho coald not ttu»t btm ; nnd 1i^ finUl.^ 
iM^jrd an abfturd prockmaliaQ UbcraUafE the ila*« of Sc«<^*• 
sioniBU if) hit dff<pnnntrni, — an act which <irM^tcpp«t bi^^ 
po^rr** nnd »it Kt^ntuckr on fire. Now, the l'rr«d(»Dl"* or»« 
nrtlj^'itud*- wa« to k(»ep hU nuth? Stat^ of K^ntiirky in tl* 
Union ; na ^n» ar^id drtly, ' iJr wnnlcd CirKl on hi« tidc\ but ^ < 
iiiukt Lavf KuntuitfT/ nnd Ijv ai (incp ivmpplkHl Fivmtiilt ^< 
rntriLOt hia manikitto. But niu^^h iniftchim had hcca di>i»^ 
The Rrpiililican txtic^misLs bMlavirml * Ihr Romaij fintltuii 
t>i Frvuioni vritb adulntic^n, and cried ihchino upun thi* PrMidvnt 
The} <:ujj)|Mirad tLc fiEit ti> Gfrat-Lrnil, ihc arcond lo Fecbl 
mtnd. Them waa no unworthy impuintion which ihej-, bfp 
friends did not lusI upuii Liticcdo, The *irtLiout (gunner, 
in ih*- inTtTVfiU of praciiainpf r^ratorv hrfoff hii Iftoking-^EaKf, 
flhouifd with the mob. And when I'rcmimt waa most dcTMrrvrdh' 
romovMl from bii oommnnd, h« became ' tUt* idol of ih* tndini 
KcpublkAni/ AD tbU tiinu^h he hnd, U^rcrujc^ hi> ^^^ 
oprnlv ihiy^alt^nt^l inuiiny^ — 'In try (^onrluainna milh Jie 
(Lincirlu) and to set up l^^r himirlf/ Other onvacjifacltw 
nppoirkrrnrniG jvrn* tho«f^ of Biitl^r And Hanka, 

In the Entl, tiir in this gieat conflict the war waa ptin? 
futWrtid ovrr :t v»al exfrrnt <if Iprritory, — iLt irijialtriiM' iif ttjc 
public waa atimiilntrd by tho impntic-nrn cl Con^tcai and tL« 
pirsB, It wiu the v\t\ err of [hu»e who were iJIljiic 9tft a1 
homo for * aont^^ihJn^ lo bt» done/ The ninat«ur ttntti>gMla «ho 
act up the clamour had no hlvu of lUn difliculii^t of an olFcaaiff 
WJir with lll-orjzntiijeL-d. raw rruopc. They irtin^iiird that tW 
men, once niUbti-nHl. coM ^o InKtantlv lo thtr front. 11]«^ 'New 
York Tribunr," ai Mr firrHcv hud now tpfoT^r^d fivim htt 
frij-bi, outahnckcd tho otbcT joonials. Jt ktpt 'Forward ta 
Rirhmond * unnding; in lrAd»>c1 rypc^, and naAfl ii daily. * On 
to Hichmond ' wru heard everywhere Linccin mity have btan 
iinpHtir-nt hitnaeir, or h» mny haV4* been o^rrlwrnir by tbr 
imj^atif^ncc of <ithcra, but time wan paaiin^, and tbo tb 
months* MilJiiii wuuld scum be druuiiding ilipirdisL-har^. 11 
(fitvtf the ordtr for an advniic'>, and, muoh again*t hii wU! 
.Mt:I>owcl[ went lornAtdH PatLcr«on ,\in\ ^1<:■>tt between tbcG 
hliindori'd, and n\ Bull Hun ih« Northern Atmy bad t^ brr^ 
Beaurcgafd, And nl th? «A(iie lime lo «aduTfr & flank atCArk fro 
Jobntlon- The ^nvn troopt fon^ibl bravdy, but when 6aiik*^- 
^aE ihf Dioint'nt t/f victory-— i hey broke and raa« aa far brtic 
triHtpt wonld have ilone, Th^y did nof diigr«rp thrmtpivo, i* ■ 
\oav morale lo a. serious deifire. Hut they were dcfeatetl, ami 
firtt trick went to th« Suuiln lM>rtunntely, the Soutltrni Aru^ 



ltU<4 



■r«c! si> nA vife^rou* panuit w^e miul^. No Advance nn 
^VtfMluQfton foliovrd, and the baltlp w&« merely an iocH^nt* 
nrWii^h. fir from (U>tpirir.in^ th^ Nnrih, mrrngihrrri) jc in iu 
lofti dfrt«nninnlinn t<i fi^bt till tinni tt)cf^f?u cron-apd it* 

The vi<!tf>r|' of Hull Kun obLaiood a wholly fac^titioui iai' 

t^otUat-T Id Rurripr^ nrhert^ it WfU aujijuwrtl Ut hnxc ileimtntitattsl 

thv kmnt cowanJictf ol thv Northern Iro^pi, Td r«-orgiifti«» 

ikie ilefcftird arnty, McClHlHn, wljn hiul jurlicir>iJtly kdvt^rliictl 

*<>ni^ tmall tucc««cec of hii, wu tummonod from Weit Virginia. 

^^ *FM hi» (»vii WfftAE rueinV' Cufiurrniiit- 1il[ii aad LLnci>ln*« 

'*U(i4>o» lo hioi, a conflict haa rogM froin Iflfil ri the prpf«ot 

*l*y. But hi» o*™ leitcra, which hii own ju^J^mpni published. 

^UiTT iipcn hi« «#i*^rfrtt c<in<1j^Tnmitii>ri. Th^'y tlimv him to hnT« 

^1 a rclixioui, hird-voikiiif: o^c#r, whn IialI ihe Ui^ulty of 

*iQQiiig tU<< ileep afr«cti(>n of his ntHtTt^rK and priirat#ft. But 

^y flUo »ht*w in bim nn nlinoM incrodlblir wcftkn<-48 antl 

pffttuiti* iiT ( liArict4-r ; n dUpiiiiiiiin i» nifddli? in pidiia-i ; « 

«fr>fiE>r mmiia for * HAvirtt* the cnunlry ' ; an innhclity to und"*r- 

*^tid ihc poliiit^ftl conikldi-TMttirtii wltirh InflLij^nrr-t! l«Lncii]n arul 

''It Cabinc^t ; an cttnonjitinfT (iilntnnDrBE : n Fcnnno-lik^ 

'P^rh *ti fAull-ftniLiii^ : au armgniLL iiiBiiburdiiiUtion lr> bi* 

<Bpi*Tiors and the Pr^«idont ; a mvan j>nlou>y df hii ^quali, ftuch 

■■ l*op<-. HiB »oIdiFn foufrbt battle* ^hifit be wa» ^oin^ a 

^Uftni*nTin<tnr*awork in lli4» r^iir ; ch«'y won bim viriAn4»fl, wbioh 

■■* f roropOy ihrcK nvnj. \\r niLdfiplipxl lb<^ numbers of the 

^t?tiiy hc-frire htm by two or [brer, midc the inott librral tl*- 

'I^Qiio4i» friim hi« own f4iT4.4's mid (ben snt down And <-&llrd for 

J^lTiforcmneui*, ' If Mf(:|cll,inhnd a millii>n mrn/iAidSiatiUia, 

^*^ aTch-cn^my, bitterly. ^ he would swear that iher rimny bad 

I Jj<> million, and ihi-n tit thmtt in thn mud htuI >HI Uit thioe/ 

«*iTne/ said General Ji>*ppb Johniton, his abl»t opponent, ^U 

*^ no rs|wt:jnl valur lu hiui/ and Linf^ulck's i:alm judf{mr-ril was 

^"^v^ latEc : *McClcl]an'£ f^Tc^nt f^iilt j«, tb^t hik alwav> thinhi 

™^»iurTow hcllrr than io-di»y/ MrCUlljiii lirkcd llie iWlilude, 

'■^npliriiy, and iron dcit^rniinalion ul Gn&nt ; he bad not <b« 

^^xil oiuragc ol Liundn, wbu bui.1 iioi niMVrd a mutcle afu-r 

^**H Run. Hift firtoriei dcpresfiod him aa mnch as Ih^ir 

**^^U olbcr e^ncrals. He oerrr oould be mado Id undvr- 

***ail that, io Lineoln'* words, 'God *rndi hi* rain upon th» 

**ijttll At w*dl as the jpsl/ Al first, idolized by ihe whole 

^^''nftBy, h*' gr^dnally, by bi* poliviral niliiifdii*. Itoram^ th* 

V^liEic^ fCencral n3 the Democrat*, bftlcci with nn exiraonUnnr;* 

**nilen«T br ibe fttpublit^ani. Lincoln ntver Insl bis alTpction 

for 



«4 



AlTaham Lirwohi't If'ar PiiUcy. 



for him ; lie* in<ai(Hl bim na ft tp'silt cliilJ. It i«. at Mr, Mom 
invBt tyiic i>r tb« iniBfonuat?* of liitforv tb&l ttic Preiidrnii «b 
nlnnt* TTAt impftrtiikt, magnnnimnun, nnd tn jirraAruinn nf all it 
facu, hiu Icit no nsjord of bii oivn ju4inncni upoa bim. H 
pav« hiiri lyiiniDarid wtii>ri^Vfr hv <:<iuM, attd tupporicd btmi . 
Ihc tcrtti of n fufioiu oppoiition, till politioal prcMUre cot: 
|w1led liiiu lij rr?ii]c)vr iiiiii. 

It it Mp(.-l"[liiri'H ('Ui^i ijonour iL^t W m:i<li* tl»* Army wbii< 
Or*ni alltrivarilft led lo biilliniif >ui^ri.-i»fl. |[r vtw clc&rty Ck 
thp vnjt ri>r»ffvri4<i ot nit-n with riReft wliicli hai i^thcrin^ unit 
tlic tliJiJow of iIjv VVjk«bjiiKtoLi Caplltjl iuU!>E bi^ oigAniiird befa 
it fwalil L« LihI njrjiinftt the i^ntm\\ DrUv wu uct^Marjr, ta 
obviou«lv be couJ<l not t\y «u, fi>r tbU would \M%t »el b 
Caiirf-dc*rntn trmy in Vir^iniH fron for mitrhirf rltcttbcre. 1 
wbilcd, driltinfT antl rpvicwiojj, whilst the North wnilnl wi 
l^rdivjnu; jtii|UilJpjjt-4' frii Kiniit' Mmivh. MorklliH pAiM**!, nnd t 
irminou* cry 'On lo Kirhmorkd ! ' niu bcnrd Bt^io. V 
IHipular ciniridt'iii'L- iu Mi:CleiUn ^va% d^in^^ A ivw tuircL 
tiff At \fftEirL««ri« liiy a imAU C;4>nlodorat« nrnty bdiii^d wcj 
entn^ncltRirnU ; Un woub) not atiAck it, tboufjii be bu! thn 
laen to ;>n«. At lost General Johnston IcU bnrk TroiB b; 
woika, «iid it was at^ti witli la^t* auU buniiliatioii t^;» tbc N^ 
that wooden lo^B compotKrd iha fujwninff arfill*»j- wUr 
Mi'Clirllau KJ dicadrd. The Northi^nx-Ts kc'i-iily IcU ibc impu 
Inlions whicti Hull Kun had cnu uni>n iboir manhood ui> 
c^urn^c ; they yearned iot the eioriou* lonio at Yictary, 1 
re-Awakim ih^ fHiUng emIuKintin for the ivHr. Ltnroln ri^tiil 
ji]d|;«d cbc pnltlicaj aiiuationt whic^h ioiperalivcly dcmaitdM 
evt^ri ITI the tn^fi of military conBtdt^raiionftf an jtnm«ilU] 
movci. Mo ord^rvd his arnik^s forward, and pressed McCtella 
to nrtioii- The alug^iib gnnriAl would nut adTAibrir c 
Hicbmond by land; bv prett^rrcd io more by em lo ^ 
* Pi^iiioftuln,' im ibi^ Virf^intmi voust, ticar Rb bmon-i. I 
ileliancp oi Lincula's ordorif ho IcU a force inadpi|uatc im t1 
dvfenc* of Waabingtou, which na» thus iripuwd to (Le Soudae 
army bad Grnpral JohnRUib carod, in L«w*a wordt, 'to i«i 
queens,' H« <lid not lEirc tiro tbou)(bi> id (be terrible ' Men 
ntnr,' whirh wan tiill »i|(i»i nnd uiiMibdnM: h« look 1: 
CTfjwdcil and helpless tranjporu inu> her vicinity. 'llii 
landing. aUt^r ]trn\jm-[vi\ ileUvK in fnint of a biM^krmm forcv, J 
^ulvancod on Kidiniobd, f^hting firrovly all tb« w&y. All! 
ciilknt inopicnt ni Uiv cninpaiicn, McOowell, who wm Co ha 
■uppoTti*d biui, morinj; from Kbo North by land, urns irenjt 
by Lincoln, at Slamun's irisijgatioii- SUnt^n bad couijjlri* 
loit bit Lead on «oci>unt of a mid of SEooewall Jftckvi4)*s 



Abraham Ldncoln's Tar PoUet/. 



S55 



Harprr't Vvrry. So hj tM« mi>at ilUai*trout inJ«l>k«< mii) #rrtir 
''^J tjJKiiimt, due to the dcurc to proCcnL the Gft)>iul, McCJcJUn 

^^t>i w>» rrtiidfrr^d unvlcftWi nn<{ JAi^ksun w&« peimitu^d ti) 
'V' K% JnTt^R iht? Ci>a 1 1^1 ) cerate Run y n^init McCtrlLin- TUr 
"^^"^ v~ Iheni prnvral fL<ll bu4^L» boll^' picswMJ L3' Gon«TnJ Lrv. H]« 

"r> xu it wax cbIIimI hj oiphtmlttn, the change of base — well. 
^ ^ ^h itteir backs to the water, limy hvtit «ff Lfie tii a battle 
wl^ i<^ti mi^lil iv<>ll havr be«n decisive hud McClelUn br«n oigunl 
^ Kdu All tun jo it irs. He lost bis bend, however, cried like a 
^*V*jr 10 UTiCfila tUut he was befti^n, »i«^, ttiniin^ uptin Srnnton 
*'*<1. ihc I'rrjiifirnt, lavA^i:]^ cixikplaincd l ' ^ oa hftvc Hnni; y*^ur 
l-i^^l Ifi ^mrriflce ibiK nnnv/ nis aritiv wju r^^called, md hi! 
^t*^m viftu&ll^ d4-poK«d fruin bia cominaud. 

laal) tbift prriod Omgicu bad btxti \mty niiicbicf- making. 

TtL«n* th(* xiii>it furioii« and intempemta uttackt upon McClellaa 

bl^<] btTL'u taad<.', adJ ilicbc nine all ibu nurse bt'c^Ukv ihcy wrii? 

J&outed br a dfutow fcetin^ cf parij trite on the pan of tbe 

t^«4icitl ilepublicans. They bAtL-d McCk-UiUi yf-mr tlmn 

^nUchriit, und tbf<y Uat«d Liuoolu t\>r lupporiirif; biin, TIih 

^n;srr**i^*tiftlCoinmi»rr wn ibu cciiiductui iljeHVi pArlicuUrljr 

<1 iiitifi;;uitbed il*eU by iti iD»ddt»onic aptmty. lofrin^inic 

LittcofD'a poweni and iutcricrjug with uiittrrB TvLicb ita 

atnRtcur crilicft cnuld not uiidprtinnd^ il itrnvo tn butt him 

^twud, attJ onjfmcolcd the general iDD|»ticncc< 'Bcwaro oi 

vciQ^ i««ni1i«i1 Uy ani" prtrry and prai4fd hy tbr ntbrr/ Linniln 

'^^ct lat'i, Judgr^cl by tbi* t-taadnj^, at he svns impartially 

^btt)^ by Ri']>ublic;iiLm and ML-ClfllaiiUirCp \ir njit <!iijiig^ iijjlil. 

Anolhrrr othcvi wa« ttJcd iit ci>tiimuiidriu>d Cji^ncral l^pc wai 

Tbc oidy ica^ult woj jiiiotbt7r Jefcul 
11 du«< ill part (0 cbw roniiatnou of 

. ^ , .„, Gvncnd-iu-CLicb in pari to MtClcllan** 

'^Mitkr jvaiouty ot hi* vuppJaolor^ Tbun McCMtan was ivia*- 

^'^^d in couimAnd. The Cuiifedei»tea» Hushed nilb Aunv«», 

**'»'iin<MHl nmiii and entered Mtrylnnd, and MtClellan folbure*! 

^^>ii CD thp inviic Uftcki Tbc two i^Kal araiiei joined baulo 

. till* Anii^iani, and Mci'lrlJan with ihe siiperiAr ittrrt* won an 

^■^«1«*tinvc en^asemettl; be beat aH Lee, but failed utterly to 

^^*^DP aiul 4^'iuib bim. The m^e of ihe North it^uiriAt him 

^^« to a bfmdt Th« «]ec:iiontt in 1 Vnna) LvarLin rcllec'Ud the 

fMttonate indi^riAiinn ai tlii? pi^jple, wbu bud tevti ihvlr borders 

'^'^wt wilb LmpuniCy. Tbs Pt«id^nt'« •upm>rter« wor* hoard 

^ %Ay that ibe^^ ' wuidd be ^W ii> hi^iir that LitKoln had bnoa 

*^*aaA hmgicg lomo morning Ixom a lump-posc u tbs dcor ot 

the 



^noiher omcvT wa« ttic 
"^it forviAnl in Vir)ciiii;u 
^* Bull Rim, whicki ^va 
r^*''>«al ll«llcck. Ibr G«i 



jOraAm Lnaitr* tVar Fi&y, 




wv B-pWtt ; lb» GcbvbI amUWa, Ma^^d, ud mM k 

Ilu poliuoJ iMtgfai VuM liocfiUT thsl bensicWi 

UcCMlvi w>d ibc IflM of his mmjoriiv b tW N<q^ 

wvftU luvr mruil Uic rictorr ikf tb« pence [MlJ- H> 

end nE MKVlUn hmek m «tH1 life. BamU«M> 

l»tbe€»BBei^ «l tbe AjBj«f ifae Potomx:, M W it 

l^nrMBtiwee of dianKT iir t^ — jUiiinwi nf ilii TT 
KBd ytA is Av Wc« tl« itar id" HKCvee «se abtadj^ rinof ' 
^ Gfifml Gnsu TW bob <d u> oWtjmu 

vitk ovdh m iAk Mtxx^bb Wmt, mod tfacv falln 

,^UbcH «VJL He bftd Died muir bnAtBtcm, 

ftlt «faa tib« aonee cnee cd ibc «ju one 

aodamtWMDM. Hr 

lie «le, J^ aad Ur«d like hi* 
Ib ^ Am«t btti <d b«Ueci b» 
«dbfror; W M 

U WW 'I 11 1 ni '^^^ 
** . ^ 

ke*e«M. H* 






tnmuirli tlir r-nemy ;; al Dtttidsim be nrriireil iti lUai psydin* 

'MfEK^siE tnomeac wben ihi^ biklanr^ it tr4>mbling hi>tir^en vktnry 

^tl U?I«4C, ontl ibo mrn on rrjtch »(Ic ate cofiaidciinff vrliclb«r 

UKy or iheir op|tonenif Hbill run firtr. H^ eb«>erftEl lijt brokiMi 

'''*'*|H»od dattg ihcm one* morp *>o the enrtoT. with ibi? r«iu[l 

tb«t lif> imriH] Ihr ftnc ^rrni Tiriory fr>r ttir* Ntirth nnil i^apviiml 

1 rt>lx»| rtcnv. His iui:cra« broiij'tu him trtr IrvurrU ; ind^ctl, 

*"> inrApjihlr miprrinr, Htllrrk, mFuin^nl la tfilrh miii?h ttf th^ 

■^■^iC Lincaln^ how^Tor, had nouxl ihnt b«fo 4t Inst wa.t m 

'ii*n 'nlio fiiflilv.^ Si?mi' wrek» \nlvT (traat nm w»ni fiirwiuil 

^wo tbo UVnncuo^ to J^itr«burir Inndiitfff wbcrn he divinUArkird 

*" <*rBit wf IcM iban -iiXOOO men. General Bui-ll, whlj H^jtmbrr 

Torcv, wna coming ov^Tlitnd to (ii> ftid- i)n Cimnfs jure ibere 

*'*• MNiiR Uck of ERililan prvr-nuui:iii nei^intl a kiir|i[|»r'> wbiuli 

^^y ba«v bppn dup in tbc mwiiMt nt' bit irviopt^ lor thinvj 

iDatwJ of cntrcDctiinfi «v<-rr boHy Ir&rnin^ b^w li> uoe llicir 

'ifle*. IWore Bui^ll hnd i^flTiPctwl hi* jonrfion n Cnnfedarstr 

'Vtn^ struck Grant^s scallrnnl fi^r^rv. nt\i\ a l^rroc and eanfulnftrv 

B^ltlr rag^d ^rnumi Stiiloli f'hurrh. Ic wa* n rpvti' tiini nr' tbi* 

■biknbaod q( bi« men, bat ibcy sioifi it wd). He was rccAilctl 

'fOin a diti^riri* l>y tbi- lurtlf riiAr, aixI anivHi ac tb<* Nnn^ern 

^'^^T lo ftnd ft boido of p^nic-iinckon ttrni^glfrt. Korcin^ bii 

"•■J ibrouj;li ilie»e, be reitumi ctrnfiiieute as tbc blomlv dnv 

il'^ctinfd, with tb« vvofdi, firm jtinidti rJi«Aii4*r, *\Vt* thM 

Ulack ibeni ti>*]iiAfroiT wich fre*b troops, nnd dri^rr ibriUr ■>f 

<T>orve.' Sh«r<nan on lbi« cliv pHrtiruUrty (liKlinffuictkcd him- 

*v*lf by bi» brilltatit raloiir and (Ictrrmiiialion, Tbai ni^ht ibr 

rrtl^frvrnimrnU arrived, and the next day Ciritot 'dnivn thv 

•ttctay, nf caaneJ 

l< ira« tbv gr^Litoal baitin y#l foiij^bt in ibe war, an J migbt. 

n Ad Grant boon AJ]owi:d by riallcck to follow it up, bnir« fr««d 

tn<* Miaaiiaippi in 18^2, and Bhorl^nfij by n yeur tbf* JjI'e of tbe 

t^*«irieder»CT- Hot he waa not bclpcd ai tbia moment. The 

'■^■'ipapnr fioTTeapondenta iisar-rtt'd ihHt be bm! been lurprjiwd 

*ad alj but delealtfd ; tb(*y drvw ji >ad picture oi bi< ineom 

P^Ieri[^> friiiii ilirir hafr Jnok-imi pitmi in ;b<- n-ar ; hikI tbvy 

Uop-nfied the Ntirtb niib ^rj pictuieu of the ttrrible vlan^htor* 

'^^<*rui>ui was fLttly Iiupvucbvil lor lowaidicr. Tbe ' ICvanvville 

^^^am^r profcitDd la hnvc interviewed hi« negro aorvanl* Hv 

*•■'*• aakcd whether he ran. **' Vet," rqilicd ibe darkey. "I did 

"^^t hot I couldn't kffpp Dp with lb4» GAnr>rjr, ilimigh I naa 

''^•^ttntpd on a mighty fast hor*e." ' With lucb ntali^nacil 

''^iisenfp wa< r>n* oi the NnrtbN most h^oif ofli*'»'r» niiaUtrd — 

* ***an ith'y wft* riakinf hi* life hourly to ptott»ct Aod defend 

^^^sp <tay<at-boine scTibblert. U|M)n tbelr sbouldm mDii rvsl 

jddcIl 



23» 



AhraJiirm TJncotns Wrr Po^t^. 



oioth of tliR hZo(j<] tihri] in the ()rAp«rnlr Vlckftbuii; %ai 
Chnttanoo)^ cninpbJ|fTii which th^ir lie* maiJc occcuftT>, A 
■torui of crkic (Mil btukv nt'rt tlit- lirailt r^fGiMiii and SUvtuiatu 
O^n^css d«motircd for Grant'* rcmovaL Si^nQlom and rcpre- 
<tiiUtivc» in privaU- L'tilrratrd Linculn In {Icpi>»c th« TtcUinoiu 
jr^Ti^rnl, RoavbcMlin wi'r\i to him with ulanflnroua ^nlo% thtd 
GriLnt ilrnnk heavily. The l'mL<if^nt aikrri cnxioiivlr, ' Wbat 
bmnH of whUkf^? for/ Mid hp, 'If I hn^w whnx bnnci h^ 
drinkt, 1 wouM aem\ n barrd or *t> to aome of vay olbcr 
grneniU.* Hp hns thi^ crrilit of rertigti iiing tb^ grc^^t «aMitfr*ft 
oapncity ond of fttnndin^ by him n>;iiil~uLI^. 

In nriihtTti; wn% \jjiit^t\ti*t lArt iind fclAtesmiinfihi|i tn mvCtH^ 
tried at ill the mann^fmt^iit ol thi- jirobloin ol Stuv^rr, He b*i& 

which wcfo ■uppjrt'iififr hi* Govetnintnt, on the odc hnnd, ft»cl 
LcttTCvQ tbr? abuliliuit wing of tUr RvpubUc»a jmrt^k which warn 
arrORff in ii« dttvoticin to idmlt, nn thr other. n<^ had r]«ari^ 
tci«a the £act at tho outbn-;ik c>f ihc wnr, th*t the Norih woulJ 
DOt fight itt kith dimi bin ro drtirnT 8Uv4*rjr. A«d thai with 
remfirknhlr ndrciiinrsi he hnd ihiftrd Ihc cuttiitMii from Sl&r^rv 
1alh4* maiciteriMtK't' (tf I he Uniitn. Dm at tin* vtsir vfr-nc on * thr 
in>tituli'>n ^ ^hlrndptl iliolf /noro And innr« on hta coaiiden- 
ti»n, Thi! Raiilii:ti Repuhlic-niit dninnureii fur dnutir m#uurf4 
(tgoiott ity and pdLilirAl j-oiKiicxlt t»r.iK to ineddlui^ viJtb it. The 
AhuJilioniiiv, fiirgrlEing thAt I^irKxilii ivavi ik in*n vifho could wait 
to nllAia hit aiintt with lh« imtni-nte pbCienoti of Nature or of 
Cml, did not aei- ivith Lhhi'Ili*! cleat tig^t that * the imtitulinn ' 
OOLild ti'>t nithitjind thr prtilonpftd »hark nrd nbrMioit ol wmt. 
Thry *}U\ not uniEcTitnrd with him ibnt * the jud;^!"*^^* *'i ^^ 
Lord are true and righE4<oitc Ahogi^ih^r/ ar>d that, at by the 
judt^mrnl of the Lord th<i wnr went on i*iid on, SUrery grow 
over weaker Tci Genrnl Bulfrr h»d rrtme tbr happv 
intpiration of tcixing ibc nr^roea of ^erationittt at coo* 
TTAbjindf heraiiiM' :hry arrre xis«l by the CimfedeTWi" gpnAndt 
to ccinttmct i.-tirthwi>rkc and drivi* armv w[^-(pJat, Thii 
waj one limpb- ii<i!iiTion. hnl the ' ronintliAtLdt ' quickljr 
ftCCumolalcd in an alnrtnin;; tninner. Then Coii(rret« g<ri 
tti work; it piianed the CViifiacatir^ti Avia, which iieacrd the 
tlav«e ai tohth at capttvea of war ar^d for »virr froOy wkd 
forbnde SUrery in th« territories o( the Uniteil Shttea. 

DuriMg 18r>2 Lincoln rainly nrg^il upi^n ibp J3»i'li»r Staiet 
a B^tlem of compeniAled emaneinntion. coupled with the ci>Io- 
nisfiiion of tbi* Libt-rhteii Nr^gtriev in Smith America, — n mntiire 
which, if it ahowa name Inck of procticai knowledge* vel dii- 
plnyt a ■inirtmanlike intuitirm of the dnngnv of the Negro 

prohteo. 




Abraitam Lincofiit tVar Ai^cy, 2S9 

fTolilc&u He prrsecd tijion thcin tbc ^xpedi^ncv of cicbanf- 

luf^ boftdtmi^n for bondir but all to no ptirpoic. Such ovi>riuri>« 

ll«»4le ibe Abolitionists an^riur tban cTcr, Sr-nator \Vn<}i? lolii 

bivTB itut li' wfti l^inrting ihf* roiiniry In h«<II ; nHtlin^p " Vnij are 

ftr>t « mile uH^ at tbii raiaulc.' Lincoln turned the Ublf^i <m 

viih, ^Srn:il»T» tliat*i just Jtbrmi tlitf vlJatHiioe from lirri* ia 

Capitol [whrm ihiJ Scrnnto sat]* ii it not?' Hut, in ipite 

lu« huiniiur, he fflc tlipsc unj u at rr prune |jr» b!ui?rly. Hi* 

i*y9 Olonttl L^iincin, *>a» t>f hU d^m^U fn^ndfl* weu 

bn^kiDf under the itrAJn tA cruel ftbust; And uriluurr 

dis4ulpr Hit facr ({row grvyrr. ihf lin^ft Knd furruwi d«rpcrncd 

pf^TCcpiibl^i He ■c>/od, ■p|>Arcndy, tilftntt in tli&t cold nod 

criti<«l wnrUL 4t FDirring wbidi lie bud i'rii mucIi prrmonitoT^ 

depvMuOQ. Erm now whilst lb«y woro abusing bim, be 

bad drtftrd lfa« KmAncipatmn PmcUrnjition* priirniftiu^ libtrrl^ 

t> «M thft «lftrc« in the r«bp] SiAEct if ib« ScivMionittj fHd not 

vithoQ oi>e bundreO dnvs Ia^ duwn tbclr artna. It w&i^ as b« 

uid udly, hii lait ttmek, bis la^c c^ril. A dcli»gAtion vf 

miQulen from Cbica^o, wbilit the ink upon It ftiu scnrcclr 

iiiff caai# armgnntl^ pmfi^utn^ tn him that tbey brougbt a 

bthoi ftt>m (lotj, commnndinff bitn ^io npcn the duori of 

boada^.' 'If it ts At you wn, a iiii*tiih^ frnjn ynur DiTin* 

M«ic«r,' bo r^plifd with bitter irony, ' is it not r>dd that the 

ody ch«nncl lie i:i>M vtrnd it by was that mund[LtH:riit route 

bf the ftwfjhy wicbfd city of Chicago?' Mr. Greeley, by 

U illJick wbicb in folly kod miicbievouftitcjs — lu it was printed 

ia the powerful ' Xcw Vi^rk Trlbun<^' — ivent b(*yund tbeie 

mpuativcJy mtid cerpitig:*, dntw fr^jm biui a vinsnlartj 

difnilM Iptter. in wbich Ur. pinnted not ibnt bit pimiriitunt 

<^Kt wu to ' WTe the Union, not to d^iiroy SUvfry." Thi* 

Biy appear lo uv At firtt tt^bt tbrr HAcrifice uf right ii» fipp- 

^vncy\ but when we we int« Lincoln's mind u wo now ti^^ 

■vditoiTer ibat it was raihcr obtaining fi^ht Ehrougb tbc nnljr 

jvutical road. Tho Unii>ii was freedom wbr*n the inntte>r wai 

lk«BfbtMIL 

BmoAcipatioo na« paiiipnn4y! till n great victory bad bvcn 
*^ KnowiajT what eitremc danjcer tbe mooiure would brini; 
^B tliTATiv hi? bail so frrteutly hi tiimit, Lniouhi, in hit dwm 
'W'bi, '/Vojwf io Gtfd th/it ifiit cup miffht pax^ff-'/m him.' Bat 
«kad lu drink Lvf it ; and, when Lee MX back iVom M/irylnnd, 
°*»«t hi< ffi^al meiia^ to eh«> «Uvn aftor bim. It bad it4 
^effect, when il All hut ruined tlic RepublicAn party at tbc 
''l^a eltdioaa of \Mt, It only b^gnn tolnfliience tbc war a« 
"*!■« trooiM were raised and diftciptined for sci^ire ogaiusi 
^^'V noiMBin inanier*. In the dnrk houn when prn-^Shivrrr 

chninpion* 




J 



2-0} 



Abmftajn Lijieoifia '#'ir I^fHcy, 



cUntnpioriH uorr MWf*«mng ititi Nortlt or diinioiihiDf; K^pnblictfi 
RiAJriMiirt, LiiKoli/s Border Sutc |niUcv wai tiituC inuupfiiiUtlj 
vindiirMMl. la ibeto Siaip* mtrn fell Ihnt he had bwn iheit 
UlMr fririid ; and U lUey loalliird ihr AbultUnnUu* tbci toiil*^ 
mn^m nnd aflmtrc him, Thrj savrd The clav for hit paniv 

Tb<- ycnt i^^2 closed iu tlic di-cpc-ii slonin far itic SiHt^b> 
Bnmijftp^ pjig^r * to fin 4om'>rhtiiyf/ I1t:n^ th* hi*r<iir Aitny <>f ttv 
Potomnc apoQ Lccs cntivnchcd vt^iciAD* ni l''rcderjcJ(abLtr^. ^ U 
wriii n Iju1t:hfrj\ not ii biltlr,' ttniil i>n« who iA«r thi* fi^ht. 1*1:1^ 
NoTihtfin irocpa diaplnvod the mnat ^loriouA cijumf^; t^Scy «vtil 
Mmij;hi ill ibc C\infedi?riiLe partJiwoikAf ■(i<l diril in »wAtli^« 
oui»tde th«in. Th«^ ftflJ brick afUT appalliD^ sluosbtpr, imffiDlf 
aud uljcviin^. ALmci»Ci:<iiiU:iiipif(riiEjrMU«])' wich Fi irJirnciib^tri: 
came a detp^ntt* and doutittui bAttlc lou^bt by Koacncmfi* 
atMi;ifroEt»buiru\ The Uuioii Iuas woa agniii AppalliPnlj bc««i. 
but nt Irmi tht^a mcti*« liinfra wcrrtt nol ihtawn awity. *G*tl 
bicsi you»' Lioi:'>In iclenniphcti to RoAenrmni, ihanLful irr 
^v^n ri ilrAirn hiiiflr in ihin potTiiro of ihf \i'rTbi>rn fonua». 

Lf lhc»n <jctcnli or drawn bnillci ivErc dc-pirRung, IVcdukn^ 
Ltnculn't ndiniiiiiiratiort lav] nlrt-mly urhirtnl infth xilkl 
pmgivaf, Thr.1 porEi of ihi.* ?>outL worn in NoiibirTO bandtH'^ 
f\o*M-\y blockoilrd by Norihcfn fiqL)jutri>[iii, luid th^ t\nm md. 
cilem prcasjrtT oj Bo&'power vrat bc;;inamg t4i opcrtte. (JfaC 
armies on land wrrv in the Jield, and, tbnugh the ^rrat |fpn«ra1« 
were nut yet id their dc*crv«d poii lions, the v wcrtt tborr, knnva 
and tried- In Apiti-vf t1t'fi.-al ami discaurA^iiK'nt tbc Noitb hail 
gcinc «l*ftdily forwurfl, nnJ the Southiin f^tnticr bad r«c«<W. 
Thr Prrtidcnt had shown hia statcimanahip itiJd Bitjcli, nud ii(i» 
(jUiHly truil(>d bv ih^ gi«»t iiiujorlly of hit J?I(ow^cJti2cD«. Hi^ 
»>iu]mtby tviib And knowledge; of * ibr pUinpropIr/ aa bf caUec^ 
fhrm, A'M «tan<iinK Uiiri in m*r>d itMid. H? Iiad made miitakpt^ 
jndtudt Liiit thia 18 only to say lUal he was bumaji. I'npaU^ 
iniiiiiiiinnn, if ihry hot) hamprml him in hit wht adminia' 
trntion, bad \ci aurvivini tbrouj^h a >cv«r« airDjcflc, wjthoA * 
causing iirqiHndilr dlsMU^ii And thp«4f doaiitf; daya oS' L>}l> 
and opcninj^ days of 1S63 wore thccriaii oC iho war^ Thn ■« 
tbn dfifkiini wUic^h pret.i-Jt^a the dawn. Lincnln himirlf «b 
de»tin«d to land bi» pcoplii to tbn promitod land, but bo wa 
nvTvrx to cnier it. At the iiionient when linal auL^cnt tindicaM? 
bit Tirm uentatencf- tb9 martyr** d»atb awuiri^d bitn. Bat h«-i 
in llic tiJo iti ftorrowanddefcU, v^ith tbia glinipbvof ib«bappi 
fulUK*, we muflt Jcavir Lim and hia people, knowia^ thai t» 
hi^b alatG9a)aa»hip aiid tbctr di^vdion were not to be in vai 




( 34i ) 



hRT. X.— 1, Tht EkmriUartf HduMition Ads iHmUnd csnt 

W^^\ 1870, 1HT3, lrt7«V \m\ IH&O, ^W 189L 
, €od$ cf R^ulat\c^f&r IJat/ Schooi^. 1896. 
[ €»dt iff Rtffuhttitfiix /<ir /it^ninff (hutiitti/ittoa St-hootn* 1^6> 
y Hfpari of I^fjfiirtmcntal CiftrnnitUt &n Pt>cr Lav SehooU. 
, 1896, 
■^^£^f 13/ Royal Commi$iiGn en Secondary Education. 18&ft. 

^K MaeB^nvdiiU^ . ^ , Tb« boro of lUl b(>rv8 was tbo Uiird, 
lit *atj^ ^^ no Vgiiminif, mi^dlo, cior «iid. lb itiw vduciitjutL. 
IToicr win mich ft jouruoy Ihrougii the tluscrt i>f miit-l ; llm G^maI 
WWi of ititclloct. Thu re^ T«co]te«tion inikci sua tkimtv. 

'Thtf ifcr. l>r. Opiman. If ull thi' tii.>ti&itiii^o tthicb, in tlio loat 

rlcr at II cotilury^ La» betiu tilko'l <jii nil otLer diibji.^ts ^roro 
vn bb> i>n^ M-Jili% flLiil nil l\uif> him \i^fn tiklk^il nn tlm Kiibjt'ol <jf 
tvinnlioii >I<iiia wi>f« tliiuwn iulo iho other, 1 think th^ )atl«r wuul^l 
JirijM>iid*fato.' 

THESE tton|< are placvnl by Thomnt Love Pc?«cock in tbn 
moutbs of twc of the chumcttTi in *Gryll C«mnir^,' with 
''buip (nrifinirhU h-^ i» himiclf pvidcnfly not out nf tvmpntbj!, 
r^icock's larcann wu apt En be a litttc frACtiou* \ but we 
tfvobt wb^h^r if» ihi> in^iniKY Uit* mnjority of hi« Tcnd^M dr» 
"*t avi^pnibitc with the opinion thftt be hero czpresHos* T« 
f^t tvadet% we ibcTrfoic owp ii hutnlib" njmlogv foT onrt* inon» 
"^troduriGf;^ tbv- aubjvct. \Vn ran lulduoi id iniEij^Mion ol jiidg- 
'^ci imly tlir imxlcaty of out oUiini nntl tUi^ fAri tliHl «#■ wiili 
* |)rv«cnl tome aipftcti of tie qu«tioo on which the mnn of 
'^iii (uuiuiiin ftcnu'., hLu Ims itu Hiiibitimt to be ihirught an 
^|)«n, hoA a ngfit in form ft jiidgmont. Wtr ihall pr^rniae not 
^ immene our muiera in »tati»ticji1 tablet, nor to Irml them 
kroQ^h A rniuc^ of Codra An<l Ana ni PiHUmem. VVhar we 
kVc to tmy nn that bead »hall be confined ti> the Dpirrowr^c 
*Mx'ut. VVe hniv nn ni*w •cb^-me* (rj prr»p*jniid, no infallihle 
'>fttTuin to pre«a iipr>n public Acceptrinre. Wp do not claim ta 
|K^k with thr authtrriTv of ^ edi]u:iiion[iliftis ' — thnc word nf 
^vfsl formation ivhicti >e«m« to have crept l[iei> general n*c. 
j be vonl U ft ainingr one; but that which it deftorJhet It na 
^V ttniiKV. The 'edttc&ttoniiliM/ it has bpon happily *aid, 
k 3 asvr B|wcin of liuinHnity> Ltxautr wLiIt? all ulher men may 
** divided inio tboic who tench and cEiosr who l^iarn* tho 
•^fctaatioftftlUl * u the man who autceeili in iWtn^ nritber. 

Oar i^atytat» wn t\j \i in npnlogy — it a much humbler one ; 
^ 14 deprecatory only. We deiirc only to cttll attention to 
^tKin «-ximvA^anr^< ftnd li> the dmnf^rs ivhich they involve, 
^ wc plcMl i'or texnr. mcMUre of CAUtioD, for «oinc attention to 
' *^ \, \Sy — No. S€9. R th« 




Ult 



Edaattional Fadu 




the pilfnlU wbicb bcKt our ttcpi. U'c appral with confi^e^e 
on lilt* iubjeot to tlir* nltimntt- VAnLtj of putilir jaclgmrnt, ^H 
VVV hfkvc nr> wl»ki til dUcuu hern thr tinanciAl find ^HP 
nroblpini wliirli liJivi* i»f lnt<? ()LVupi«c1 «» much attrDti^Mif And 
on Kvhich Bucli co|>ii>ii« i1o^8 <y\ cr^ntnvfnr Imvo flowfnl. Wi^ 
ili> not inirnil [i> rnli^r upim iLr knotty tpji'Mitjaft ijT Siatc aid 
DQil Hnt<? aid, or to anlioipate bow an injueticr i» ti7 be reiDoiiL«di 
ixn\i liuw tLtr »^clioii vf ciui public elruK^nlmj igIjooIb wLtcb 
(H>n>litut<^B by fur tho IcLr^cftl prnporlion of tbo irholtf it lo be 
enabled in exist- Tbc uixiiriuu* sound of bailie U in tbe «iri 
and in H fi>w w^^ko — powibly in ft frw d»j« — *f» tball bo in 
the midst of tbr hurtle of a crrntmvcny trbicb will ccrtaiDljr b« 
Lt'ST^d. nnd in w1ii<-h the real iril^rvils of fdui^ntion may ^Mllj 
he loti >iphi of* Wo nrfd nol ■»> tbfll ibc volunUrj tchWi 
have tiur warmMt tytniinthj', and that wr hafe f^very bope tb* 
& rcTncrJy for th(>ir iliflioulcir'i may bo Jound, and tliat ibr 
nation may bn aparrd thr nrrrflsiiy of facing a finnnriHl breftk- 
duivD which maj fEiv« pause even to the most bold proTe»«orj 
nf lh(r gotjiirl of luilsti v^IuchIidiihI t'lpiriditiiir*- Wv tfutil tliAl 
it may not ha bpynnd th« power of the (tovcrnnicnt Co propoiMf 
oi int\ hard f^ir thr jnitilieal animoiiliet of tbi? Oppc»sitton if> 
aocepC, a plan for ihv* rcdma ^^l th« ^lifvaonra ol lbo«r volun- 
liiiy atbtrol* t«hii:b hbsll hv at oult aimpii:, stJaj):blfuji«fli4J, aail 
effectual. But we wUh now to onlL aticntitm to another aip«n 
uf the qucalion. VVe intend to point out loine undeilrin^ 
fnllarlrs and rxng^'^rations whieh nrilhi>r aidi* tncnti ditpoml 
Xu face t>oUly, Any hint of caution is at oticc attacked aa 
ri^8<-tlonary ; and, in the lemporl^ing limklity ibnt fwira iMPn 
lh<T suspicion %ii sorb a cbnrgc, each side icpeati a few mooninf- 
Le« cmiim^>nplarrfl about iht*ir nniivty to oxirnd and devrltiir 
nny n<<w 4'dunuioual (ictivjtyi without AikJn^ n^*M bow Jnr tdcb 
netiviiy is basmt on sound ptinriph? nnd nlTers a pros|)vc1 o^ 
»atly i-tftclivr* results. It is an accepted truism that lh«t« ift 
no pciMiliilily of rduc^MlictiiAl ritiavng»iir4', rincl ihnL thr laijeer 
our edacitLonat budjfet the ^frmter tt our dvte virtUG nnd the 
3i.<uoder ihr basis of natlijnul pioAp^rity. \% it too mnch to- 
Assort that oxartly the same tests muai ho applied \ct ibia aa tia 
liny other part of our national exncoditure; ihac ctrors di 
^laggemrtcm are jiut ii8 possible ;n ihiK as in any other sphpn>s 
that It U the part of prudriil administration to count ibc coil 
and to fpian) against miitnJiinff matlesaneia (or real vaerj^r 
and thai ihc^ dan^ci of a rt^amon on thr part of oveTbGrdeii«<6 
taipayrrs and ratepayers is jud as real hftm na in any ntbr ' 
niLtiunaC roncvrn? They are not the wisest, and therefore no« 
tlr«< beai, fii^rndi of national vducaiton who k^^|i ibcir 



m 



EditcaCimuU Fods» 24d 

clowd to tbrve simple axioms ^ntt lo the cerulo ilklu which 

^to involvod in iboir iDfringeinentH 

It i» initmclivc, a> n tommmtArj upon theM irsmtn^, to 

U«c^«B, in ibe broAtl***! outlint<«, toin^ of thp oauivB which hav« 

*^ to ihr present iJifticuliio »o UT^-rotly mlling for n icmcxlj', 

^^ xhft mrlirr il»v« of pduciiTional ailminiiTrntinn, Iinp4?riitt 

$Ti^nt« woT« Binctlv limited to the amount 4jf local ctl'ort. Thi» 

"*• A pnwrrfoi impuUn UnrfinU ihr onrpunigpmpnt nf ihat 

™>rt, aa<l lew will dtoy thai it wna o lound principle of 

'^ot^nctal hi] 111 ill mm t if in. The Act of lt470 maimAiDeil tlili 

P'^ncipk; a]>c] Ukinfr the fnir averaffo >c&l« of expenditure at 

'bftt liiai.- na 30)(. a ht*at], the SlalL- imu^ticallj L>;venaiueil to imy 

"Bt^^bftU of tbftt *xp<tn(lilurp. Hut wjlh thc» unlirnit^d rating 

P<*WcT placed in thr bands of SdiW D4>aidit the jjirnLTiil M:^ltf 

*■) Aip^mHtur^ gT«<w ut a pa4>« llmt wai not nntT4^ipat?l.l ; and 

"* \ht*>t xhv ftmoant of |*Tftnl, independent of aU 1oc«1 cHorti 

^HA phuYvl at 17f. 6J. a ticad. Thii ctf<rmed at tho lime to 

l^iLv«an nrnplc mrLrgin ; andi B«afact, forBomeyoar* few dinluo*- 

'ioim took pinrip ftom thf ^nu r*m«l, Rui ibr Si^hool Koorl 

^^l^rndilnrcfficaiiwhile aJvAocfd byicap^and bounds: thi?ilrain 

^'pon thf Tr>]iint.iry wlmolv f(»rttHl a» \\\^y wrrt* ro cdrnpcitie 

*^>tb the liugrT rvsouroct ol llic Honrti ISchiX)!*, hf cAine f^tcat<:r ; 

*»d finally, when h^c FilEicaiicm, a* U wii crfillpd^ <:nmr into 

'^peimnon, Ihotr diflicuUin became o^cv whelming. The intro- 

^(H^tiiin of froc ctlucnlion » generally spoken of aa ftonitrthin^ 

''tttireW new in principle; wherrr^af, in reality^ U wa* only an 

^^tcnaiuo of the prcvit>ua acheuit- of i^atiuEial aid. Etuiy tyrant 

***«t wa« pTer enade townrdt national education, fnwD 1B33 

"^ii^irardt. Haa la fact a giant towarda thir cheapening of edu- 

^^lion ! pai^ntfl wrr** ihcTi-hy enihle^l :o grt thfir ctiildr'^a 

***lilcaieit al a rate immensely hclow the real cost ; and the 

^•ttfient wbirh rtiiild Iw ^laf^Lfid frr>m them in (he «h)ipe of fee* 

^Aa limitetl. wticn the annuaL ritdes were imn>duee<t, to \^d* a 

^*^Il ThiB pinii] slitteuirnl uf faina at uhlv di«|ir<U thp illn«iiin, 

^* ^lich tli<' iiovflrMoicni oJ lbt» ihiy — as ivo l>oh*Vi^ erTon<?>oua]y 

*^**J unwisely— gave n>iiic tountenancr, thai free eilucation 

■ni^lit bod»LTil>(<d ai'Mflislird educatirju/ \% a raci, ^duration 

^^ul bren auiAtcd frmn ibr lime when the fjDl sliiiliii^ was paid 

fiom the Imperial Eichc[|ii«T ; all chat the Act of llSIJl did wm 

^ iticreaoF the parliamentary grant, and to pnnriile that tlie 

P*nrni'« rontribuiion sh^ald not only be limilnd to *Ad, a wwh* 

^' ibould disappear altogether.* bat in up (ioinf the Stnte 

j^^_Wed»toot titnk U nf'CiarirytoTflfor hero to tho iptciBl flicinyitlUB* &viu i1j» 
*^*'**^ rmk <itbkij the JUt pvnaltldcL Thu/ 4lo aot nltbct iLv priueipl«^ 

E J eubatituud 




I 



MM Ed\tcidion*il Fadt. 

«ubt(iiui«d a lixcd pAyment bv iticlf, nrhieh rvproscnUd no 
more than Sr/, a wt*k, for a *ourcc of income which mi^grUt 
tliirriintr Acrnnling lo ihf cirrtimnranr^ft of th« parenvft, nrtftl 
which might rench the limit ol '^d, n week, ^iranl^ntf ^^^^ thS-' 
n>]nplete relicl' {if pamitK was )\ iitH^eiftily— alihou^i a« lo tli' ' 
probftblj opinionb mj^ht bo divided — u » Imrd Iw ico how m^? 
othrr idirmc could buve bcrii followed. Out noitn tli« fm ^^ 
VFM A financial rei'oliit]i>n, not only b» r^ifardc the jtftr^ntfi, bci 
at Tcf ftrdi the ithool^i The Stal* — \i may Ur unavoidabh — ^^ 
hnd lirluallj- broken itc bargain. It bad offered it< full gnn^^ 
14> tbi' vttlunUry BchooU up to the lijnit of their (.^flicirnc^'i on^^^ 
the «!on[Ht!on iIirE n nlmilAr rimoimi should ht^ marlr up fmcn ^^ 
two mniii ttourcri, that ia lo aaj — vcluntary (ontribationi ami * 
f<^'s, Vttv the latter "f tliuae, wUdi hnd hitberti> Ikth n fluf- ^ 
luaiinjf aranunt, it compelkd the volantary acboola* to Eu;f*opc a 
filed and limiled " ft* " grant ; and whatever beyimd thu koid 
lo be rniRfHl in orde^r to meet the oydlnary pniliam^ntM^y ^rant, 
bad to come from voluntary contrthutiont. 

It it hardly mnKer *^i aurpriie thiit ihi* eompli^if nWUion of 
the limit upon the liability of the Imperial Exchequ<^r should 
now be i!emrkni]e4l. Tlje argumenis agnlnst i,%\v\\ a limit have 
tiways bad a certain amount of pUoaibility. The recent 
^an^ hai given tbein iodubitftble weight, and there appi<!fir> 
lo be every reason lo expect that the la*E rctonam of tbai 
condition, whit^h rented up(jn the st^und principle of currcr* 
■ponding local effort, is doomed to difappear. Wr intad not, 
homrcvcr, «hut oiir cy<'A to rhc inevitable evil involved in \t% 
liii^npp&arance. The SlAie baa git^en innu^j^if-nt rf^ro^nltion in 
this WaJ cRbrti it ha* allowed it to be overwhelmed by th*^ 
uurenlricted competition of those whi> Lad au unlimited tounv^ 
of income in ratea. KightJy or wrongly, the t<Tndency of reoenC 
ftdminibtralion has iiuniiuised the piinciplc of payment by 
'Venh«, Thua a «cbool dt-pendc Wx and Iom upon what iE cail 
ftcbievct and more and more upon what it cait a|X'ud. Wbai 
wonder thai ihiv tbould seem to (lie poorer^ but potsihiy not 
the l<7aat earnest and cnthuaiaatic labourers, to be an intolerable 
injusiiee ? 

The former strict condiuon of counterbalancinj: local cflbrt 
has h^en relaxed, and ita complete tlisn|>ppAraii€e^-except m 
acme vague lorm of a pioua aspiration— in ay bo con^deotly 
c^ipected. The change may be ineTitabJe, but it must unqn^tt* 



■ It lUd oM ootufklJj^ r.>iu|)eJ thi> hy enaciEinont ; but it vLituatl/ uaM il ia 
iBMt oaiM Unbouihk^ fi>f vnlnnlarf «(«hiinlii in kp«p up a *eai« of tm» vMih 
wonid \ait& dlBCAiiniged aiiendanat, and ilriTCD tliA chllAtvn tn ilw |)CBf4 

Sohmla 



a 




I 



£f/uaAtwnitl Fadt. 245 

tiocuibtjr di«plftcr A poncrfuf impuU« toward* local imere*t and 
1nr*1 ^npff^-. Tli«< uTeat cducaEionil machine mAv move r>D 
wiih even inerctuing prrwcr an<l with mcrrrtiBed rrsoumrB ; but 
thtftc will not romi^ fmrn fhi* bf-althy stiTiiulus of pprional 
iDttrect, nor witb the accompaniment of local initialirc which 
dort *n much Ui keep eftucnuon a living furce mitejid of a 
invchAnicftl routine. It i> canj* to point to instances where 
local efTutl fttilciJ, and wbcip n flacciil local conwricncc accepted 
a tow vundiiTd ami wai contnnt with it; bui for one snch 
iDBlance ibeir hare been huntlrc<!i in which vigour and energy 
and rnihntJMm were enliiTed tn the ta»L, nnrl throve W ^f^ry 
MW el!bn thai ihcr in«dc. Better, wc mnkc bold 1o saj, thftl 
tbe givat majoriljr <>f tchnnli wm? Mirrril hy tlip living cuntact 
of pcnonnil cn^frjt while an iniif^nificanE minority sank into 
icmpornrj drca^lrncci than thnt nil nlike should 1>e reduced to 
one Level of mecb-inicnl routine. 

Wc Lavc i^onc a ceitAin vr&v In that directton, and «tre fear 
thai it mav be necc»attpy lo go itill further ; but it i« the 
basioern of our slalcsmen to <«r thai the procew aW! not g« 
beynnd ihn point, which is ahsolutelj neccflsnry. The place 
which the t'oJontary achoiftlt occupv as a mcana of preventing 
ibi* IS 111 itself an ar^jument in tbeir favour, whuli we renlore 
to iny rests Upon j^cmnds of supreme rtnltonn] wfrKnro &lto[fethcr 
indejjcndeni of the liatlte of tijc sect^: and were it for this 
MMOB Alone — npnn frr>m all tbe nrgumenCi Thst nmy \w drawn 
fc«n religious prcdJkciions or fiom liimnctnl con tidcrai ions — 
«» wodid enrneallj trust ihac the voluntarv schools may emer^ 
Itmh tfac coming struj-fffr, not only finaiiGJally secure, but with 
tnew itimulns t» prrsonnl energy. 

One dnnper— -ttkcU of the lapse of local eflbrt — we bavo thus 

depict4<d -, hut ihcre it another which lia* pri>ceedcd rven 

fqrtbcr. VVe refer to the decay of pnrcatM teipoofiibifily. We 

hare i>o wish lo revive dlscuiiioiii or teciimi nations un the 

policy of rrlieving parcnia of the burden of school fees. With 

Cotnpnlsory education there wu established a condition of 

thing* that dnuhtlett tupplied a fnirly logical arg-ument in 

fihvoiir of snch relief; and where auch an hr|>;nment eiiats, the 

Iknlitiral exigencies of ime party in the State «r the other will, 

t«« ftJI rxpcri^nc^ shows, sooner or later lend to tho ndoptioo 

of nuT course nfhich »e4-ins likely to terure a crrlain measure of 

popuiBTity. Tbe political morality whicb prompts its adoption 

tasy not br of tUc hij^Ueat quality ; but wc fear that neither 

K J is in a poaitioQ to reproach the other on tbia head. But, 
ever it may hare come about, the introduction of frtw 
•dlK^iioR hni inevitabiT tcnick ai the root of pnrrntnl responsi- 
bility 



I 



£16 



Educalwnal Fads. 



■ 



tilitv anil lc««cnci) the hraUliv rjtcTcitc of punrnul xc«L U » 
t^oX only rliat a i^ommodiCy i'>T which tio pajrin«ai it mvl^ U 
Apt la he u[idcrvalu<^i ; wv brilcvr lhi> to bv true, and tbtt iu 
nporAiinn i< \a br fLkcind in ihe riiimmi^ now formpii bj grrat 
tniiiAri i>f tbc populAUoD of the? value of ibe (.niucAtion suppUnJ 
tvitliom fee. But, for thJB, lime will douliiilfM irffect a csm. 
^Vhjit is more aeriouft ie thaC the eni?T^, tho ambition, the celf- 
«jii:ririCE wliicli IiJid Bucli ik wliolesirme iiiflucntp — in limM of 
wJuc&Live cfTect— 'amongst tlioai^ very clnflaf>ft frtun whom th* 
beat sinews of natii>nal itrcngth were drawji, ntc apt to be 
cnppei.1 by thpch^n^*-. Wlio onii pR(irrat4> x\w girod doA^ both t» 
|iarcQt and cbild by the aidotius ^FRirt in wiiicb both ci>nibincd» 
and whit^h drrw li»m otitirure hi>tn4*ft ami buniblv irunditiunt 
a •t]c<ie»»ion of uion tu f^uido thu Static, who»c c«r1jr tnoinori«t 
w^rrnf joint paii^niAl and Hlial i-Nr-Tiii>n»of hnniibtpt^DuragiMUtlT 
tntft and van(|jiil]edf of anxious plant and pruiJcnl forvaig 
whi<:b ihu^Ul llit^ui the valut? of irncL new »l<'p in the vd 
tional Ind'Ier, and which tuill up their manhood mit motr br 
thni whicb they learned than by the proL-e«i and through tbrc 
<lif1l<^u1ti«t by wbif It tbey Iearr4*d it? All ihat^ or almoti alt 
nf it, wc have been Cf>iiipclled to sacrifice. The edaciui<ia ol 
bl> tons is no longer the orrupailnn of a }iqrt*nt*B moat earnnt 
ibciui^ht. Tho itation — wUicii cnn easily htt blamed for ant 
failure, and which dc;(]iaiid« di> gjaiitude f<ir uny success — has 
now iwM.\t itself respon&iblf*. The parent ihiitk* it ruLicL if 
Mnd hi* chibl 1'> sihovl undt-j coiidiiiona thai muxt be mftde 
entirely convenient to him, «nd wilh no thouj^hl or inivresc on 
bia part. unlt4« It bi; that wblcb prompU him ti> ex«rct*<r a 
right of dictatorial (and nlwaya ignoTant) critiritm on what is 
provided for him txt the etponit: of oth«M. He doei bin duty* 
Atnply 111 his own sAri«raotion» if In* spKi^^H bi« b»,v*« wagra fnr a 
Icm yc4r*f and hi> only anaiety t(>o often it to withdraw bim 
at the earliest postible a^e Irum the iiLiouie piix^M of edncs- 
tion, whieh he hai him»olf had no ahiiriT in pUnning, which 
other agencies force upon his acceptance, and which be receives 
with coritemptuouc indilTerenee. 

In sAV^i^g 'l^i^t ^^ do not inipjy that the moral dejtriMrncy is 
always present, or that parental efTcirL will not even now e^en 
itaeh. Wt; t-nly nasert, whnC must be evident to all, that rvcooc 
clianges in our education/il svitcm muni Inevitably have ihia 
tendency; and we appeal, without any doubt whatever of their 
teidjct, to all who have practical eipr^tirnie of the fiiiHttci. and 
ask them whether the lendencj towards this de^enonwrj is not 
rapidly asserting it«eU. We do not indeed believe ibat those 
who bav» given «ven a pnMtng thought m what is going oa 

around 




las 

on 1 




^H EductUioitai Fadt. i\l 

^Mnd tUeiQ ftre in any tlnubt 09 to the matter : Wl parllr fr^m 
indotrncff nnff inrllfff r«*nrj^p pnrrlv from a rnnvictiiin ihni wtiHt 
ftiA« been tfonc could not have been avoided, partly, we tear, 
frocii a (trenil L«tt ib«y should be tliivuf^lit Co be nvtcdoafiry, 
«uid ImE Ihe cliquft i>t pnuy which tbc> happen to ^^haiiipion 
>ii«y tbu> lie diBcnMliLcd* theie b^is been a coRipimcy uf dleuce 
<Mi tho p^rt r>f our puf>flo r]i4*n in regard U> dun gti^rt w bleb ar? 
ciot oqIv tM^rful bill i»ifiiiiJ4-iLl. 

Af tndiratia^ how f»r tbi< ha< proceedfrd, w^ venture to 

«>ddoc« a rcceat lastEuitc of the fecklni tcadcucy u> minimiu 

\hm ulm of parrnu] rvuprtnsiblliiy. Wn rrfer Ui tbr Repon of 

«he DopaitmeaUl CommiUce 00 Poor Ltw Schools, and mora 

ifltpcciAJIy U> th^ MifiniiranduiiL KjliJ4*d (.0 that Rqion \i\ Sir 

John Gortt aad Mrs. B.^rnctt. It it unneceaflnry to diicitu here 

•ercml rcturamrndaLious of llw; Hrp<m to which Bciiuiia objcrcUon 

ffaiprht b« talutn. Th«r« it \\\^ asunl auppriluity oi propoiata for 

leflaUiion, >nvolvin|£ (bat cvcHaatlnir rc^cxinaiuution ol ijaGeDU 

And auihoritiM 10 which our moct recent ^ucaitnnal fadditu 

MFC ao prone, and which accm likely to kill oitt any surriring 

n-mnant nf variety or iDHividuality, and tu bury us bnienth a 

tiMOntaia of red tape and routine^ TJicac prLji;c>fnU linve mot 

witb abumlaMt i^rUit itin elu'wUere* and to the oppi>sitio(i which 

tbey bave pri>vuk<Ht wc may tmit for the prevention tA any 

ftegialativT error founded upun them. But the recoinmendation 

CO which Sir Jobn f>ctrtt has sot his name goes much further* 

*We (lilok/ it iiiTs. *ibat children should never come inlo 

evuiart with the off^rlal* and methods that nra eoncrmrd in 

<l>c snpprosion of pcuiperiani, and should ibere-forc not be 

uader a Poor Law authority.' They would Lhert^fore SMecp 

away not only the juriadictioD of the Poor Law fzuardiana. but 

tbat of the CcEitral Department — ihir I^iciil GoreruineEit Board 

-^which is now ci>nccnied with the admtniil ration of the Poor 

^w. Tbal L« to S4y, tbu diildicii of all who con rcproent 

^s^CBielvea aa paapcra are to bo provided for in instiEutioni 

vtiieh arc to have all the appurl^tinncea of wcl I kx] nipped 

vOMnlio^ srhoikU,—'] nriudi ng iniirkmiEig^h^iihs ^nd teparaie 

Cubicles, — and ore to be removed even troio the contaminating 

loHumci^ of thrWT bodies which nl'ine b»\<* the iiieans iif judgini; 

as lo the soundness of the parent's pica for n release from all 

PM^eaul rrsponsibiHty, Eveiylhiug that is to sug^gest to them- 

•*^Te» or oib«<r« that :h*y are not precisely 011 the same footing 

^ tbc children of thi>ae whose Uonesty and laL>ouE may provide 

^m with n livelihood i« to be carefully iKintsb^d. But we are 

^'^DlCin^ Sir J'>hn f jortt and the lady who si^ns, with hitn, this 

fi'idtat recotnmciviation. We bavc! understnteti the extent of 

tbttis 




248 



Etlnrntional Fad*. 



t\ttiT riciLrii>UK bcncrolf-ncr. They would iodc«d pvcMrre 
flitrlnciEon iNnw^-n ibe chitcf of tli« pauper fin<1 Th« rhtIO 
tbr? in<Jependent parent. The latU-r must *tiU undcriro «o(r^^ 
rvKirninu n( pnvertj^, iotn« of the pinrhi^c anri mahesfalfit ilt^E ' 
aits tbc inbrritoncc of honett labocir, Hi* mol preiftre t^it , 
ftrlf-r^tped and hia modpatj nmid M^TTnunrlin^ ttot *litAi> tliir 
iDo^t iDvourabtc; be mufit be ctinicct vrilb »oiiio(biflg: ItM than 
the bete tondlliom of Vife. Fur the pauper ctuld tiothinf is to 
he too ^ood : only \if> (nnd his pnroni] must be j^uardcd agnloit 
[be unijr in pnt belie control of Ponr T^W author: tii-Si wlioir knoV" 
Udj^ migbt be irconveni«it, and contact nitb «rbom U V 
dcgrndin|f^ CoulJ tUr iiitanitv of locinlUlic fj^nftUCum tP 
further? And mrc wo ta be surprised if» in vi»w of inch pnn 
posftU, the parent who Btrivrs, better or wortc. to ke«p bi# 
chi]ctrr*n benenih the ihrlrer of hU own home and bis o»i» 
j^atdiaD«lup> and lo aharc wilb them the vtraiia of povcrij* 
tliould begin to think ihAi fhe gnm^ is no! worth tbf? i^uvHt^ 
and that be may a* well ftnd some eicu^c — only too cftiyti> 
(lev iie^- for bringing llipiii nmler the leader g^uardiambip vt 
thoStau? 

Wr do not think vte tiie wrong la Airribin^ ia tbU decay at 
parental responEibility — »<> largoij' encouraged bj many of ovr^ 
politk'al g'Liidea- — some part nt Ipast <if tlio re»tJeunen asA 
ru»itie«4 Qf recent eduealiooal proposnU. It ceems oi U mer 
had dcteruiuicd lo leave nothing to tbe parent ^ to tcacb bin^ 
that he has bui Uitb motive to «xwt himaelf about tbeedoca^* 
tion — c»r eveci ibe maintenance — of hii cliild ; to cooaolt bi^ 
wiahet aa Uul« av may be in either; and lo taJ&e iipos^ 
nuTicK^ca, as a State, the whole burden wbich bia proj*rs3^ 
rnL){bt nuiurnlly brin|; upon bim. \^'liat wonder ttmt, wtiboiA.4 
the atoad_>'tt)g and ^idin^ tattinel of parental rctponaibiUt^ 
we ihimld go Aarray after vagiir and whimtiinl fandr» iindc?^ 
the guidance of educratciinal doernriii\rt« f What wonder t h^>*j 
the Slate, with a family ft largi'^ should sirivr afEer ^|^| 
cbimeTical and inconfilitent ideal ol briofEin^, on tb« on« balB^| 
aomc kiKfwIedge of every coiioeliable tubject Co r\rry chiE^t 
nnd, on the other hand, of training ar^ry child ao that be ■h^&U 
leave acbool a tJiilled workman and an experienced politicians ' 
The parent may be Ignorant : h» certainly eannot vtn whb i>^* 
garniloui 'educationatiata' in dcrUinf- aperifica for all our evil'r 
r>r with eloquent plaEform omlorc in pretltrtini^ tlie downfall oi 
Britbb commerce if the land la not Mhick inlaid* with Tcch* 
nieal InitimTei. But be bu the zniiinel of ■flection, uf |>eiaow 
int^reat, and ol ambition for hi« children; and, ^ded by ibtf* 
}tr> wnutd probably^ if left to hJmtflf, be content with an cduc*-- 

r 



Ijniuui uf leu cuinjfii-LirnMvtiifM mmiI gU'Alrr ildiplicity 

wouUl-bo frinndi wouM Inin fotcp upon him. Po»ibl^' 

uronlcl BOt be entirety mjstftkrn in lu> wuh. 

Bqi ih^P U an^ithor jtml nn pvert morf i^pa^llv dnngor bofoTi? 

ut Ae D rcioll of ail ihi> frmieicd cH^^nC lo extend th(< bouoila of 

lije ta«k wliich the nation liu avt before ilsolf — lb«i of aoiing, 

^ the diminfttton oi' nil otbcr nt^ncio* nliich djieufc ba> 

provtiletl, lu tlir guMr, pamnT, Anil intcnirior of the nen 

g^tioncion, and even a> ihc nrbitcr nf their futurv can>er«. Not 

'""ly it \\\v fiiftUr lo pT(»ri(liT irikirurttiin of nvi>r^ gmde frn- all ils 

fit*^ea», but icsuUt are cspccred from tuch inalruction which, 

^ put it plainly, none but ^i fnnr^jfiil iliffurisl bouM bU|jj>uau 

^^t it could ^iold, U> do not vriah for ono moment to tnint- 

I^Kc th« dutj of public educnlion or tr» exIcnuMP ibc cninr 

Involved in ita n^gl^ct; bnt non« tlier ]»■« it u truii that there 

rt tt iU|)cr«i]tion of riducniioiL » there i« of Anything die. If 

"<? i^ioh tb« n4:*w f^enerarion ihnt individual energy and ^niCT'- 

P^i*e do not p|A> tlie largi'st part in the workirtf of the world, 

— thn£ imlivtduAl lUcknett, (imitliiy, and love of ea» do not 

bvinjt their own puniihoient, — ifc arc not (ioinjr them a b«Ae£U-, 

k^Ut Ml irnrpKrAbli* injury. We do well lo euuip our achool* 

*itU adequate nnd even »niplc rcMurceat and lo lit Ihem lo 

ir»e«l ercrjr iruon^hle dniiniid ; bm if we dtt noi leach oUf 

)Otath thai diJiiculuoa are to be surmountird only by indoiiiiiablfr 

will, ^nd lljat edu<^iioii taw \\v\\y Aid tbi-ni ami will not make 

tli«Mn conquerora in the 'ifc^^ ^■'^ aohoola will be failun^a, in 

tpitt oi ail tiji' eifxiiiae thut xtv uiav laviBb upi>n (brir matit- 

t«mnce. Tht? eaieaiiftl maxima of good eitizenahip, the raaimtial 

^^Mtruiiienia which each imiiridual tr^quirea to criiablc hJin to 

^vofk oat hia own deaiinVi are, afior nil, few »nd aimple. If we 

fn^e theae, wc do much ; if ire fail lo give them, our failure 

*ill not b* co(i}|Hrnanted by ihe eom pre lif naive umbttion of our 

^'^a. If we ineulcato (h^ dciclnnc thai otlocnti.>n is purely 

^'^liiarjun, if wt* cneciuragp the vrbrjlari to hwjk fcr irnmetliare 

'**Q}ta, wo may uiid<*rminc the faith that ia their buat ^uiHo 

™>UgbDUl lifn — the ooly f-re«>d thai ihiea noi leave tbrio a« 

f^ythinj^B in tho banda of I'onunc. It ia the itiaano d^liiEht in 

■'iiifwmjiy and routine, the (fvecmnstenn^ deairi- lu naauniir for 

}^ -Stale the task ivhich ouj;ht to fall on communitiea and on 

l^'IividiiiLEs, that thua reatricEa — in Ute ujoit eaariitiiil int-aning 

^ rrfirintion — the aph#*r>> of ^uc^ationf and yH load* it with 

*^pcrilboni acldiiiona, and ciprcta frijin it n-Ault* ii cannot 

J*J^d, Thfl aAina repulaivc? tyranny whtcb would eliininaw* all 

'^■^gion bccaaac all nen do not m^veic in tbeii rpUgioua bclici', 

"^lUi bp drivrai to eliminate ethical Trnining, litfcaaao all irmn 

do 



J 



Sn Educational Fath, 

do not Bub»-ribc to lh< nm^ code of ctUio, ll i> compflW, 
in ipi:r nf itflHf^ r.i> Aim nt prftrttcAl iitiliuriiinism lu iu nhjrrt. 
and to seek the nttitinmcnt ai thai oUject by crovnlk^ bt 
currioulum of icIilhiI \Uv, anil by holding out fal*» kopuioibv 
ichoolboj thrit ho will walk forth from acbool oqaip^Md tm^ 
buttle iif l!Jc. Wc are oftrn UjIiI timt ibc stni^te in rqcirdt* 
fi^i^dr>in ■>r r«lij^ioiii oducatloo ia but \\i^ tirife of *ecu. VaAa 
tbiiL ^uitr If iJiwy, un^oubu-dljv ofteit pr<--*cnt ii*clf. But it 
i¥oiiId not bave Atinin«l to the foreo that it ^x^rtt upon [)ubtir 
opinion wiTc it not tU&t it arouBeft tbo «jrmpAtby of a11 thov 
ffho fire in rili:mt)on n U-Aining of mind ftnd char&ctiTr, iibi 
whicb men mtiat ditfer, but which they rouit be ftlloire^ M 
puTBiii' fur ib^ir own children in tbi.- way which ihfrir conacifper 
telU them ia best; and who are not prepared to tacrjlia* ttw 
tfMcntials ijf cducaiioa f«r n speciout and comprrbcmive iin»T 
of pwicticfti iraimnf>, wen wh<»n h ti halted with iho fUsa hopr 
of ioimrdiaiclj' pecuniar/ rciult*. 

Wq do not vrjib to dt-pr«*cai«^ any amount of xeal ttt lh« nJUt^ 
of cduGftlioii, »o \oajg ai it fnirly couoti the co«i and cAimaM 
rptulu witbdui mnggr ration. But wp do diaiinctlj maintun 
that thoro i« muth vn^ue and iL14i>undod talk in tho i*av o^ 
lelf-deprcciaiion, ami (iiurb tlirtl J4 findiih in ihi^ prvdirtioni i>J 
ihL' rapid decay of Britiflh cooiinerce; mid we fear that tbf*^ 
may lead to that wUit^b of all things ia mo»t daogrroa^^ 
legiilation in a panic. It ji turaly only common prodcnce u> 
cooMdct what is po»lhlc, nod what may fairly be hoped fcft 
bpf(»r^ we Uimch upon n^w and unde<in«l •/?b*'m*>« ioT Jffw 
viding royal- -alheii * ft ce ' — muds to universal cult arc, ana-' 
what is «ut| niore alloring — universal turceu. 

SVe venture to slati?, in terms wliich mi^hl aitnott Be^>^ 
truisms, weif it not that so mui^b is suggested every day wfajdi 
U distinctly iiicon«i«tent with their troth, wliat we coocfivtM 
bfT thr aiuia uf cducutiou Jn ail its spUrica. Piom do oQC o* 
theic spheres, if we are to accept the views of otir moit adnot*^ 
^educationalists/ is the State to hold ita band aloof, I^Mb ^ 
to l>c arrnngpi] in arronlani^if with what wr arr totd it the spin* 
of our demoi^ratic constitution. 

Are we Ion bnld, llien, if we venture to »r that tbr Bx^ 
object of primary ctluontion js to make ibo pupils pisses*rd ■*■ 
lin adn|Uate knoHlcdxi: of thr tliree clcineoiaty sohJKU ^' 
Heading, Writing, and Arithmetic— tbfi foundationt uponwhid^ 
all other eductttion muM ruat ? To ti^c plain man, this tnif^^ 
seem a lelf^evident truih- But do not let him suppose thai l^ 
will command tb<: assent of the educational iluctriTtairt, ^It '* 
useless,' we r^ad lately in a speech by one of thcte gefitlem*** 

*C0 



*t4 Uf thf fuundntioiii tinleu wf* are to build n ^rrat deal on 
tbr &ip <if ii.* Onp might tir'mur tL> ihi> »fl#>l(*Mir-«K ; Imt wr 
Anifl) \o lay that wc circ by no mcani ^iipovcd to cochnp ovcd 
-Mrdtmeniar^ bcIm>»U [o TTien* n-^ilrirted lirnlu. By kII meAhs 
M 01 bavo aomc cullivntion of inlc[|)^''nof-i tome draft upon 
^1 fumi uf kaDwIt-Ogp wiich inaj be v:(|ULrcd by nil, 4iid 
■fabb ii part ofevciv maii*t jual inheritance. But tb« faddlii 
i> aoi c^utc^nl tn leave even lo thcac funt! omental (^Irmtnta the 
j)rtm«f^ jioportancfl?. Aroording to biiD^ manual intlruclij>n 
DUt in all CHx-a nccuiuiiAii^ lliirui. Not aaiitticd wJ(L havinf: 
(irivM tbc I'hiidrrn (tt>m tlir norkahop to iho ichool, ho muit 
Of*<l> T4IID ihrr primary Bcbijol into a wurhshop ; and lUcf incon- 
lUtenry tWfl noi fur a momf^nt ironhl^ him. VW havp a rrpi^ 
liiioa of tbc old and mcaninKloH maxim about Icactunfc tbioj;* 
«nd noi «i>rdB, ai if iinj a^wj mtsliuui iliarj wofila cotild bv 
wond Ibr tbr praceat of teaching, ll ia forj^ottrn or i^notied 
4*1 ilii- vnai majiJtJLy nf ilip ttiildn^n. livinjc umkr licnlll>_> con- 
4ilLcrft, l^arn tnanurtl imiruciimi in iLii>ir daily lifv. ISy ftll 
ncAai give to rtur rlemrjiiary Initruclion that cijinni^iim vUich 
i'iicar*<l by a iluo inti?rtnJxUri- *>i munual imtruiiitm i^lien; it 
cvt be carried on to f!;tKKl puipiiBc ; but du not let iu aa il 
fl^ doas, dcgcnc^ratc into a aorl oi lixtbiv and pedantic^ P^^^' 
<Uic; do not let it replace the adroitiicia and pliability whicli 
[hvhltla bnndt «riM l4>Am for tWni velvet ; and »bovo all d<i not lai 
11 pub a«ide the impcrioua neeeaaity of the three elementary 
inumuientft wbioLi afFord ih** hetc tool* by wluuh a man can 
'«*ra hia plac^c and hia duty \w the world. 

Bill tbii it liy no mrnni all that )■ aaprraildr^l 1u ciur 
'Whootary pducaiion. The Code providei lor a wide choic« 
^''Claaa' ^ubjci^i, intended, and we (bink bappily intt^nde^l, 
'ofMteT tbe Kvticral inti^Iliifenco and t» anlar^c the outlook of 
'bpiciiulara. Wc bavcr no ivisli Itj curtail ibt?in. Oui bfjoiid 
^RW there it a Licig liat nf 'SpAcific' aubjeela, for which a 
^p^raic and nddtUuual ^runt ii givfn, and which, in intrnliDD 
«d in appaarancft if no! in reaJity. tr'>rtrh vi»fy largely npon 
^ dopiaiD of secondary education, U thii an aliof^lbcr 
wirfietory part of an elementary aehool currioulum. pnj it it 
*°>th tbe Labour anfl eipon«e wluch it muat entail? We iind 
^ Inat year tbrrr wrrr bomrr Hl2,000 acbalaTs prcsrnictl for 
^^minalion in tbeat' aubjeeta. A.t lint ai;;bt tbia lo^ika well \ 
''ttt farlbrr eiLaininnitiut reveaU grmiml for dtittbl. Of (Ueao 
^^^iW frcboJar* ao preacntcd> 9iJ,00U were only in tbc fir»t 
'^« 44,CKX) wcicf il) the aet:ond aUgL-. and ouly 1^,000 
'^C^ed itM tbird atago^not, after all^n very biffh one— in tbo 
*»iMu Bobjccta; and of tbtsc IS.OOO, mote than 1^,000 were 
\n 



S5S 



- Stfucotional Fads, 



in the third stagt <i{ Mechanics and Domeatic EoonomT, alnt 
*nhjecfi mny \w tAk^n in sny onitr, ihp thirri atngi* not r^)lj 
markir)^ n higher nn^^c of knowlctl^^c than the finl. Of Ibm 
162,000 pupiU, (tipn, how ninny rarrinl >«ray aiiT «fl«ciin 
l^Duwlcdgc ivhatcvor of tbv subjpcta Uught triUi m> nad 
miaplnred aoihitlon ? Mny wr? nf>t fniHy aftk, It not Otd 
of Ibis labour and (TKpcnMf inero wcute? 

Fmm the tmlijmij' i-lt'juriitArj m:1h»o1», \ci U» Inrn to tb 
eo'CitUed Evening Cnpti nun lion bchoolp, which w«ro ia»4 
iluced uiidrr (he loot AdrnmUtratJon nitli to ntucU flouiutL < 
tnimixita, Theae are ini«n<)»d, v» preaump, to fumtftb, on 
popular »calc, something like lecondniy cducAlioo. The piipB 
at« und«ir ni.) reitriutiun as to nge: faTber and aort, nay, nm 
father aiid grAiidfion, may, nnd prol>ablif do, lil aide by iidt a 
thr aamf^ hrneb<<s, Thi> K'lumlt an* tn bf< ' nrnd^^rf^l nltraciin 
by mcajiA of ' Iant4-rn illuatratiuna ' ; by * fii-ld, natumlitl, ai 
ukairhin^ rliilin' i < gym n ait lica, nr niher nmpTnymmu of a mil 
or leai reercotivt? characEer.' I'hcsc arc all very good thbj 
la lh(*tr way ; but nre Wff utterly antifjUAted if we uk| I 
Ihoy quito propf*rU b«lonj- (o tbv doitialn of popLiInr ^xlucaCioi 
Moil of im f**rl it to lir our duty tii try In da soinetUinri 
a««ociut« ourirlvea with thv livod of out f^lJoW'inen, and < 
enlarge ihplr iiutliKik ; l>ut t'Hn niitbiiig^ be di>ne wrilhoDl J 
heavy hand of the Stole beinp called in lo aid? The projeeto 
of ibe erening 5chix>l arc not tituid in ibeir choice ol aobjrd 
One of those ipeetally detailed ia the tolerably cotDprehennl 
one of the ' Duiica of the Citlxen ' — which U to proceed 'M 
ih^ known anri familirtr, such as the polireman and ;ha nit 
collector' — alaa! onty loo familiar— to ^thr hi»lorr ol •! 
Teaions for our Im^al and national tniiiimii.ins * :— tni]j 
auBieientN wide vlain i>[ iiiBtructton t !>peak of rcti^OQl dl 
cu«vion> tn our arhnoU ! What will thtw* he tci ttie punol 
routed by a acholaatic dtacaiaion on the Tate-col lector and il 
policeman? Hid Mr- Acland t^inRider the probablfi Telaiicoi 
many of the pupil*— old and young — of bia Eveciinj^ Ctradari 
tioii SchoLila [o bod] theie luiponant fuhCliuQarlca. and did I 
suppose that an abttrnrt ciiaruaaion of tbdr place ia drirli 
might form a fit prelude to the study of * the hutory aF*l 
reaaona for out in«lituiion('? 

Oar educational enthmtaata, If we may judpc from thLt ipf^ 
men, are e\idenily not overburdened wtrh a senae of buniMd 
and vrc ttiutt therefore ofler our apolo^'iea Tor findla^ tone ftf 
for amu«rment in their schemes. But, in all aerinmcieaa, I 
they not endeavouring lo lay down rulea and lines for ^ 
inuai, if it !■ to hare any value, be the r««u1t of •pontaneoui ai 



'^^ 



aU-dirpriml tfhrt? An able teochfTt where hr «v« opportunity, 
vilE caJ««TouT Uk excite the intereat &n(i trim ihc ititellisencc 
''Ui pvpilt, and to gtr^ thrm Aiimo nolian of fhf* Gov4>rniti#ni 
vi;*^ wiiicfa thcT Mtf-^ A dull nad plodtlio^ te^chnr, i>r o»e 
nhoiWc not (iiutf* [imlemturLd tUf* itihjfrot, bitl tMttpr leavi? it 
•W. But pcith*^ will ih<^ ftblclciirhcrdo tho work uoy botlirr, 
Dft Hill thr plmldlD^ teuchi^i he ernMvd to do it nt nil, bv 
<MM inttmcijoiiK Irom t^ny c^nirul ftulhortly. T«iig;bt bjr 
Mr, kuL-b A lubj^L^t would be n wmtc of lime; Uu^hc witb a 
hlit^ond bow Ate wc lo elimin&l<* the bina? — tl migLt «l r 
^iMcniioai CO which tb-Mc "f rrli^rUm nould lie chilti'a p^ V : 
^^t ftt cadoe litn^s aiuI K^asoEiK, it rni^ht givo ibe lignnl for > 
n«t^»bicb fjiighc make tbe policeman aa even more rftoiUIv 
fifnre in the «ehool as & pillnr of ihr Constitution. 

Wp bavp «o fnr flrftlt oolj with thnse opvr&ltunt whi<:b ire 
cviied oa DnUct thi: Educntion Act* — nkboucb with re^rd i'f 
tHnr of ihem. in our opinion, duubli may iriie whetbirr iliev 
««e within tbe cuolcmplatioa of tb^ fratneri of tbe*e Act*, 
fiat otir rduL-nLionitl fpfotjiierw kmiw no mdi irctrlction, nnd 
fsSmd Ui«tr iQTTfy into fftr widc^r nphercL Wc nnt noi only 
U la expert an Act ttn the * OrKADiZAiion of Sccondafj VAtiai- 
itsit' whatever that maj mean, but wo are to)<] that without 
■chad Act, wltidj will map out the whole field of Secondary 
Cttd Trehnic^oJ Edu<:ation, ciur commeiX'e it threatened ivith ex- 
lianjon, nod we injst i'i[H.-ct U* tink below the iniellcctuil l<:>el 
ol 0(b«r ciYlliwil fvjnimnnitif*!- Wr Jirr ttrrd of eoinpnriioiH 
vbich inJtc no ncroant cf conltibutin); cqubc* of coinmerCiDL 
ompetiEioD, wblcb dun our tturn with mrlnncholv dirge* on nor 
^KM^Io^ pro*pcrily, and which forget the diflcrcncc of cooditioru 
tetivMn fonn^n nalioni and ourtelvei. But all thea? procTa- 
toutoatof our certain d(.'cnden<^o avom to find a willing audieniM); 
ud ve are lold ihni ihr iinpf^odin^ crataitioplLt ean only lie 
*Ut«1 if wc have IcjfLttalire Int^-rleTi-ncH, if ne bare a hoil of 
Hnied autboTitle* iitiirb are lo prrti^^itie uniform rulet aotl tii 
sustain a bij^b edocalioDnl KCandard ; and finally, if we have a 
• CMLrrs' Hefc>>lratJon Act which abnJI band Ofei tbejudgmopt 
^fpmfriiional merit lo n pedagogic body, botjnd t(t allow no 
iteat of erudition and oo mc?aauxc of acCaal aucceu in teaching 
>'>ir^ifb iu the balance h^^lI an «n(:h formal pivliminary training 
^>in ihcii witdom xhcy may decree. These clectc^l nuthoritiea 
uito bavc mtinft pnwen, and, no douhl, the ndminiiErritiun of 
public cnmla ; bo that the tAX|>aycr, an well ai thtr mtc^pajcr, 
*»T have anr»tber load laid upon bit nln!Ai3y nvorburtJoneil 
4oa]dcri* 

We 



I 




Wo do not undcrrntn tho impnTtAnco of ltdoqiulo prcndnft 
fiir iFciiiulnrv uriil. u^ithm due llmiEx, i(jr lechnitn} nlacsuot. 
But jxr^ w« not «uiJili>d tu ask it tfau cloioi for ulditioDal no** 
hRil tnxci IS fkillj' Diulc nut? Thf^rit &r« Alreftdr vut cAtlfli* 
mc^nti availnble for iccoDdiLry education- — some of th^m wrmtS 
al iLr cost uf no llttlr friction from objecu more dirrc^lj i> 
nt'cord with tbr Jnli^atioiia of the tcsiators. Beaidva the Uviifa 
^ifitiU forScirnc*- and Art, aomclluDg like 650,QOO/< itre aimoallv 
flpvotfd lo thifl nbjprt by locnl authorities out of fundf plioA 
in their power by the? Local Tnxalian Act of 1^00. Woald il 
noi be wtfll to w>e ihst all these reiourrts aiv Bwnt ti> lh« beii 
purpCMC iK-forc we nsk for further laitMion uoocr the irapalir 
r-ithrr n( ptin'ic «r of fanciful sogge%Uf>nf? 

Th(7 sph<<r<* of c]Bin<Tntnr> cduicntioii is, or ou^t lo be. one 
ivr^ll defined. Liical uutLorlties ha^t^ liltir i\rvi\ to t^tj iia 
rcqtiircmptiU, and their duly is a plain ornf, which may ttl«\\ 
be i^o(idti€t<Ml under i\n: guidHnct* t>f Jiiifurui rule. Bat 
ftpC!ondar^ cduf^atjon it u very diffcTcat matter. Freedom nA 
vAnd; arr tb«n aboro all tblnffs Dcccssary, irb«n Jb few jcnn 
mat' ■<« n c^mpli^tn Ti*v4'TGion of «»ii«t]ng idoaU, and irhen (vn 
alms snd T1CW norrsKilirii jiisy cdiAtHntlj emerge Wr diattHCtH 
fibjed to nnyihiiijf wlii^h may fvtti^r the discrcliort of tli^ 
maoati^Tt of wcwuitijj iciiooU. or in«r twkc avray froEii their 
fuli rotponnibililj Uit im^riin^ drmanrU which may br m«if 
upon Lbt-m. Instead of Che variety ol ibcir cooMitutioo beb^ 
an evi), wr liirM that il in a ctU'at and jiuiubttiibk advAOta^ 
and wc hixve ao wish lo ttv them interfered with br «iT 
(^]iiiri]tlin;.r body, bowiivt'i uiijuipeschiible may be its Hums iv 
pedni-u;:ir Authority. \Vc do not dosiro to seo iho rsst tyil^ 
of btirrJiucTUlic uiiifc^rtiiih, which is 3i> chuscteiialic of foreign 
nblioni, inrrodu<j>d inio Hnglsnd, And vt* ihinic thst lU jain^ 
duclioii can 1>c i>roughi about only with gre.-it <Lsiigcr« and i< 
ttu^ eipenco of much th«t it most valuable in our lutlottl 
obflTvctor* 

Ami may we not further ask whether the <|ueiUon U yet 1^ 
for solution by ati Act of Farlifttnent? Already, if we »rtt irt 
inivisiken, tbem are nminoui sympmms ni doubt; nnd <ir 
quntioD wiMthmr there ii even lo much cuntensu* oi' opioioa tf 
migbt Lsvr boon vuppoeil to cjiisi uiilf a yrai a^ik U diii i* 
fto^ and il aay such schc-me ic now rendered abonire b? 
divn^nee of view, ibe failun of last yea/s BUI, with luW^ 
compr^heniive propoasl*, may not b« a niiafortun«, bQt ^ 
utidoobtcd booQ. Arc we certain that we know what sctondiiy 
odurniion int'niii, nnd of wb:u it ihotild cooslst? VVr bsve hiU 
an (lUlxjiijLtf Hcpurt Irom ihc Secondary Kd«Mliion CouiniMMa 



ErhirMio/tal FoiU. 



2SS 



V Live a tiiirere rei|>ifct for fW inemben of thai Coinmistion, 

I vc fcnr vc cnnni>c Accoid to tbcm the ptniac of bciny 
^rrv-nULive nf till? iciunJevt Aild lr-ut biau«l ojiLDitm <i( tbc 

'jr. We ba«» repenlt^i 4>xhr>nMiAn« on poliiicsl platfomt 

n; but im Mtiil iririn to lack a clutinct «tal<»ii«at of 
la Lo acbicTc aii4 even of vbst KCi>ndai/ dlucaEton la 

[Arc we Ui Wk for ifuiilancr and dirPctton to tbo«r expvrU* 
W huulmaitCTa of r>ur «4^oii<larv fj^booli^ who m^tl in Annual 
tntenmcc for ^ur cnljjjhtpnmrni — ftomctjmr«t il !■ to be icftrcd. 
El aw nTnuf^int-Til ? V\ i- itirii \i\ iIip r^tturts itf lluit c'riiifm^ntv 
B eLc *'iifn('>' iti L^i^oi^mbi^r ;^;^fii nnii ilth, 1^%. In larf;«- 
^ti iljFir diH-'miKini nrr cimrprnnl with ininuiir OruiU wti>i-Ji 

tif IttU-K*«t rinly for ttir scholaatic miml. VVV bjLVo thv utuil 
[UAidctl uttrrancci in vrhich ihni nun<l itrki ihnt ralicf froni 
ittfnl drudj'ery of p«<iapogy whicb tvi* would heaaiale !<> 
ibirui — At* nht'ii i^iir urt'udriitau, lu whvjur wi»ilviu Uitr 
of j-ouUt b pri?tiiin«bly entruit^l, and who in hii »ncr 
U «]&ublle»a prifurm* that datj- f&itLfulU ami piudrutlvi 
li Di that * ol>^«iic« fc.>r \x\ own tak^ w^n the nortt ^f vices.' 
when thcj come tn l*rgcr <)ac»tK^n«, do thr d]scu»ioe» 
r» Di lEij ioipmuoa of UeArtjr coovit'tioD, and a c]«,r 
plion of the objccta at ivhkb ihay aim? We faare tbe 
timid riMintcli, to cbara^irrifitii* <*{ mi*n of a vHndcid 
cffuioo when iUcy cjmt? lo deal i»ith pnvrtical aJbirj- 
. U'Hldiin MKip^d the conference nrouM nnt tiai»<l in the wni 
xrrforro of aecondat^r educacion/ WUy not, nc abould \ikc 
knrfH, uiili] tb«v liavc vFttled f^r ibt^JtiirKv* und can npbiiu 
u nhai ihit reform ia to nrhifrvf} ? Dr. VVil*on 'did not 
ink il pMuble for the cnnfrTmi:c In drUy^ IrRUlntiuD.' 
Miblr DOL, becnu»f> leifiiJativn tvUl probably l>e d^lay^ hy 
Naa aJloi^tbi-T tirjond ibrir ctmUfiJ. Oilier*, ire atc; gW lo 
*i ite bold encuj^b to declare for il^la y : and Mr. ^Iw^ 
VMttlj oonfriavft ' that tbrrt' ivaa in rralilj IJEtlv iJiiALiiukitjf ifi 
t prakttiion.' 

II not tbc \ikst atAt«nient velf-cvident ? Never woa tberc a 
liB wfaen ih4*Tr wna an mnr-h dogmntiinn on rducaiion front 
c»9 vbo have leoit antbnrity to tprak of it \\c welcome the 
rnninni whid) it iodirtipa. and linrir much r«*t|>i-ct iHTionalK 
r laaiij of ihcoo vho irvike thi? »iiK^eflUi>n« ; bul we arif com- 
lird to tcfuie ndhticnce Ui tlieir riewa. On tbc rexi:tl 
iMioM of modam Skipinat ancivtic langaagoa, ia ih«ra anjr 
bof tltat wbat appears ibe pop<jlar view for tbc mooient ia 

\Xy the soiiDd one, or that It wiU even remajn the popular 

one 



ODi? dyi Ltng? Sit Ji>lin Lublnirk woalcl Iiavp hi tcftcb iff 
mr>derTk lanj^un;:^! of aU c^motrie* from CbiOA lo Spnin, becwv 
(l]U ' will ftL'rutr ^ood Wilbn.^ (iraiitiug tluil tUis it (lie bn; 
Ti«w io tnkc of the ah\t^t ni cduvmion, i> ii freruin tb*i iiviH 
niuin thai objecl? Uuw arc wc tu know where lUe goud Inlii 
IB fo lw» M^ured ? And if wi> anWt blirtcllv, how »w wo wl* 
^TtAin ibiit D i^Qciii berth in ^poniiih Soutb America irill set 
comi- wilhin fh^ ^funp of one wlm [i:iv tpent y«an \n Acquiring 
the rcmnculnr of China? And it school tbr beat pJsiOe Icrmcb 
nn orniiBftitEciu ? VViiai !■ iii<irp certnin fhan lEiat, if cvicnn^^ 
tionnl racility U lo b« nttriiDcdt il uiuat W vou^bl, bv nil but a 
fi-w npi^cialljh ^ificd pti^tonttf in ihr ii>uniTV wfjrir the lan^t^^ 
14 taogbt 'f Surolj, evt*n if ■ g^id bcrihi be our onlr aim, •* 
ahuuld acl (uoBi wiu'l^ iu ucquitiii^ a knuwl^gv uJ ihff 
^nmmnticnl Ktrucmre iif ihc lnniriiaK« which Mcrvea M U)«^ 
hmndatloii of tW largest nmobcr irl mudcni (i^oiruct; ami ihat 
larjfOftge beyond nil fjueilion is Laiin, But oih^r «ilv^»UM at 
invilt-ta lan^u^^ca, a^rcejdg in Sir John Lubbock's c^ondusloai* 
"n abiolutflv inci^niii*ieni pr+^mii**, wijiikl havt u« Madjr 
modern IfLnguagn bt^cnuac i>i~ the ricb^icM of their liicratoM* 
Thp wralib iind gntce df such lirrraiure w^ do not v^^lc (■> deaj ; 
but it is n nii!r« iruis/n to sav liml ihv tduna ambodicd in aM 
mndrrn ]i(f*miurri'— we lUi not tei^lion (hose iiirludol in Sir Jobo 
Lubbock'c MoDf;vllan predilcciion* — are fundami^nl&ItT the 
annie, ibat Hirir |io![ita i>f cohTaii niir verrj- clotv, nud thai ibfi 
ntc conatantlv botrowinpf from one another. Tbe nuft « 
ihougbl, Ujctcfutr, wbiL-L is give;) to an iLngliibmaii bjr irftdiof 
French vr German, ia intinilely leu v^ri^d than Ih&t vtiicb 
toiiits U> Uim from n ituily of th<j«e ina&tcrpjecca upoD vhid 
all modern lilemtare reitlt. 

Id tbo aainc apr<M;h * Sir John Lublxxrk once iuuir ttrtr** 
th» (ifl-repeaiml (yunptaini of Hip nealect cif urienc^e lo uui 
achftolv— a complaint wliidi wc tbou^bl baO been fairl5 mctb? 
nn almou Uviab ftbi»n<Unffr nf riperimrnt, ant] by an w]njJl* 
mniked deficient'v in prai:ticdl reaulu; and be *rcka la empU- 
ftiKE* tltir L'l^midHiTJt lij a biiinrivhiLt unforiuiiadf tfutanois Thr 
<ni\y LnivcTiitVi he says, vfhieh rcvjuirca scie^nco at n iiMvinfT 
riindiiion for itn degree^ is ilint <ii London. We ahimUl i**' 
tbou)-bt ibat Ihr *trange jumble nl icranw which ccmatilulM ihr 
mnuiealalmn examination of l#on<lon UaiTerail^ hn^l bj tb>* 
time been relegated to ihe category of cunninft^y oactfi**^ 
Uevicc* to vc« the aoula of Ulx-rioua aapiratita to the htrtf^ 
dignity of a degree; and it u iastructive — not in Sir Jotto^ 



£Jticaticnal /•ads. 



SiT 



KDK — ibM the only Univcrail^ vrlilcb fttetDptorUy demsiMJa 
Httaorui m\ta clir tn){y onr whirh is innnnrm nf nny irnrhirg 
bcitlr. On tho otber Lno<), ire art? plttd tu fiod Ibnt ihe Head 
aaautt «f Imcu nm! Kiigbj' linii- tiilJ rlie r*>iKAgr Ici hhj h 
■ntrj in f&vour of dtuiical unining, ^nd *till weiglil enough li> 
Cur^ itkcii <.-fjlJra^ts tvitli thrm, uUluiugh Dr- Jampi's sue* 
owor III Ch«-lt«nhaai oommili hiintfU to tho riair ■ thai th« 
tnuher o( moJcrn inni^aagcs ihouKl br ptjbCccJ on a Irrd «rith 
ib« diiiiCAl t«Lch«r, nnd tiiHt botb itudtt^i were of equnl vt]u«>.' 
At rtw Mine meeting ibc vrrdict of cL<^ Chajnber of ("ojnuierce 
*^ iildurctl in tuppon of th'it ipeoiom vi«w. W«r do not 
d^bl tbc CDmf<trnc« 'ir iliat body for Jta wr>Tk, A»d, if iu 
VQibm lufr ■ gnod hrnhii' lo diapnw of, thi*y ivrp tin doubt 
"^U quoJifHHi to *el<«t duit&bl? men, and *d to cocoura(*ir the 
^\j of iDMlern Un^'Uftgvt ; but wr rerilurt' I" <*>■ ibat llw 
'in^jitic adept* whom they wok will have a(?quir?d iboir 
wdiijr v'ltriRrLeie tbaji nt sthijiil. and mt^iLwhile wv* decline to 
icwptthe Cbamlwr %t thf pTi"jpor ftrbJE^ir of ffconclnTy odncatioa, 
UdI we hate no driire Lu d^tKmnlix^ an lUch n subjrcL AU 

ie ipfk lo piove u tbiit tiiero u no lUch buii of toVtd opinion 
u Ctn juttifj- Ir^isUtive aciion, and lliat iho local autbonCleA 
vhom ii It aought to brin^ into oxiitoneo, conatitule th«cn at 
f^ iriil, would lack tbe ifuidonce wbicb it ia catential ibej 
tbmild harp, md wbicb th*y eonld not pouibly \w fnmpct*ni 
^Cite. That Kaidanec mtui come from prnctical nec<!i, and 
vom the judgment which earh parent inuiT, tvith ihe hi^u ml vice 
0»tvi obtiiin^ foim for btnivfiif* It ia too toon lo curtail hia 
wiljr ftod to rnnfinr {u% fn^nlum of cbntrc, or hind bini to 
^''•pt what it i^ircn him by a statutory authority^ ^iicor to 
J*Wuy its PiiHtrncR hy fa»y inERT/erenrr and arbilmiy lUJea. 
^ U lii« Becondkry ichooli are not dojn;; their work properly^ or 
1^ tm ade^unCe ttuiidard of (rfFicieciLy ia uiifcjiuxl, by all tuoaiia 
"*»«th a want bp lupplied. Let ther<? be a teat of inipeetion 
*M examination, ao that parents mny know iLat yeaia are 
"^^ ttaiiU^ oa a prot4>n<?i* of education, Pnrpnta will readily 
%|'*<^Ate auch information, and, aooner or later, will direct 
*w rboloe of irhool by Its retulta, or bi^ng m pr«a»Mr9 to hrar 
'^iut which jncAidcncy or incompclcticn will atm^ln in 
^^ta. Rat tbi« ia an aflminisiraiivi? work whirh upwli no 
ISiiktioQ, and wbicb ucj^bt to have been in operation lon^ af^-j. 
*'**re it no ant] i>f rompnl«ion ; once tuch a »y*tem was 
'^Uhlitbed, m tebool wouM find itaelf oblijred lo submit <« the 
^^ <ir to fore^ its tlLiim lo be reckoned in ttie aupply of 
^wivnt a«eondary edacatioin. 

^e bare already tejtidnta] on the lubjcct of tecbiuc*! ttl«ca- 




^ 



Educatioiial Fad$, 



Uaitt an<1 n vast annual expenditure is laviilii^c! upwi it. Wc 
t'all^ Admit thai much gu'Ml worlc Eft doo^, nnd w« douM fict 
that ilicjo WM fta ur^nl need f^r such *r<}fkt ^nd thbt (bctv ii 
DMim fnr it* extcmion. W*? tnny bt pCTinUlwI, hAwi^rcr, t» 
iuggcftt tbat out tfcii: lonat valuable port oi that wurk I4 that 
which IS carried iin unilci ihn AuijiitTt, Ami nith \h^ gerttroia 
%a6 yot volumar^ aid, of thr munb il«cn«J City Companies. 
SV'e need i>n]v adJuco l\it' Citv and Guitdit lusti^Lile at Soutli 
Kensington, nnd the GoldtmichB Ccmpanj'i Technical liutitul* 
at New Crosi, a» conapicuout iniUnccs* Bui vill an/oDc «ajr 
cliaC w^ havn yet arrived at ^aj ftbtUracu>ry dvAnitioo of 
Tcchnicnl Kducation, or that wc know with any d««nM»a wW 
i» tht* ()bj«<<'t Jit which we nim ? Tlif* ^n«<nil eoiiccptt<m i> a 
>pe<^ictu« jujd n popular on<f, and i(« n<a<ly rkcoirplaace u ollca 
ilue Ilk an unditcrimiuAting idea wEiidi OLinfuunda lOj^acha 
sev^rrnl ainift ttiat are cssenUalLy diitinct, T«cbnicid odttCfttim 
plc)UL-B iituLi; who |irofeu Ivi thiuk ihut rducatlou ii 'Ijoo 
bookUh,' and who uiul«r that id^a cloak wh^t ii really Uuir 
Mupiciun aliont tU« value of education at all. la this Aipcal it 
pTooabty canvc*y« xa their mind flomeantion of giving * pncti««] 
training ' to tht- childma in elementary ichonli which cnay rclitie 
ibein (jf what ihey deetii the usel-M drud^ry of the tm%i «l«* 
mentary roLitint? ; but it plcaans their oanan oi bcn(>vo]«i]co un^fr 
oaDther ifuiWi m wluL-h il u|i|>eaii ai n training for workmen 
in their calling, whieh in Bi>ai» un^ipUinvd way ia to eoahle 
them to earn higher nra^ei. And lajtly. when they Im'n livlf 
aUrmed theinsefvfift wilh thd bugbwLT of f^^raign c<>inpetiti«n, 
they find a aolucion of the di^culty in the efttabliahmeni ol 
VASt ftnd expenAiVf? Tecbnii^al Inititutea, whirh an* to train Ibe 
^ olticer* f>f industry/ and are Ut devclope the *cicn<v« that aft 
ApplicAbltf! tiJ luanufatituri^ All tiiesc u^y lie pM>d thing* iek 
their way ; but they haw really rery little eonn«iioB with ooe 
iiuolUtir, and wg have uevut yi?t been tohl what i» thv pncsae 
footing on which ttxcfi and rate* are d«iniind*d for their MtppcvL 
We cntirrlr rks^c^e that Bcicnttfic discovery is oaeoiial to (he 
mai^it^nnncf of mitntjfActnring acipr^macy, and w« have nndoiibt 
that luch sugircmacy ia ci^cntial to the mAinlcnanco of an iUnh^ 
dant wn(>eii tunil ; Iml we eonfeit ui a doubt whether tke tvock* 
man altogether appreciates (bo connuuon, or whether be viU 
think tbnt wui?s are well apcnt on institution* the tmnMidiiM 
r^iult of nrbieh will b^ the traioing of thoce wbn are to be hie 
matters, ami who are to abaorb lh« UigesI sbare ol" wbftC he 
eonstdcTB to be the products of his labour With regattl %» Ibe 
technical training in our ordiuary school i^ thu>e Bdoit cnopvmi 
to judge hare doubta of h« cfHciency, and d«K:]ftre emphftiiealtr 

tbki 



I 

I 



a^fotionai Fads. ii/9 

timt Hiiat ii rrquiml m a prpliminarj ti> ft real t^rlinicftl trauiiikf 

aoocm dablilittfl: tn its vimplcr U^tm^ buE a f^rcMrr tborouf^b- 

Mia in ihni rtnrneitLqrj vrnrlc which i« pr^ipi^r tn pri in>in' vfrluiolf. 

With rcfpuil to tke wurimnn hiniM^II', we f«&r ttut our Countjr 

Cooscili, with tlt« U'Vi im«ntton», luvo gom; Ui work witboitf 

ttiftcli koowUdf(c, ftttij have j>omatitac4 prodacod mihor Jnu^ki- 

>blf» nsttlu. We L>v« bt-fure lu at tliu lauiumit a priuted 

vcQBDt of K conffiancr in a cortain counlVi on fiahpry irutnicv 

EMci. Lc«tutca kftd Wen proTidFO b/ n iDott competent in- 

icn»«ii>r ; bat xh^ rvtulta LiMi »■>( >n<«ir«r«d «ipiKiC«tioti«. The 

iihwim «crc a«kml lo give tbrir tIcw, mod tiicj «lid lo with 

■Ucfa frftoliniUia, One of tb»rn offered an •tcuae for tbe poor 

•tteiidaficv ; * ll w«ft rkCMdiofljr liae if«wltL<4, and wo Law lo 

tvt ap ffariT in the wi»tpr lime and are louLeiimei blr in gvtun^ 

lOf and ibe rcmult, in my ova Qaa«— -ajui I bad a icr««t intereit 

b tbe Fnifrwur'i lf>ciafra, ^ni) li^v« a vw> grirai i:a(4-nJEi fur hlw — 

*«4, 1 nuftt (uftnit, that I iell ulc«p/ * Id the mjatoT ol capuirinft 

Ut^^ mid aaoibcr, wbu found no iinrd of (rc1iiuc;al iLBtiuctton, 

'tio claaa of ii)««i ato battor Qmunpnl than th* fitbirrnifiQ on tiia 

<««t coMi. . - . Wa bare tried aJmoit eve*y cuncuvable kiod 

•f bail, and almost eraij kind of book/ Anotb«r gentleman 

ABnliBie* thai ' fitktrraim, oa a rule, dv hwk a UllLo askance on 

'**<-val1, UworaLieal inatroctiun '; and be adds that be bai boon 

*^ld ' tbat it doea not tniiUer if tb« Apoille IWI wvfe to come 

down Mid giv« fihM-y inttruction ; if ihr pffnplp do not iinder^ 

*tend VTb*t he ba« lo »ay, the locturM cannot poMiUj do taj 

pr^clical good/ 

VV'e qaoto th'TM word* only brcai»« the^ aXhrd an iovtrtictirc 
^^Krniog ftod witbciui anr iho;i^bt of cakUh^ ridictile uptia the 
■^%peTip>eat tbua mado, or ov«n of doubting thai in lLin« pro)d- 
^ii.'Vft ntay bi^ i-vrTitrnir and gotx) ntrrk may be donO' All 
•^^Twdil )> due ui ibe Coi&nutl«« rntiutt«l with iho voik furiUtinf 
^Vte MtMtBT tUuruugblv, and finding out uiactly nboiv tlje diiB- 
^-'viUy lit«. But wo are ennvlaccd tbut ftimiliT ciperienca mi^bt 
^^ repeated ebewberv; and wp lake learv toduuoL wbrtbef the 
^»«4ioa ia qiiil« prapantd lo Innnch into farther expenditure 
*^^fo re it i» oenain that the resnlci arc duly teatcd and are 
^k^tvtring zta evp«<rtationK, and that ih4» money now available ii 
^prm to the b^i pLirp<>4rH 

ll'e lufn u> far mdeavoured to point out aome frtaggemtiona, 
*«ne miaconocptionVf and auno confueion of idcae wbidi 
pwrail aaKin^i ihotr^ who nit (bemaelvRa forwAnl ai the ad* 
^ticalea of evecpinif edi>cptioo&l l^gialatlon, and who afe not 
vcatem nitb the hnmhlet bul motif priLL-tkal work of Keking 
U^tiavcaioat 9m admin iitntive Line*. We claim to hare 

1 X pTDTCld 



S60 E^ucaticTiat FtttU. 

pTOT«4l thai th«y do noi come to ut wjib 9\tch credtftitUk u 
cntklir tliciti to AEiy extfriKl«<l ttust. We sboald not Im-1 aj 
regTRt if tbc^ (jovcrmmc^nt cari«i1 much in the logiaEuivc i«b«» 
of lnvt jmr, and await tbc malurlty of public opialon, ffc 
AnticipAi* from «tiy mail «'i|)f^riii)f>nr not nnty a weiikrajEig of 
ttioir own poncr, bui n ilimnjf up nf muctk bitter nnd pro 
long^ vuulrovitrty, wliicti may b<^uviaiLi a liari^iuui legacy. 

But w« fear Ibat the inilu«nco of {iocfrinnirf aims ml 
irhimsical RX|ieTjmi-ntji i« n»t ccitirinvd to ttiair part* nfednOh- 
tion ifbkh wv bavc alrcndy dttcuaBrd. Tbo rrila fifn^iut vrbiclk 
we raiat a protest have ]H-nrT.rfLl«-d alau iiilo ihrt Univrmtirt. In 
ibece Ibe (tocfnnairo bni Itiund a (ccut« and almoti Uftdisputcd 
MUprruiBCy, and br Ii woikuj;; bit awei't will ujKjn tbem. Hq 
forgeU tbi'ir tusiory — or rvcsilU it only ut an anliqaarian^'aQil 
be niiACODcelvea tbcjr aiiiu. lie rrpeala all tbc conrDsloa of 
thought, the c^Dtpmpt of natural liiniincionB, tlui neglect af 
practical conditiona, wbicb are the bciettinjc aiiu of loodenk 
Adorational rviorint-rt. Heforj^ut.bnt,boiireter tbe UntT^niliDft 
bave had tbeir i^ri^iiii tboy bni^e been abapcd aQd moffttdrd 19 
iht^ir pr^KMii form by fbp vkl^piic'ivk of Errgliili hiitory. TbMr 
iDain povpo«i> now i> tbe training of fit men ti> lurvo tbo Svate^ 
ID tbe wideal leoie of the vronL Hy ilow pii^cvja ui<1 long ei** 
perieacv a eeriain curriculum of study, whtcb afforded aofficacfltt 
ividtb of cboicv, waa evoIvLnl, wbicb waa f<jund adiuirably auiifd 
to enable mea to j^rapolc with lar)^ prnccied qiiealion* on tk«> 
ba»iB ufAumid principlE aitU ^itb ihe help of Hpc judgin«iil, 
Sucb a traininff demnr^da — nny, permiii — no unduv ipccialiaLii^- 

Tbe Collcfiatf: ay«teiti, which Anuicd tbc mo*l dtaUnctive 
feature ofOxfunl and Cambrtdne Uft, waa admirably ftdapt*d 
to give juat thai amount of diaciplinory control and iocmJ 
iniereoLircn whirh wna luited to ibe age of undrr^MJuatev, 
wbjd) trained them tu tatc a littinjc ptacr in life, and irbicb 
jjpive to ihem aaBnriaiii~ina wbirh T'^mainad a Taluablfi po weai ioft 
ihrouKhoui tbeir career. But all that it waa occcMary f> 
cban^r, in ibif puraiiit uf tome vain ideal^ vrbtcb ia ban to 
define and harder itill to Tcnltco- Thv Collegiate aralecn hM 
beeo weakened beyond the hope nf n-pair. The crlllutte fii!<«i 
which •naaretl a conatant luoceBiion of Ereah blood, bai-e bKfl 
abandonee!, bcc^uai? they could not be defended u|>oii aUtiiict 
priodplM. Tbe older type of CoUejcc tutor, with leiiurv and 
meana for atudy and for travel^ baa given place to the married 
detiixent of the Parka, who have no lini^ Ui fparo irftCnWffP 
dlacipline, and whoae intereiu and Icjaure arc abaorbcd m^ 
cure of a wifn and an increaatng family, lo whom tbe pfliub 
of other prcfcaaiona arc cioacd, an<l who mUit hung on io 

dcpencIonO 




■I'poitdcnc* upon Coll«^ rav0Du«>i wlwn lIm fr««hTi«>« c>rih«Lr 

to tihi^li ft jounfjf QiAn fduml a |i«(-iil][iT charm mod From 

irbich lie carrk<] away a unit|u<- <rL{H-tir[j<^, hor finds himtelf, 

»l Oif«n! *n(i f*iimbri<igf, in the iniiisi «f a !ittln suburban 

cAt4>ri« wLicK dialers tmrn tboac whicb ara to bn lounJ in every 

qattriTT of Lomtnn only hy ih^ mnnorony of iti inti?m% thn 

oiirrijirtieu oJ iu ran^c, ttnd the pcltincsi at tU conocrat. The 

UntTfmitj, wbidi intwt of tis reOMti oEily as a VAgUH abttr&ctlofit 

bik« otuCi^d the C^llegcB, draia^d tbnir Teeourcef, and apniled 

icir iDUlTidu&t life. TLe ftim «f tbe Ci>llege tulor ii a»t 

» much to «ikhincc ihu foinu and perfect Ibe ethci^^ncy of 

tiis ColipC|;c» A* t<» ivutdu Lia Jii;i^hbi>Lir> in thr botdocu of bu 

Kh«ne« ri>r Univcnity reform, apcI to Liunt for mucellaneuiu 

^OpIojmcAl OB A idPAQA of ckjug oui nil incume BCAnty in pro- 

fortian to hit tnAirieil no^da. He find« bii itleal LTnivertUjr 

>a « fanciAi] plctbve of Oxford as it rro» in tbe MiddJo Agett 

*um A mri]i*y rrowd of n^n'Wcripri hung npon hnr skiru. 

^^ bA« learned ibnl ihcy ^Athcrcd in their thoutAntl* from the 

IKiomi in iliir l.ind ; and iti orilrr ii> ri^vert to indi a iiAle uf 

"hiti;! b*T wtiulil ignore bfr inoro rtctiit bi«ti>ry. JD^ia tie uvw 

*Mt bimvrir irhi^nce ihAi rrowd oflAEtATtfeniAlinnH minn, bolt ihey 

*er» tupporied, iin<l frhat return tbey made to ih*s UniTertity 

'■or bAiboLiring lh«in? It Ik only loo likely ibat In a n^ugb 

>n<J icrftmbtinj^ Age many Avoided the hArdahipis of a loldiera 

[•fc atid fouE]<t 4 bATen fur slothful aiwl casj-goiag p[>Tcrly 

"*^ej.lh the »b<>ltffr of the University, wJi^ie Ibej picked up ihv 

'^■^mbs wiiicb could be apitr<?d out of the doles of those who 

^ntcpoun<I^ by a conEempluou* generosity for their d«iedi of 

^tolencc An<l of plunder. But of all thcAC thoasAnda, wbai 

■^CCdni miAins? How dul ibey influentw ihtir ttiuntry. And 

^bu trace ia thoro of any leArning wLkb tboy abiorbcd? 

BecABSff the UniTmiti** onrr^ gave a hnme lo rmwds of \iMtt 

*Q«ldicAiil«, they atc now to gio out to the democracy— sucb is 

^« rant pbrAM< — and to atlrinpt tn in11ui.*i:ci* tb*^ working iiiaii. 

Alfwdy every aumtnor vjicftiion s(^t a cn^wd of cicurstooiit« 

Kvib«i«d willuEi tbe waIIs nf one ur other of the Coltej^, in* 

^oBfLDg in A promiscuous fore of CoUefi^o lacturcs and of piciut^s 

"^■■(^ the pejfeoiJhl oondut^L of a fjffW College tutoia, wboAr 

^mntic tUs bind them for tlie vacaliun to the ricinily of cbie 

"^■Hu* In the tten?[ie conviction ib&t they arc uiouUljn^ the 

««artcracy, and impreitin^ it wiih their own colfure, they find 

^ lotacc from the ^Irud^cry ivbich they arc competW in 

Pcrfbrwi for thntr proper pupilt, And they dismits ibeir Wsicort 

^th the bappy connctioo that they bAve shown tbcm a abort 

aod 




And plcitBUjt Tuul to Irftrittng nnU to UnivcnSt}' cullitn*- The 
whole ibin^ might give food for smuMmom, if th« esp#rin«t 
wm: ant mttdt with the Upivcnitii^t wbicL is ibc p«»i ktre 
porfonncd > work of racb taIuc for th« natioa, 

ItilC having omr found »uch an outlet, iht'ir bihh do not atop 
ber», Thf* Uiiii~rr<itip3 Enu4i *go out 1^ the <!ftiiif>rtArv ' : iWt 
tniist. fonoott, nnJettakc the eiaminiLtian of childrfrQ in middlir 
nUss tchoola of ihr htimhlt^ii r^pi* I ftnil to dn thif) ihvT iniict 
remodel their own ivstem in order to fit tbcitn for their srlf- 
Impoied tBftk. TEir inlereclB of the rptjr limited but Dot 
aniiDportJuit cUifl whom tho Univ«f«ity i* intvnd^ to trwn 
for tbr tcrTice of ihe Slaie, «c to he entirrtj nrf^lcclcil ; aaU if 
lb«r« i« nn^thiiig in th« Uiiiv«riitj currit-ulum whidi mwtf b# 
BtiAttractiYc to the drtnocralic thousAn^i, it mual be rliininfttcii, 
howrver useful if mar hnre prored la ihoH for whom the 
Univenilict tnAinly ciial. Side bj «ide with ihii ambiliou) 
dt^mocmiio progmfnine. ibe Unireniiy ii in vnnouner « cmvd 
of tpecialiflti, who &ro enabled to purine a life of weli-eadowvd 
retesrvh upon tLr nft'euuri of k priirriionbip^ tb« <Iutirs t4 
which arc eonftned to profetfinn «nd do not include thoM«l 
tCAchiog. W'c have Uic highest reajirct for tUrve dcrolctt 
of Uftrning — ftlb«it tbvir product !■ little »n4 thpir iM^ioni of 
eiidowinent arc not illLberAl ; but we (UlibetBtoly ntty tk»t 
tb* tupji^rt of lucb a bodv li not the main object of lh« 
Uniromiic* ft» nMionsl iniiilutlone, aad i\M until UMir propov 
work 11 done wllh more efficiency, IvAming miiit finil it> 
T*»ourcei eUvTvhei^i or tnuftt itepend, &• it has not untttccMt- 
fulfy done in llir pntL, nn iI* tmn 1i»ne«t Inlmur 

The need> of the democmcy end of endow^ reve&rcb, how- 
ever, &je not the onh rei^uircmetit* lt> which tbe ittmciO of ibe 
more legitimRie iuvinb«ra of the Univeraity are to ylM^ S<i«ie 
jcnr* Ago the adfocatea of ndTAnccd educAtion Cor women 
etiahlinhrd tPverA] female Collef^e* «t Ovfcvnl nnd CAmbrldj^e, 
We bare every %ymmt\ty for aucl; jntLitDliona and erery <lcw« 
for iheir luCL-eti. VVV thoiild, howrver, hare tboujhi that, na 
Oian> ronaidemUoni, Oxf'.irU and Camhrid|;c wer^ the la#t plaCM 
where they sUouhl have frmnd a home. These <x>iiildrT%iton» 
were, bowpver, let itide on th« pret*it' — a pretext which f*«tieval 
ezpoTjcnee nill hatdli corruUorate — that the 'uppl^ of com- 
petent teaeheri wai to injidrquale to the ilrniand a« lo eompi»1 
n resort to the Univemty towni. The mcinbGrA of these 
Collrgrt aniight und obifthi^d m1milt«n<v, on aEiJTi^ranfv, io the 
Umvcr»icy eXiiminnlion* ; nnd eHcv have nirontiv pot forward a 
dallP^ bappilj^ Bi] hit mjiui-ieufullyT lo the UuivetijEv dr^rrrs. 

nv «0oditioaB of tbetc def;rc«» v« tranmed with n view to nca 

wnd 



vid la tbe nqairamrnK of their future air»m, Thetw c^r^*rt 
■K u jet widely diflcrrnt^ ftnd wc truit vrill [f>n|F rcimatn 
(liiTrtEni^ frcim tlincp nf womrn. Either, llLrn, wiimpu niw lo he 
idnitted to the m&cic cbarui of a dc|ftcc under cnndilioaBWhi^h 
biTif btm frtinnl nitb nu n-gti»l to them, or lAwtt the ifrj^ne 
must be to m(Mli6«!<l o* to ni«ct their caw, And bo fo far un&tud 
tar mva. Who laui *Ioubt — evcD if tUr j>ur]»Jie weic niit ojjtnit 
pnclMmvd — lh»t, W9T9 llie concc<«»ii>n i>ncu mnde, hucU modita' 
ttliMt Are onlj % matter of tiniR, and that in llii- pmmt 
lEDptf of the Univ-enitte* au excUMe would oner inonr be fouQil 
bvicuaping the tvurk which iLc UDivcrMtiet are jntcn^aJ to 
pti r<ii lu ? 

Not cofiicnt wiEh th^ minionarj coaI for di^mocrftcx, and 

■lib lh*ir oapiraiioiK after an epirt^nr rurriculum, th«» Unl- 

'Wsity rel'oT»ner» arc now keen upon another tcheme. The 

clemvutary t4-!idier i« ta dr»w Li[kTn titrir <(i>urr^s or ciihun* tn 

ifdn to dispcnoc tlkom to his pupUi ; hut a aj>R(TiaI bait matt 

^ (unlrireU tu alltin? Uim, Jinil «» ibe Univcnitj' dogrne i« l*i 

^ ^pnded bf being c<inf«rrad on the ba«i« of a corlniti 

T>^f?ii(innAl ifuaing. Could aluunlity go further? If auch 

^ end ii desirable, whj go about it in iuch n roundabout 

*V? Huiri;ir«r i-tte-nsirL' llieir ran^r, the Uiiirrmltj rcfonnrn 

r*4] boHly «appo« tbnmielvna more cupiiblciof Iraininp leuc^hAra 

**** tbuoc who devote thccuelTM loldv to thii taiK. Wbjr, 

^^, not »ffiliati» the Training ColUgi]»H in tho Univertity, ami 

*»^W the pupils in th^tr Collegea Eo proceed to the Univcrtitj 

^Cftvp upon iheir profrnional training? It would at leaot be 

*^*iacvil than the degradation of tbo Univfu-titT hy devoting 

^ rc9ouraes t» the training nf pupil irn^'hera in the mntitie 

^ ^Imtentary Mihooli; and U would not be Otw whll mote 

"^Crnvagaot anti absurd. 

*Ve bare ihos rodeavoun-d tc ibow, hy i^fiLncinff at the whole 
^^^^ of eduoatJuu:Lt wuUxltj, huw much there is of cmde and 
l^'^directcd cfforl, and upon how small a boais of solid founda* 
**^*^ it lots — hoi« liulc of jiTudent and well-directed adapt«ltOD 
mtans CO eridt it contnins. If only » tiaic of whni w* haro 
^^IcnnMircd t»> piorc he Irui^ it is well httcd to gire pause to 
^y Go^ernmrat before il latin<:bei its own inleretli and those 
*** «n impottaut f&ct»>r <>f national prfupcntv Ufjon nny crude 
■^tl iU-digeatod IrgiidAiirn, Ai dmn gor* on, iLp doubls and 

^'^^niJtiet gather l;ke thick clonth iu the air, and the solution 
**««» no nran*r, hat rn:hpr tunr^- it^mniA, UV belLnve iti«t onfr 
^Vsential and pervading error will l» found to be present In oil 
tboM fttddaa And wbiiajiiual |irupcnnla, whlijU will gather 

Strength 




m 



£iinc4itionai Fads. 



atfpiiiftli in tlie jaiJitniFnit of llie niiuin, vdO wliich Vill he 
coEitlfrtTified bv th«i lAvIni^ coiniiiOD»n» of ICnglisbroea ; illi 
ihc nrglcct oi ihit iLiiiiljiuout fixril hy nnture, uid & dionfcil 
of tlie [i^Kioni of ^EfK^riencc. Dovi it not behove u« Eo ncjttuTT 
OftrofuUv and witL due delilwraUou vvbal we <'aq nnd vbi£ vt 
c*noot do, >nd lo adBpt our plui* to our meftiu? H&rv we sot 
^Dc far enough for the present in tbe ditvctton of unifenutf 
And routine? and mnj wn norrommir an irrrpATftlilr crmr b 
CiUing inlo eiiilence new »tntuttrv iWir* before we are cciUiQ 
tbul nr knnvr wtint it tlie wurb tbut ibt-)- will tiftvr In ib? 
H&ve ne nol Alrendy iRMCord the tenne of tocal mpoikubilit]r 
and tbe free mnvernRiit of lornl iniliutive? Have m aol 
endangered to a seriuav extent the atrength of paMOCal iiutifttt, 
and gone fai in the direciion <tf inculcftiiri^ the doircnne that id 
the training of cblMren tbe Suie Ig ererjthln^ and ibf* furnX 
aotbiDg? Have we not aapped in tinuv degree tbe motire* Eo 
individual ctforr^ tbe impuUo tnwnnli individual energy, w 
wbicb oax natioml proincritv and greatnrvi owe lo nOcb! 

In the domain of primary educittion, are we not inclined ic 
par«ue Titionary aitua, which are not in tbe real interest of titi 
vaal maiaea committed to oiir charge? and in tbal purault ban 
we not loat sight tu jionie extent of what ii, after allt xbe 6ic 
d%Jty tbnt WR owe iti ebern — n\ provide a cxiitne of riemenitfj 
!»ducation, limple in ill aims, but iborota^hij cfiicieDl ao ftf ■ 
it £»esF Naive »^ not encouragetl rli*f pfiifrrmce of apeciiHU 
and ambitiou* leaohinc^ to that which, bowcrver bamble uil 
leiliiL-teilt L-ati bent any leal of iii eititiencv ? Are we cnuiOj 
4>efnrft wq launch u^Kiu a bold champaign of l«gitUliea <>■ 
•econdor/ edurjition, that we lutve nrrireil at any clear »nd 
definite conception of the line of demarcation bttwpen ele- 
mentary 'ind »r<:oU(!ni Y achoola ? Arc we all agreed aa t* ib« 
«vlU wbtfh we wiih to cure, and ns to the endi at whhrh ire 
intend to aim ? Are we not over-persuaded by oanaplca enUe^ 
from ay^ietni wbirh prevail in forc^Ign nationa whose bittory 
and whose charwtcr are in abarp contraat with our own P Ha?*, 
we taken aoconot of ibe tax number of inuirpata wiib wbicb v^ 
tball bo brought into contact, and of tbe de^ce to wbicb weilial 
luipln^*? upon many of the loost drbntabtr- ijueationa of tbe daj 
On nil bamlt the Gov'<rami-nC aie preited for IcgiiUtioa, ai 
are encouraKcd tr lelirve UiAt a millennium will be at 
when onoe we inttitule Etatutory bndiet to tuptrrite wooniu 
education, aod tb&l a new era uf enll^LteanieDt will be o 
for the mau of tbe people. The raal interest of tbe ele«tora 
in tbe queation largely depends upon the proportion of th 




Educational fa/lt. 2€£ 

wbo, under the ino»l f«vouritbla CimtJItion*, can be ejipecC*^ ;o 
spend more than a very HmtU'd pnrt of C)k4iir Itvvt in pr^parft- 
t^ioa (ot ihvit Hfc* vrork, and who can cltut hnve any opponunitr 
tf>f hen^fltlng bjr w>oond;iry ^cirntiori. On lUU quevtlnn ch' 
ViftCifMi will bavc a right to aak for definite inromintion before it 
^ommtli iitrlf 1o nny ambitioi]i Itrj^'^ivtivF iHirrmr: And wt* 
Jancy that a tnio arkivr^r to thtr {^urotion would surpriac «Dnic nf 
thoir vfhQ iniiil upim tbU && & (nitfsuoii iif impirltiu!! populjtr 
aieiiibDd. Ha¥« viv aioprfnined fully what arc itu* rcioitrc^B now 
ttVAilablc for such rJucndon before tvc udd to the buidfui uf 
tbe uucpayer aod the ralepMyer, aiul are we ttiro that we h%ve 
ttlrcAdy iJoac ftll tbat an he done by the otdinary macbiarry of 
a<lminiilr«ticH] ? Wp Appoint perinriicA] Ci>niTniMion<, And WR 
•cad ft naaiber of torin^; amateur inipcrtori to make a nvid 
apon ihr icIjiMdtt ami Eo reporl upon iheir condition wjtti A 
confidence whicti » in inv«r»T mEir> to the care And labour 
spcmt upon their ciAminallun ; but has Any trouble been taken 
to «ibj«ct th«i)« Bohooli to A re^lar and methodical tc<<t of 
«lfictct>cy, or (u Ascertain by rxauiiiiatioo what u the vAlur? of 
tbe lEHtruction wbich they give, and wherein comUt tb^ir 
<lcf«cta? Do not let tho Gorernmtnc stippoae that tlioy can 
mtap tbr ntotitha nf thr fiuldiiU b? Any number of anpi, Th^y 
«iP potae^ird by a demon of innoration and by a tymnnoLHta 
•pifit of tn^^hAnical niutlne, anil Mhii kind cotnnib nut mit but 
bj f&Ming/ Let the (loveinment aubjcct them to a ri^foroui 
n^Imcn of Abitincncp - it will bt? for their own good, Aud Jt 
■uy b« thf Mving oftbff nAcion aJik^ from the eEtraTAeAiicoi of 
Jtfora Jtnd from the opposite dAn^cr of vudden and uncun- 
nolIabU fMcilon. 

]q the sphere of technical educAtion may we not, with justice 

Aoi] in prudf nee, inquire riiii^ily what it mmns ? If it ii to be 

•UBply &I1 addition to the school curriculum, let us rc^membor 

ibu there are limits to our ligbt to ilrniaud tbe surrender of 

nnn jcmn out of life's allotted ipa^ to preparation for its tasks. 

I' teciuticiil educAtiuu a to find a plaice witLiu tbotc Limits, it 

isuu be by the curinilmeut of other subjocts of oducation ] and 

iHviatJt oonelTcs serioiiily if there is any part of tbe fuudA- 

iBtDltl groandwork of elemeoTnry edtiCAtlon whirh w<* cun 

**'>ly ipATC. If, on the other hAnd, it is to be carried on by n 

cvAliunince, tn the form of efeaing sehtiols or otherwii^, of thv 

P'dod of odttcation, then let us Ask ourselves of whAt it is to 

^ftiisL Is it Ut teAch adentiHc principles only, in their 

■^[Mstion to parttculAr trades or m&nulaotures, or is it to bo 

'P^liaed ianlraction iu tbe prB^lii:^ of the trjsde? Or, iutlfi 



1 



J 



'ii^Q 



EdiicaiKHiol FatJt, 



if nir Arc to cnrrjr on iUc work bv tiKwni of z^cn^ central Ted^ 
nictl Inilitui«ii llkp tlinl in P:tri«j wliich l» s» f>fti*n i^ait in our 
teeth, where cAcb »chi>lftr ct>»u aIoui 70^ ft ^c&r u> xhv public 

itin^li, hr>n ate wp to tlrfcnil tbrir n^mtt the j««]cnE>T of tfae 
prolfihTiote of workni(<iit or aj-sinst the iMgloctecl but ftOt 
Altogether hML-leia aiioms of poljlical rnnmoin^ ? Wfr <io Dot 
«lt>ubt Ihat in tun» mn amwpT nill b« fuuiKt to all tf)t«t 
(jutitionBt and tb&l Engliili cnteiprisr will not foil abort uf ibe 
provUion c( such equipment »s ibc mainttnanrv of ita «ott- 
iii«rc)iil vuprrmncjr tlcmnntU ; but wr proint most rcbemcuttf 
•gnintt bitftt^' nr ill-coRsiilfTiKl .ioT.i'>n. wbirb mi^bl bawv in 
effect of stercoljpiDf error, nml which would jnevit«blj pfwol* 
the cUsguit whicrh vague and ilI<^liTected eflTorts mait oerlAuljr 

In tbc spticFT iif Universiiv lencbin^ ne /eru wn mutt ivibuit 
with retignRtion to the lemporarv tapremacjr of tbe Joetriiuiin. 
He will 11(1 doubts for a lime, indulge bu fuicjr, niA aliite to 
ntAkfi hi» Uiiiveisirv 'g;o out lo the tleoiocTney/ nnd we tnutt 
AWAit, with what palicnce wc jnajT, the irn-ptioti he will meet 
with in bis eiruniona. Mranwhilp, Cntvpnity ^duration (iiDVt 
deteriorate ; and, in the ardour nf hij miiiionarj^ cntcrprtac, ibe 
quiet and aouUmiii work lh;it lie* lo bia bund inuil lufTrr fiwn 
ait neglecL Our aona witl be trained the worve; and Ivnglaod 
will be ibe W» able- to cpuitt up>n the >uppl/ of tncrn who can 
bring a tialanred judf^tiivnt to bi*:ir on tbi> conduct oJ~ her afTair*, 
in ihe service of the StJitf, and in the bu^ifiettof ibe piofcsaioiu. 
Thir Univetiitiea may mould ibrir currieulum to roneiUcile tbe 
popular taatei of tbe dcinocntic crofrd, tbe aim* of th« ekmeii' 
lary sf^hoo] teacher, and the fancirt nf the lady a^tnint* after 
tbe bibber lear&ini^* Bm^ after a time, if we c^D rclj upon 
p«kt eiperieiLcv, the r«ri^n of thr iJocfriHaire will c««t«. Tlie 
Uoivcnitiei will find it to their inlcrcU to keep tip a cIom 
(;uiita«^l with the gn-at public lehixiU* aiul, while tbe^ imbibe 
■omething of their imh and vigorou* bui>vnneyr will infuce iato 
thrm A higher otid a bfoadrr apirit of iiferAry And scientific 
litlereit. They will 6nd onee more a letting eoiplo^rment \m 
thdr f Allotted Uak of trjilniRg A Jimiled but none Ibe lc«a 
{[fiportant proportion of our young men, drAwn from every 
data in ttio nation, for ill bi|-heat and moat critical work. 
Meanwbilr, li*t them do whAt they cnn to iprtrai) A tuALe (m aone 
tini^ttire of hi;;h^r eduoAtiun, to Ions M it doc* [>oi poic under 
Hiiy fabe ^nii tturbitloua )^uite. Du not let our Collegi; Itjloo 
fAncy that by wandering a6c-ld they are Jikelv to found a proU- 
tariAte of jtavaiUtt or matcriAll}' to Affect the nAlUMQAl chATACUV. 




iionat Fads. t67 

Let UieiD tcDicinber Uml ttir^ bnvc to team (juiLr u mucb »• 
th»j t«w>b, W» Lavi> no <;uiirT<-I with the |»<<nr<roaa iiapulM 
lliftl protiipl* ji>iUl» ffr«lj Tiuui tlir Uiuvcr»ilic« Co Mftociotc 
tbemelvc* with lh« dcniacna of ibc EMt-cnd, even alikiough 
mch aaBocjfttion maj lomfrtim^s brpnl ^n amtuing Aclf-coaa- 
plui^TXry, Wn hnvff nn doohl th^v ^Arn niuc^h hjr ihU rnptui 
with % orw worMt*ii(I wc (Art «cU bdicvc ibal tbcir di«cour»if 
tTU<l^ lbi.iugb lh«*j ni*y Th>, njid iin|>Tr^nh(e(1 wifb iliv ircmi 
uomji of the ' BcbrHi]*/ on? not wiihi^ut intrreit for ihrwe td 
wbcjoi UifTjr are addfniecl ; but, all tbe ibeuf, a tiaL'lure of 
Vk<Hla«lj ftnd of Cftutiivii will not b« to tbe d«>lTimtnt of ibeir 
flmvoor. 

If ve prpo^b caarlon, It U rather ivitb a fear of ib« iinmcdUt^ 
fatute than of lli« ulliisatv rrault. Nalarr, aflcr all, will be too 
tttoag for u» ; juid wren afitr wc haiJ hurdcneii our irliooli 
vitb B crowded &aU impoavible curriculutn, afior we biu) 
ftllratptei] to itnch evrry imJp unit fwij^ «ct^iicct ^^^^"^ we bud 
boilt up a foir-iccraiQKstJttutar^ edifice for »ceondArj education , 
ami bad diverted ibc vurrgiet uf uur Uulreriitiei in a vain 
•nd«avoQr to popuUrixo th* bigbvr iwnrning^ <h« would r^-anert 
berielf on tbc mini of our misguided laboun, and confine a» to 
ber own limita. BiJt we Lav? mucb fear of th«* evil that majbe 
VTOti^bt during tbe inLenuedinle proce». 

H'e are indrhieil for much ihni ii dan^jifmui and eirraTsgant 
in the tcacbiDfif of our educational deftrtjiaires^ and for iti too 
i«adj accrptancj* upnn public plalfoTma, to thi* wave of more or 
lenft ftTowed SociaJtun wbich seema to be pauiog over oar 
political arena. But Sijcialijui, however readj our public men 
aav bo io accept its dogmaa, or limulate adherence to M creed, 
U mtk alien and noiiQUS plant which will never, we believe, 
itrike iu rnota d**p into oar eoih The epidemic cprv^t faac, 
but it 11 only ikin deep, Spcciouaand attractive aa iti docitinea 
mav appear, ihey are in their eii^nue a creed compact of IjTaunj, 
«iid will ftooner or later have to reckon with the national lov« 
of libcnv. Far a time jimdicIatPtmnj previii),and in ohedtenoe 
to tben J emulative eiri>TlB mar he made which can only end in 
diaaatirr, and of which tU- least te|;ivttable lesull would he « 
tirdj jetM-nlance : we would dread nill more a backward current 
of reactiuu. The toak beWc tLc pment ParUaineiit in the 
rf^OiaiB of educntjon iia tctj plain nnr : it it to rei^ilfy injniiice 
doae to a certain clasa of ftcbonta, and tbcrrby to prevent the 
vtrurtUfe uf national education crumhlinff alioitt our ran. We 
tiQit ibat the Government will not be tempted to enlarpi that 
tuk bj raablv meddling with the foimdationft uf tbe edifice, or 






I 



508 



£4u<ctmwl FadsB 



by cntrrini; upon nn)' vn^uc «ind tiJU*nloui ic 
irouncin^ Lli« coti, iLml [nmiunng (lie p:ift»Ebilitf of aiuiaaii 
in too reidj^ otwdieDt^e tu tbc demands of Sw^ialiitic if^cfnAii 
The; Fnglith nntjon i» apt lo t>e eieitra] l>^ l^uipting ptoje 
And pc^rhnpi Etill more apt to dislriut it« own acbtovtmnil, i 
tij be *eiz«d by l«uipor&rj' {lunir.. But It !■ esMfiiliaUj pr 
ticnJf And in ibo long nin will n^ii forgive eboBn who tt!irtpk 
froiQ tbr palUof prudrnt a^icl ilcHberai? progress. Fmgmcciti 
SociAlittir (l<>ctn»« mnj iipjip»r upon iLc turrAce, Ukp Ibf flti 
of froth and foam toisod nboiiE by ercry paaain^ brccxc apoo ^ 
furfftcc of tbe water ; but lb« title 



P^ll 



Too BtroDg Tor sooikd or fotm/ 
I all 



4 

thofi; 



11 ■Uii p*siin|f m Itill volume, on iu couric, towardi 
fO^ of indiviilDAl Lib^riy. ^Ve have rightly Kt ourc^lvcf, in 
ipirit of grudging or of mg^rdJIacift to givo to every dtixti 
ihe counirv a fnir chanc:?, and in provide him wtEbtbc ikcmi 
imtrumuiiEa by which he may build tov Limsolf & career. J 
wr irutl ibjit tve tthftll iietrr d<!<iiy lu bim llitf fr*feduf[i i>f blto 
choice, or rorjcct that truo liberty cEiAtH only where each Old 
L-UQ wiffL out ill uwii devliny in bin nwti way ; and that tu p 
statutory jnterfcnrticc^ too fax it to OAtabUfth, undvr the guiji 
benevolence, a hateful niid a crutbin^ t^rannj^. 



( 269 ) 

London, 18DG, 

tT migbt he rath \a predict tbat tbc r«Jir wbicb hiu juit 
Wgun will 1)41 ^rotliifui'ft artjum nn'rtiftih'i. Hut it trimld 
M\ b<T m«h t<i tay ihnt thrrp nrcoQt c^oDts — tbo f'ltm- 
Dnijattij tiAlurnl gnvurtU of CuiiSL-rvutiiiu, ibc KuJidiriciitioTi 
of Liberml Unionism, And tb» Tfr«ij>»jUJon bv Lord Kosebery 
of tbc ltf«dci»hip of thr Oppoillion— Arc oucalivlcd (o midvrr 
t^ year ld$7 iho inott iiriptiriutjC in Sootliib politici lincc the 
CencraJ Electiou of DrccmbfT lb'S2. A hiM ilatctiimt of the 
coarx of political bittorj north of tbu Tweed, u rrvcalvd in 
^ tUti«ttc» of General Kicctiont unce tbat ticn<-» wUI ibov 
Uw impoTtJhncr of ibn yiTT>«nnt simnlion lU imliralin^ ai oncv 
ibe tiuc mcaniDK of the p[ut nod ibc oritical poMibUitici of 
'lie fuioTF. Thr Gt-neral L'leciion i.jf 1832 w*> d«'*(-riljtd bj 
^wrrtri wbo took * ibort vicwj * of the Srdncv Smith iTpc, ofl 
^c ' WairrliHi 4if TorjiiiD ' in genrra), and mote vjwcinoiUjp 
u the dftte trben Sci^lland b^curiie * » fttron^bold of Libvrditm.' 
^h«:e were letutDcd xo the first ' lU^fi^rined ' pAriiniiiriit 149 
f^WTvajivet n* »gnin»l 50it * reformer* ' of lO] deicriptiotit ; 
"ltd uuL of & total nrpivienlatjon of 53, SuoLlaud ii!tunj«d a 
liberal mnjorily of 29- During tho I'oel-M*lbourno And 
t>e(bi-PAlniri»tc»n prriodj^ tbi» majoruj' fluctuatrd ctmaider* 
vblj, falling s* low At 11 in 1441, and apT^r rising Abr>v^ 30. 
't wu not liH l^i:S^ when Scotland, rnlinff for the first lime 
Bndffr hooaeholil suflVagr, <y>ntribuic<l our of u mt^inlMfrtHip n<.iw 
^iicj to 60 the Urge IoIaI of 44 to that mftji>rity oi 1^5 with 
**h!di Mr. GUd«irnie divTuUbliihnl ibe Irlib Cburt^b, and tbni 
*^«timcworn Libf^ral witticitui about a (int'Cla»8 compartinanl 
'^ctfrren f'lrlinhnrgh nnd Limdaii HccoinmotlAtin^ ibe entiic 
^^tti»h ContcrpiLtire mcmberibip wa5 but too well jaili&«<i 

The ConscrvaliTe reaction <if 1874 uierted iuelf even in 

^CDiiaod at the General Election of lb*l jear; the Llleial 

^*iarity ip\\ Co S(X Hut nix y oars later, the infljonrr ^f Mr. 

^^djiionc in Sci>tUnd, a> rxhibtl^t in and tbroojfh tbc i;»alest 

**f »hp Mid]j>lb>an rampaigns, re*«l(wi in that Tiiajority being 

'•i»ed lo 4t\ ftlthonjifh^ owin^ In tbt; rcovery bj ibe Conwsrvn- 

H^ei of tbr? counij *i\ But* and ihp Wi^t-iwn hJHtrirt of Diir^hi, 

** fell almoat iminediat<»ly aftorwardi to 412. liven in laSlj, 

*l<en tlir first Gencml Kleelion under tlic Gmuy Francbiac 

***d R«dutribution of Seat* vVcia took pU^o, the Contwvntive 

■■***!tien WM nm impi^-ved. Of the 12 seaia now allocated 

** SoocLaiid, tbc LibcraU lecnred 62. Tho following y*^^ 



J 




S70 The Political TVantfirrmnixcm of Scotland, 

however, «ftv tb« dnvTifdl of GI&tliioDiu] LibermlEion, Ham 
K^tle, on which tbc (ienerQl Klection r)i ib^JA wna fougiht, kpU *) 
lip \\ie Lilji^ml Party uorib oit well u »iutU of clu? TwfWfL 1^4^ 
GladstLiaiiin it;oiTib«rjlil]> waa r^xluccd TroiD 02 to 13, wbU^^ 
12 CouMrviitiTes and 17 Liberjil UnuitilvU mrre racurnei.1]^ 
The Sepjiraliit rnajont^' thus stood it li. The G«Qcr^^ 
E)«cUoD of 1802 came Toand, briii^in^ wilb It Uir inc^riulil^^ 
living of th^ pendulum. The Glacfiioniaui won 7 ftf^au i^q 
Scotlaci<l, anJ their inajorllj orer tho Uai^xtUta of buth win^-^ 
roet ro 2R VThcn the nnal (rial of ttmngih ifirik i>liio« twtvcvi^. 
ihe forces of diftiatcgTAlion and of laip<rrial unjrj in 1895» tk« l 
inajorilj' of 28 wai reduced to €. A by-eleetiuti iMt fv«r itv ' 
Ibe Wick But^hi ho* Again raiM>d ih«t majority to ^ Tb? , 
reprcseutatiun of Scotland codkUu ml prcimt of 40 ftoriif 
Rulera — recent O«cljinitloiit hy Mr, John Morley, in hii 
chaiacter At once of Scottiih member itnd of fn>nt-beod!i 
politicUn, render it jiratiiealij impoMibTc to find a bfrntv 
tK»igii&tion for hlmiclt end hu CT>lle&£iies of the Ojipmitioo^ 
ftntt 22 Unioaiiti, 1l li univenalljr ndmitted tb&i, but for tbe 
uneipUincd abacnce of n larg;cr number of UnioniiU in Dun- 
frieubire, ibht «@nt would not bftve b»eii lost at the General 
Election, and tha Home Rule majoritjr would have br«ci reduoH 
to 4, if in IS97 Mr. C. M, Haininj rccoven Porfarvbirr, 
wbieh he won for the Union in 1S^2, but lot! in lftl»5, cbe 
Home Rule majority will ag&in fall to 6, Eren a» tbinpi ve, 
Coniervalivin, a« jncTgotI bv membervhtp alone, ii strongef than 
it hji» been at any time iince 1831* nnd that in »pito of tbe 
ftll but complcTte <lemcjrtnti4atic}n of the ■nJInigeL 

Bat the polls of 1811^ and Igfib merit % backward gtance 
from another standpoint, — (hat of orgftnitfltioo ai the onlr 
eflPeoEivv meant of securing vidorjr. Both in 1093 and la 
I8d£, 27 burgh tLuil 36 couutj' conslllueueiei in ScotUod were 
contested. A careful writer in n lending Scottish n«irfp«prT, 
whose figure* hare not been impenched, hu pointed out liuU 
while ihe UmoniiE voio in the bnrgbii ro*e f^om 77,839 In 
Ifl^g to 83,146 in 1895, the Home Kule vote MX dorinc the 
■ame period fTum 99^171 to 89,444, We have tboi a nocitivv 
Unionist increase of 5,607, and n posttivr Home Ku!p dccrawc 
of lt,T27, in ihotc cuiistiLuenciea which ore nut onnnturaMjr 
regarded aa the mo«t suitnble recruiting-ground for the foron 
of Revolution ia Soodjind. Id the counliei, die Untonitt poll 
nue from 114,596 in 18^2 to 125,644 in 169^— an i»crw«e 
oriS,048. The Home Rule rote rote from 1S3J80 in 18d2 
to 13S,I^ >Ti 18^!) — an increaje of only 1964. There wu 
therefore & ioIaI Unionist increase of 17,665 in 1895 «« knuui 

ft Home 



J 



m Home Utile drf^inur of 7,763. Tlic He^ixtratton RRlitrns 
Cbr i£d6 ibow that, in rpap^ot of polling poiv«*r» ihe Cniooista 
ue •trosger ttt^n ihey ivcrc at ibc Grarrni RIcctloD. 

Such fi|riir«t an Taluub1« ildJ re^«*iiriri[f in ih^mtoTwt. Put 

tbrir c:Li<.-f imprjrtaiicr Itca iu thr icslm^oa^ ihry nfTurd u (a 

tie Tslor of CoiHrrvntU-c cn^iUii/nlion dunnjr (hn pAtl lliiPty 

J«^i. Th«l orj^Eiifutiini datot from tb« viait paid Ia l^din- 

bnr^S by Mr 1)krji4il) in lH4t7. Foll^nring a hint thrrtwn 

oat ^ him, a Duoibcr of prominent ScottUh Convorvatiire* 

r>rmsd ll]«inivLvra iiiti) » hmly lu wbicli ibify jfttve tbit riAmc 

■^r th« Scotlitb XaiioDftl Conatttuti^nAl AMi>cijicion- tt belli 

UA firM roectiuK in April I^Gft; but, pctbAjn brrauK il wn« 

Pf^t Mtablivtieil upon a tufHcinntly po|^[j|ar bftvix, il wo^ unable 

Id proTrnt ibc ptfltCLc*! diujtcT with irhicb chat yvai rlvaei]. 

• Ke fonviatton of tti9 Sconitb National Conititutiortal Aiao- 

<^(«4.ioa waa, jiid«ci, maintj of atrvvicr hecmiae U rmtlcroJ 

tti« ilarkitM* of Coaaffrrntive organtXAiinn vUible. By «rti^ 

^'iabiOjE a central ofTiee in EJinburgb alio, Jt ladicatea bo*r, 

*Of1 bovr only, in ihn Inn^ Tim ibai nr^niiuition could be 

f^nilcred cfTci^tire, It ira« not till li4^:f that a tcnlly ara-joua 

ttt«?ni3t wtt maj.tt? trv <Ii»eovvT ait^I iliiclpliDe ihv laient Con* 

A^PvatKin only ffaiting to bo tnppod ic Scocland aa wtrll as in 

Cnffknd. Tbcn? was tbtio furtutnl a SeuilUb NiuioTiiil 17nian 

■>f CovucTvative AuocUtiona» on tho plan of the on« already 

c^lilJog in Ku^Und. Tbe loadinic featum of ihr Union wnvr 

iha |iTDiiiiiti«iico j(ivf*a to tbe mii^ioniaiire «l»(nont basod upon 

w^f3u aMDciatiiOiM and llir institution uf a larjfi> ptipulat annual 

OonltfVOM^ Tbreo yran later a fartbor impitrlint iiiipr<»v^ 

tnruL WA4 c&ctcd in tbr party oiachinrry by tbr anutlifiimatiiji] 

^^iih ibi? Nnliooal Union of thp ofd^r Sr^ttitb N'ational Coo* 

^titational Auocialion. This atlnw^d Tariou* rcforma lo \m 

mmio, undj in pniticuiar, Bffcurwl for tb^ n*oi«iilttul<Hi organivn- 

^i«ki a irdl-ea dipped office in Kdinbtu^. Further cba-ngira took 

ptttM in iS^o, and, in Id^O, a binnt:ii irffice wnt nrnbli^bnt in 

^llMw, vrhicb U ni>«r rvGi><>ni«Ad a» lh« oapiul not only of 

^Ite indtiaCi'ia] democrvcy of Scntiaiiid, bul uf .Vorili^m Con- 

ftaUBua »a iroli, iaaamttcb m th» W<-at«rn Dittrici of iirhi<^h Jt 

** dw centre i» rp^nvvonteJ by IG Con«er*ativi?B and 8 Liberal 

UikiioaL«t« ft! againit A Svpantiit*. The Scoltith National 

U^Mo writ not, bow«rer, p1«co<l upon a p/rrmanent baaia till 

^ Parlb Conlfrwnw of I89H, when n n*w t^t of ru1«« 

^^■idftfled, by which U waa compktciy popuJariaed. To tlie 

**a«pQg character of th«»* rhangra in dn** in a v^tj can* 

^^^mkic oieasure tbc cnincntiy satiaFacEory cSaractfT of the 

*^<>tory woa in l^.'i. Tbe gniwtb and vitality of tim Union 



878 



Tlu JWtical Travifcrtvitaticii <]f Secttaxui, 



% 



I 



Arc fart1i<?T ladicjitcd in a rcDinrkntjIr DnnDiitr 1> j a fUsce U 
tom^ of the (\^um ilhiBirJ^tir*' of its hlBUtry during ihp Atc^^f 
b-\r5^b, la IS^b Ibc Union coiuisicd of {» ^WMri 
L««oFiatii)iiii, Willi an incutnf- of 240/. In Idf^ it ctiutiil«dcif 
ItfS Ai«ociaiiona, vriib na ijncomo of 3,5O0A Et«o tH thf 
r^nji iaaiiitii Is n»t |>crfrct. The vrry JmpnrtABt tnal^tr of 
rcgtUralion ic not stct^iidcd lo ac it 4>ii|;Ejt (o btr. Tli« Onl^iJ 
Ofuncil in l^S5 |fUl «tiutL«r ftnd «j>ccJal gfk-iAucr riu] 
cnlly llmf! — 

' It u » nmttor of ffTATO oo&ootQ tluLt t1i« oonnAl iticomit b 
flliort i>f iUli iiriliitiir^ iMautmaj iirpnnditniVv Ttut for tliH 
gaporoiily of d limit^il tiumlMsr of iniiriduiJ Toemborv in Tonmrf 
parU of tiootland much vtjry jmpi:jrtcmt work nnat hATo boen hA 
tindotitf. At tL« uomiuc]icnu«tjt c^f iLv yfs&r Uie orgiBmiBiug iroik od 
tlii^ CfiDtnl Ci'Uik'l] whn piuirlotihly crfiijiled for want uf uluiivt. Tlis 
dnnntions' [tliana amonntud to ncnrlp 1,000^ in ]89fi] '«bAt1«d ihkt 
wotk to bo roaumwl, Lul mnah prooioiu votk lud booa unavoU^Uj 
IohL a rcpolitioQ fit tunli largi? doiuLtjiiinfl (4ui[)oi ro*ioiubU 1m 
nukiiuud 4111 fur BUcueuilmfj Vi.tiT9, vIiiIh nt Uiu uzuu tUua evuff 4tJ 
»j34l i?v«ry ue4>k r^T'ial >ri>itk lijioU in orgaotifttion wlicL uiam U 
prLi-inpUj' fttt(?udcd lo if tUo AeBooitticu dMiKa ^ rcUiu iU itAtioofti 
obuntoloT or ti> Bdvaiio« tho intoreflts of iho l^ftrlj/ 

A somcwtint umilj^r t^mipldini whi mjidr «il lliv Auutial Cuu' 
fpr^nce of the Naliona] union, whicli wu held in Perth ]ui 
Novemticri There can he no qimttou thiiU wcie ibc &iuuicul 
potiiion uf the Union pimped on &« «ot>nd a basis ai itc f^r^uii- 
caCiou for rlrcrtionecring purpo&f^a, it would be as effectiTc at * 
timr ^f rritit— 4iich a iMting criitit at iht* rSeneral ElKTtKm, 
not of 1892, but of 16^5 — n* the rorroaponding bodj* it 
En^Kntl. I 

The I.ibcril Unionist ur^anianlion in Scotland retcoiblci li 
wttme rxirni ihe Natioiint QiQiprvativv Union, thnu^b hi 
machinery ia not aa olaboralo. While thv members of th< 
AMociationi of irhicb that or^anuAtLon u Pom|H»«d, takr ^vev 
opprtrtunitj^ that afTordi il««U of dnni^onoirtj; Cbfiir loy&lij U 
thr alliance whidi wat rttAbliahcd i[i l^Hf], thcjr taointAia ilici 
political independence on all other rjucstiona nxC9p4 that ol tb 
intrp'itv of tlic Lmpirr. Thjv an atteinpl ffbicll waa uiaJ 
liut Novrmhr^r^ <n pnu:tir^llv pifvlgf the Uniontit AMociatia 
for (he WvU oi Scotbod in advcuacc to the measure vhicU Gort^m 
ment will intTix]iJ«einiberour>e of thi*presrm jearfor thvnlU 
of voloniarv scbnoU in l-^nglnnd, was rcabtcd and defeated m 
tbe lewHim.'Lbli- ijrouud Umt tlif? ineuurR nuchi lo hn M«n b^ic^ 
Ltbi*ra] Unioniata thoutd coiuinit themidves to iu fOpjKv- 
C;>nM'nAUi'ca arc not »3ow, however, lo aulLiiovledj^ th.4 

obligvliol 




nliHi^ltoti* Ut tb<*ir al]i(-ft. At lli« receot annual dimier uf 

th«» Cons^TTAtivo AMoci(iti4>nB for iho M'eii of Scc^iUndr Mr. 

J«tncs IliMtitr* Member for S^iiEh Lanarkshirr, and one of tbe 

iDr>«t nopulnr of lU« n»pr««enutiv«« of 8o>iInnrl— in hlni, lo 

Mr. yS. A, If (inter, Imc LihAritl member f(ir \orih Abcnlcca, 

Bind Mr. VViHmm McEwrnn, ibe pn?«f*nt nominiillj Libifral but 

TvUJ^ independrnt motnber for Central Cdinburfb, Scotland 

ht tmlf^lnf^d for thr inircHTuciion nf tb'^ Pmt FilLtrntinii Kj/mern 

L ^-•<lmittcd Ehnl be and tbf^ tnajcTntj of bt« ooU«ti|;u(?» owed 

P ft&ir rrlnni at tbt^ liuit Gi'LKTtJiE Lllectiuu lu tbcr clFjrts uf ibeir 

»lfi«*«, VVhAl ii itUD of thi- VVoil of Scotland, whoro Con- 

irrvatUm \% aliongcst, ia lUII truer of tbc otbrr distncti of 

the countrv- Of the 33 Uni^niat in^nibi^n of bnth MCliont 

vko frCTc returned in l&^A, H vere Ltbcrnl Uniooiatt. 

or (li« IS anii-Sepi^raEJit mwnbt^n wbo wfre nrturnffd for 

like ^^li*t nnd \ortb of Scodni;^!, 7 w<Trc LiL>crckl Utii<fai»t«H 

Oitts of tbeip u^U — ibp Wick Diiinrt of Burifb* — but 

•iac« bcien captured by tbo Oupo»ilion at a ^^-riocUon. 

Eveu nitb tLis Iobbi Liberskl Ui>iiini»ui is mud: auunger 

in ScDtUfid, pro|>ortionucK to population, thatt It i< in th* 

rciKi*ii]der of ibr Unltc'd Kingduui* It x% repmcnted bv 14 

iii^iTibi>rt nnt of n ti>ul of 72, whvrrai the ni)inbj<T of Liberal 

Vnioniilx returned b^ BnsCand, IVnlc*, and Ireland ia 57 out 

of ■ Lnial of 'i^*^. It ii linrrilv po«tJtilif lo 'r^iu^gt-ratt tlie irn* 

portantc of ihete 5^urei in view of the probabilities — nmount- 

LOf to moral crttitmiies — wbicti are crraied h\ the ri.-K4{nniJi)0 

Ci'the Liberal leadtfrihip by Li>rd Ko««bi>r/, »nd ibe <(.>n>«<4|U«nt 

■cccidoa frotD tbe rAnka ot DiiiniegiAtion aiuI Hetulution vf 

vbwrer of mod^mtiun bi»d r«akonabl?neai i« ■till anuciated 

*ith wIhC ii balf-beartcdl/ staled 'the »fIi<iA| OpjHxitioii/ 

"Fwpttipni rear may not nritno^t the ab«irptic>n of th«e veet- 

»a(UM«, and with ibem of nil tbe tempemnotilol onuti<>n and 

nturrraiiam of Scoil^nd, in rither tti xhr ivrn Ijnroniu bodiet, 

"^1 it u ceriAin to vitneu their posiibly inlormal bnt quite 

'*^ CttablSkbnimt a* a diatiuct and iaol&tcd political vcctiont 

■B^ M ft r*«ult, to place it almott b«yoncL doubt that ibn Union- 

■■^ ■rill sccare a majority of tbe S^-ottisb tvpretcnuvtiuiij at tUc 

out Genfml EUcTion — providiJ<d iLl«Ay>,of courte, that th» iwo 

''^lOQi Wiirk t>Jg<'tbcv in hArmony, and thnt the deRciencie* in 

^*IVuu^jon and diACtpUne tu whieb aiteniion bai lietn drawrn 

itvugy Im» oqi i>f plam, in an artide dealing exi-lu4ivrEy 
^^ Scotland, to divcU at kni^tb upon the terTicec rendered to 
'■•^pt*^ of tbe wurld, to true patrioitBia, and lit tbt can»i> of 
P'j^ital morality, bvLord KL>Bebery '< roi^onti^Jii of the Liberal 

ToL 185.— ^i». ACS. T lc»d<;rsbip. 



■ 



J 




The PolUical 'Dan^ormatton K*fScoti(md, 

If.-idrrsbjp, And hy tbe apctcU cxp]nnM'>rv of hit attinn wMcfc 
h***leliveferi in Rilinhurgh nn fhe Mih 4*f CViohpr U*t. Kot ih« 
Action, Utlicn in conjunclion wiih the condtict and spcccbot nt 
Li>rd RosphtTj wIliIp be wns still PcyiniFTt in^Ant a revoluLion 
in f>coil»h Lil>CTAl p^litk^- llr tnny not rrapond, aI \aM 
immntrnlrl^, to tttp Jip|tral rrcpntl^ inmlc to liim on brlinl/ «( 
the Lilwrnl UntonistB hy Mr. Edwanl Dicey, to ■take hu pU^, 
DOl k'Eiijmiiiitl V but ^irrriiJincTnil/, In ilir TAnks uf (hint vho 
aphold ibe righc« of property, intlividual libertv, Sntdom cf 
contract, tUv maintvn&ncc of tbc Union, an<I lb<^ Imprful 
mUtinn of tbr Britkh Hmpim.* Whntirvcr mhy be in ston fur 
him, bowcTcr, hi* recent action and present position — «veri If 
h enntinu*' ibnt of unHTuble (M^tilltbrluni — iiivoKt? {]ie Gnil 
breach ni Scotlnnd with those Glodsioninn principlf* and 
tnulitioHK whSrb ^'tre to ibe poiicy of llie Opposition the lillle 
vittilily it ktill ]i'is»ea84^<< 

liven from the pt^raon*! point of view, :hU hrrMTAliaQ t* 
leriout enoughs Sinn; Mr. Glnifit4>ne'< reclremenl. Lord Roch- 
brrj- baa (?xcrlcd a greater political ioflutnce in Scotland t^ 
any oth«r mnn. H^ iIIviiImI thi^ allrgiAnco nf hit oonnirj* 
men witli ht3 ftomctimi? chief, even white the latter wa* an 
Acitvi- tWrr, If Mr GWitrmc vtxi. ihi' RimAjiarir, be wa» ihe 
Cam ot of the lirirt and ffrcntctt Midlothian campnijcn, wbieh 
threw Stotliitid into ibr arms of LibcialtBUi. Mr. Balititfr, wbu 
ia a ScotEmnn prcciHc^ly at Lord Koscbery ia, la ncoivttd wilfa ma 
much enttmaiAsm north of the Tweed as be U Sn Rochdale or 
Miiicbetter Tin* tnergy and fnrc^ <if character which Mr. 
Cham b<rir Jain Jisplavcd laM yror when ronfnwtrd with ino«l 
formidable d^ngrri nnd dilTiciiltic* at the Colonial Oflicr*, bare 
had a special attrii4.'lion for Scotivicn ; iLnd there naa, iherefore. 
ii'ilblMfj; verv Murpriaiiig in bia recent clt'cliuii sts Luid H'^inr of 
Itlna^ow L'nivcraity. Both Mr. Balfour and Mr. Chauiberlaia 
bavi-, bowtfver, identified ibdinEclvca wilb Inipvjial alalraaian- 
abip aineo they began to take part in public life. But, wbiW 
Lord Hoicbrry tins not neglected this aspect uf poliltci — hia 
aeverunce fri^m tbe Liberal Party, indeed, meant ih** compltt^ 
triumph of * the Impcrinl inilinct ' !n lii« naturi?— be haa alwava 
laben a warm inlereii iti Seotbind and in ICdinbufgh^ whicfa, 1J< 
biA political farrwd!], br d<^cribed aa * mine own aociont citf/ 
Scot land i% in fact, tn bim, what Binnin^bam U to Mr. Cbambrr- 
loin. All lejfiilnlion for tbe benefit of his native coantrr ha^ 
found in biui an earticat pfoinoier. The Bill ctcalin^ a aprrbal 
Minitter or Spcrclary f<iT SeolUnd wai paiieil bj a Coni^rvaiirr 
Adminiatnilion, but Lonl Hi>aL-bcrjr waa tbc leadiu^ apirit ia 
ihe movement wbida ltd to iu introduction aiMt accurrd 

cnactvn 



1 



The Potiticul Trantfiirmaficji c/ SccrtlaTid, 2T5 

«nirr[in'»n<. Snr, vhi>n th«> rnua^g of hit pr>pt>Urit^ nre Mn^ 
<natDtntedt should ihc fuct be forgottcA ihnc, jiioic iban an.v 
ntbrr af ht« rf>nt«>mporMHe>, hit nnirp is aKocintc4J willi tliaL nl' 
Pumi, It In nf>t merely tliM h« i* ft cloi»^ simlr-nf fiod wnrm 
■tlmlrrr of ihr* pfx*! whom he hns ilrirribMl ii« * Sroilimcl's Maki 
0^ Dmtiny,' nnil (bat hp took tUi* firat pnrt in th? L^ulc^bratiooa 
of itr crncpDary tif (be di^nrh nf iIlai * Mnn iif IVnitnv-* ft 
linoEmeroh' iUaI bo has nnveilnd innumerable Hums »imuc!i, 
wd Utbr p^iruti of iniiuiiiri^btcr I3iirEi« Cluti^ He lYpreseiiti 
tpnn coiiip[ctcl;r tbftn any 'Jihcr living ihati thrv Htirna ipiiic in 
ScotianJ — ibal Hi^Jrii wliicb U Jn vmie rrapcpt* nnla^rmiitic U> 
tif naiionfti Pnulnif^rianUm, and yot al (Sw samo tiiui- mioglo* 
*ti-h It; which fluff* vrnt in genial huinuur, KTolt «gftln«i 
ulfipIj' anifkcinl Ofrnventionalitl^i, and inditflvrenc^ to f^^aiy tori 
M bEwti«i»m> U'hcn» during Lord Hmeberv'A Prcinirrship, 
ibc < ^^Anrrlnfo^mUt cnnidcnrr* * in Fngland law fit tn intrrferft 
<'ithhi« private p!ra»urc£, and tf> ci-naurc him for running race- 
^«n«j Rrritiiih liiiBmr wa< fiil(*nt, Ij>rd KoiiehoTj \% in ahnrt, 
the nDbodimfni oi Scnllish hrartineH in ihn cyca of tbow — and 
^w tre, jwrhapi, rrn^rc numeroUB than ii rnminonly bfli*'v'^il-^ 
*ho do not t«t(c a profound intcT<*at id the qneftttons ibM divide 
^ritiil] parltra nnt\ t^rralr Scotliih «i>c1a. They will fnllow 
■iW, vbatcvrr be tb* poiiliun bt Ukca up in the political world, 
*Ad ibal kimply Im^ouiau they llkr hinj and bia views upon 
>biags in general. Of no other Jiving !>cnt*man can thit 

Bot Lord Riw4*Sr*ry*t r^fi^atinn of t}\f Lih^rjil I*>adorthip in 
^*cn mote imporUni from the parly itandpoini than ai a aia^i' 
01 in IntemElng carper. It rnrnnt not only lh« b»« to SroctiBh 
ubcraliani of the most popular ScoTBtnAn of th« day, but tbc 
*Wdonm«at of the nr>Ui'v wlib wbich Mr. Of (id<ton«? rfinou^rvd 
^land in 18^). It ba'i [two said thai thi* firat Mtdlolhiati 
^pai^ 'WA* won on Hidgitna and OiiMtabUnhra-^nt," Thia 
*» roajfb' and -ready ilatemtfnt ci tbe nnquettionabic tatt ibat 
^'. (■(uJMtmp imi^l hli virltiry to biH unmcHHurfd A([urha 
"pon th« foToiffn policy of l^rd Hcaconatield'i AdminibtTntifin, 
■*(! lo bu bnving rrccivcd the luppori of the mon fervid And 
*VpMiir« u«tion of purely Scollitb politiciant, th« curious 
'^'BiUnalion of tffcnIaTiftU und aectarian* who BCck :bc iivcr- 
^tow of ibe Church of Scotland, [c tt quite iru« chat tUe 
'**'^tn vf th« IcadSn; ecclniaatical bodies in SeotUud thnt arc 
'"BV^l i" pf(npri]tin;r ihit miitinn of dratroerion — tbi* Fr^e 
'^ Uniti-d I'rcsbyienan CbuTcbcs — did not obtain in I8fi0 
*di»|nci pledge from ^Ir. Glad«ion«< in favour of Diie^iablUh- 
^tu. He would not go further iban the declamtion made io 

T 2 1»77 




27(5 



Tfie P(Mtit:al Ttaniformatlon 



1S7T bj Loid Ilartiii^tutik wbv wa» leai3cr of Ibe LllH;raI Party 
d un Tiff bis twm nf reciremeni: * VVhf*n<>i'ef Srotcjcb omQian,4r 
cTcn bcoltiib LibemI opinion, u fallv iormrJ upon ibis >abj«t, 
I rbink tliai 1 may v«*iiiur« r<» «iiy, on behftJl of ihr UWnl 
J^iily « a whole, ihfit it will be piY-purrd to dc»l wiih tti» 
qiu-ation upon ttc mintu, an<1 wjibout ivfnvnce to mnj otbrr 
conviJeratioii/ He wen mude % p]vdg«, from wEiicb b« wwm 
npyet nblr «i]hicr|i]rnlly to fXtTirnu* himKrlff ibnt tbr i|a(-itixi 
oJ Soutti^b Di«c«t4bli>^)mcQt would, Like tbt* nlmutt idemial 
qufHstiori ill lu'land, hv acttlrtl Ei^ » Gpnt-rfll Klntioi) loroiii^ 
upon thai iBAue alone. But the ImdcT* of tb<= Di«eitftbUftbm«tt 
agilatkiu ici:k<>unl uii the ullimJitr tunvciMon of Mr. G[adal««0 
to Iheir viewi, proviilml thf^ thT<?w in Iboir lot with ib» Libml 
Pntt}^ and lUpprrTlrt) its ^cncnil polic^y. Kvcots pioTfd th^t 
tbey w^ve wise in th«ir |*i<nrralion, ihi^ugli it wai not clll l^^S 
ftnd llir^ j/cAi'B vificr tbc ScotUsU DiM»UtJj]isliau:nt icadnn btd^ 
Ai^tin^ on the ttit ut iks principle, givi^n their lupport to Home 
Hulr. ibrkt Mr. Gladstone niftJe bU ooafnuon — »nd tubiaiMioit 
— «t Si, An^rllT — 

^1 bA^l ftllf^wud tliv i|uoatjon of Socitliab DiBt^UbJiaJsnK^t Io0>l9 
B dcctsiou tvrjuc, iu iwpbraUf atmIoum vf PBrliMaon^ befor* l^nw 
Any [inrl upiiii it iiiyHidf. Tlkvint; witit<ii?i40(l tl^nl dmiMo mndl, I 
couf«Bft tbat I utB of cpiniou that tbo timo hu wino nlion tbc M«i» 
of Soolhmd ban bocn DafBciontlj and nnoqitivovftUj dooUnd.* 

Thir DiM'BtOiliftliuienl leaders wero merely mga^d in tlorjmH 
tb* Librr*! position in 1§S0, bui ibii T«rrj cjrcuinsiftno^ miJe 
tbcoi cxr«ptionnIlj cnergeiic. 

Lord Ro«nh>ory'i attiiudf< towsrdc brrch th^ KAst^n QQntdoD 
and Dt>r-et«bli»bm«nt i« so diRVwni from Mi. (llii(is<ono"i *■ 
to invojvf? the Inyinji down nf practicnllj op|yi«t(r p[iliejp& II 
was, Ii(? sAid in hta Ldinburf^b sp<^(>cb, (he notion of Mr 
Gtitdstnni> in nmnln^ fcirwArd vritb \ pmpi>»l for vbc soluU^D 
ol the Armenian problem that precipiintcd Uii reu;;n&tian ---^ 

'Our leibdi^r — fipt Mr. OIh^UIouo luunt hIuiijs Ind Itu? Libttt^ 
Putj' ahon ha winhciti — onr loxrlnr bnn eomn f-i-rtli it: ■ r^\t tf^ 
iubliTOo spirit; hot ho Lm «qaidiy inntiocnlly, aii^l not? umfidond J ** 
bimMlf, deliTerod IIau fittal coup <Jf r/nifr lo Iiiei hucocBpot ; b<ic*w* 
hum»ver luuuli I luuy difTur ^i^h Hr. Qltttbitoije iu ujtiutuu lO 1^ 
fjnort'Lon OP on thut,, T nnvpr will appf^kr In sbnrp nnnHlrt wilhi* 
wJt«n 1 am hold'tig tho poaitiooi titular or ollkorwisOf of lo^if' ^ 
the LibcNkl rortj." 

Lord K<3»pbcrT diflf?rt*d nncl scpamtcil frooi >Ir> GI»diton' 
becauat? hr. believed thLil the poUcy uhkh ihe laUei nd*'o<*l'J' 
trodid vnd in a European ^Tar. V«t Mr. GladitoDo bimwl 



77t4 FUiHcal Trajuiformation ^ScotlojuL 



271 



rcfanlod hit Arm«nUil pr^licr as iht Jo^icnl reiuJt of tb&t 
vbich hn hud, hy rnrnnn of prijinUr ^ghntinn, puniirJ nt ihr 
dm* of the |{ul;*Tiriaa alrocitict. Whether he ivm rijiht or 
<rn>ng id sri rf'g^;ilirii; It U of BeconJ^T}' im|ioi(»rtc^ in the 
pffteat cotiAcction. 'J'hc point to bo conaidcrcd and omphn- 
HicJ ia thai ihr StcvttUh section of tbc Lilwrral Parly wimlJ 
b*e followM Mr, GU*lBt<»oi> but for Li>rvl Ro»obnrjr*» opportune 
ud tOectavc iiiicrfcrenoc, and his dcf^lAmlion ihAt ^ itny l{rili*h 
Mbutor irbr> rufpf-*'t ain^ltvhrtndvd in » Europtfan War exoi*p( 
onilcT the preiton? vf ihc ilircti ncccMity, cii^cpt undci intiMr>(« 
itiirctlv and diitiociivelj Brtti«b, U a crtmin»l to liw pouctrv 
tad ^is tru*!.' Bui Lurcl Ki>S[rbcr}- not only L'Ut TiimMiLf adiift 
itom -Mr, < 1 lac 1 itlnnc'ii pnlicv ; hr indirnifil n pf>licj of hi« own 
"bich ii diamrtricallr opposed to his ptcdcccsio/*- Thu new 
de|ariLirf it 4>c(Ationfd by tU*^ riirinidHule juhltiitnis, amoumirkg 
to %fi(hyfiiXi lAuaro miles, which bavo williin the past twelve 
fv^n been oddt^d tu ih« Empire 'tn tUn shaiw of actual 
uiiuutioii, or of dominion, or of what it callM a tpbfire of 
LUflaTQcc/ ilaviujf iJtustr'iEed tbi? importance of tUesr juldi* 
uoni^ by aotm^ tbnt the>v ^ nimjuot tu twi*nt^'tw(> ar«u ai largc< 
u ihc LToited Kingdom, L« »td ; 

■ THa tnaika otit for many j-e^m a pdior frcpin wluoh j"ou cannot 
^tpvt if jv^ij ^ualrL Yua lU'iy Iw uouipoUed tu druw iho Mwnrl-^l 
IwM TOQ may not bo — but tho for^^pi ixtlicy of Uroftt Gntain, niUH 
W torritory ia ooniolidatoil, fillud up, >«itL«d, oivilisoi, until thj^ 
pitfU ia hardfin«d into bono* mUil incritablj be a policy of pcaoe-^ 

Ttierc could be no greater rontrait chsn that between Mr. 
Qbhfone'a policy of a passionate synipaihy witLi ^ oationajiticf 
■tnjggling to be free/ of EnH;lAnd tnking the initinUve in the 
^nccit of Europe, or, jf need be, nctin^ cipart from it, and Lord 
RoirWry'i pnlirvof thi* maiuienancv of peflri^nt any prire exrrpt 
Wflur, ami the eomplete aabordination of our iotercil* on the 
Eminent V> th^ (.^niai.>Hibt(io[i of our CotoniHl 1 Jiiplr*'. That 
^heScottUb Libern-U g^nernlly approve ol thia ncv departure ia 
Wjtiod rjtieilion. Sinre l^ml Rosebcry aailod liis ccjluurs to ibe 
^Wt two of hit chief colJea;;ura in hlft abori'livAd Adinini«1in- 
*^, Mr, Jolui Moilcy niid Mr. Aw^uith, have deUvcrctl political 
>pt«che> in Scotland ami ai Scoiiuh repreventatiref, and bav« 
^'''tailed L-'id Hoicbrry's policy in question. 

The rJmngi" in th*- pnaiiion of Scoiti«h [Jberatitm that ha* 
^••n broujfht abont by LoeJ Roicbcry'a restgnation, becomes 
^» more martwl when it is con»idered in eonnrrtion with th^ 
'^ purely S^cottiah qccation which at the preaent day can be 
^OuidenJ of general Britiah importance^ Xotite haa alr^^arly 

bc«D 



We I\tUHcal TYan^armatmi t^f 



fi 



been tnkcn oi Mr. GUtUtonc'i romplctc suiirmlpr ti> tbc Icaim 
of ih« Di»«ntiiit( pTtoftb^tenaTi bodi«>« ut St. Au»t«n in 18S4, 
B« being thrir rrw»d for iLrv^ving io ibcir lot niUi ^ 
uadividcd Libcrd I*nrtT "i lt60, and witb llir Hoib« Unit 
fcclicjn i>f il in 1330. Uttving in^Jt' tli<? turTcnflcr, Mr- 
OlndttoTiP flnunrcd hU rlijiin*, H^* miulr Srortj*h m well i* 
WdiU Diic*UljIi»hnipnt r\ pUok in thf? autliorijicd Liljcptl 
Atfnrrik. In 1^91 h«< «fi[fl, * 1 will aicnrr hnth SrotUiul ^ad- 
'd1» tbat ibcy hnvc ibc UDAnimi>UB support of tbc Libi?n1- 
PnTty.* Twti jpars latrr Iip prumiied ii Stiv|vawrj' Rill in this 
Queen'* SpeocL. Th<* *omo >cari rcfptring tn n Bill ft>i K*-* 
cilnbliibinir tb<! Cburrli nf SrorUnd nhU^L bad been latruduonS 
by Sir Cbarl(>B Cameron, tb^rn <*nc of tbv Membcru for Glatpi«r J 
h<} «aid : J 

' Tbe Hill i« ftQ offttrin)^ ftrr llicr ml^v of pcaoo. But if it Ui funn^ 
impocAibk to clo&a up tlio oontrovnrvjr on ihcuu^ tcriiif, yaa u>9 i 
Hbotrtf to coet tboeo couoosnioti* to tbo v^indi^ Obd Mt out &om a no 
frtarticg-point, and to claim o full, im febaolute, liborlj to aaIg for 
wLul juti tbink jujiticu AatniutB lu lliv wuj uf abau^ate IH^ 
««tft1iIi«LineDt.' 

In Wil Sir WilliaEii Hnrroun, Mn GtntUt<>iit a cliic/ Uc«i* 
tenant in tbe Home oi Commont, spoke of DiiPttAb]i»hoi#Dt \n 
bia utu&l uncuinpruruisin^ faabiou ; 

' WLatov4?L' iWubl Ui' hualtatiuu (bum may bavo bttuu is ibt Llbsu 
Pitny ii^ f:iniLnr tiiiieq, tbcru is nana now. It in ft f^noAtioci hat* to 
Sootbuid of KLijTOiin <i<jiiJLbty, unci of unfair TnoiLopoIr by ft pftrtSooUr 
ObUTGbi vrLicb rmgbt to etiuid upon tbd Mmo fkn^liDi; «« all tU 
olbnr*. ITpiin thic t^iafter tixe mind nf tlitt LiUirAl rnttyimua^ 
up, and thoy oro prapured to carry it to ui iuiiii«diuta and iW 
ifi«uo.' 

Hui when Lord Ki»^bery became Primn Miniiivr in l^H^' 
adopted a irry diUcrcal tone. Ho went ia Kdiobur^b; Wt* 
the 11th of Marciu and from a plalfonn on irbio-b lir v^* 
*Qppoitc<] by sovcml of ibc DisMntJn^ lea^cra, be mado ^ 
TPiTATlcnbtr* and (rbarncterUtimlly candid cnnfeniori t 

' Voo ^^olll^L not think it tifibl of nao Ui flififruifio th& wft-Tiatwin 
tbftt I hare oftoQ cxpnuuod irhtoh tuan ooimki lo luony of Uiom v^ 
vtriaU tor Diataltiljlisliiuoul, but uut tu all, that u Slatt. if it \hi^ 
wpII to do sfh, l.Afi Jdht aa nnioh right to inatnt^ln an EdKbli^ 
Cburob for it« osru furpoKie and ito own Lutoro«1« a« it btf ^ 
crtabliab « «lwdiii)i: onu; or «ij olhor iiutitution iLal it Ihin^ 
rigHt/ 

It i» DO ciatcgeraiion to aaj- tbat a acveier bloit woa £<Tt' 
•truck at tb^ cauifr of Scdtiltb Dix>«iablUbttieat ib:Lii ^ 

ntlcnA^ 



7'A« Pafitical lyantfQ^maiion of Hcotlaini, 



479 



uukr in tlie f'imfmiil of iti ptM^tmiituit?^ Lntil Rovbi^ry 
lLimML[ did not iccm to m« Ui« c^verilv rjf tfao blow, for ho 
proceeded, 1>v wa^ of coiuoUtlon to liU DUMriitiiif; «(ippirrtrrflt 
(OBJ, *Aft lo9ft ft« I arrive %t the froiJ at which my friomli 
b«hinJ me wUU to arrtrr, 1 do nol lUliik it luaiicnt pniticu^ 
htW the path by which I Krrivn at jL' Thii mm aiJdiiijt 
Littall lo jDJurj-* aikd none the leu to becauvc it ira« quite 
Dninii'aEinnjiU For l^nl Hoi«h^ry t^i^ined to hm^c co coh" 
■ciODflncM of tLc •upreuM! cUini of the ckrical ]<«den of the 
DUpuiblbbnirDt Partj to bue tbi*ir of ilatinn nnt on iniuidm- 
cinai of political or ecctrstutiea! ezpcdioncj', but on the 
priudjilr ihat the State h:u no right vhotrvrr to ioinrfrrn in 
ipititiuE tDAttcri. Of the two Dii>cclinir bodies which are 
ti prtt^i;] iLoiu^i in ilirmamliii^ DJir«Eji1>liihiziMtt, tl»e eldrf, 
'■hr i'niiod PrfsbjUriui Chsrcb, is foonded distinctly upon 
"h*[ ii iuova in SeotUnd s» * Voluularjimi ' — tn utiier words, 
ii]un Iba priocipW of Stat* eidcuit>n frocn tb« •pirtloaJ sphere 
ornpil to iti exirenie. The fandamcntoj ccclfsuoticot tract of 
ibe Fm9 Church, which dow standi <hi the nsM* platform oa 
^^ Urito] j^rcabjtefioQ Cbsrcb, U 'ipirltusl >nd«pcDilrace ' 
<tf nmptctc CbttKb imoaooijr. Whea that Church was frcated 
u> 1843 OS a K!*al< of a kohob Inm the EetoUJebaicot, its 
^ounilnri dvTUfvd that di* OB^UiUAioce of ibe 4actH>ke of 
*>puitual tndcpcfiJencc ' was aot at all incooipatible with the 
^wogvition of tlfee State's dqtr to endow tbp itarhla^ of 
^vntA reUpwB. B«t &ftj jevM of * Voloatoryiam' ia 

ErsciitT bare Iwndvbl %haat a cUoo^ io the atdfiie of the 
rtv Clurrb tormrds iku au«<uoa. tu p r ieil lm4tn Wv* 
^^»iiullj oimI faD^ cm tbeHeeins adrift fron Um RgNJiluhiaeiir 
^aciple wbicA mmm ymn af* pvoeed a fotoj obmmtU Co tW 
ttoiuniiiation wf a moeeHBM bctwicn their Ckonli aad llw 
UnltH PresbyteraD bvij. Tbej baee not o«lj nied with 
iLt agifienire pom i« tbal rmitnnBina egotftat ifae <wawoB 
"*al bai tbej bare tfanm tb s M ^l Ma h s arti lj iai» e 6a^ 
■K^ittmctit for oQMtt Ltiwcm the tvo ChMBfcn, 

!/>rtl Howber^'e ipiMfc ne afl o«tw MOe^iMJ by iW 
promcjicrs of DiicilabGifaMcMt ee a dtetfrevs cfcadc I* ihesf 
«|i(uinn< It woe m naa ib^ am^img it Cw^ig » ItttS. 
^ contcmEed thai «Mr psiky Ml figMj •■ SeaOMb C^ 
*italilishinmt Es uagiUe ^sl wmAammA* Aa 
^btiihiDPQit lilie 

'^llie people, or ll 

•U recogiiised at oocv aa ttMi^ a mm/^^m mt 

■'i^cial i:onvi«:tioae ' aa 




280 Th9 Pvlflicai TVonifcrmatioJi ^ St0tlmd. 

U wnB %. %f*Y* ^^ ^^'^ C^rbffrus of DiicstabUihrnoTit, praoKl* 
ft! Lord Ho4cbcrj'» otbcr dfcliiratton l^xaX xht 'bempentct 
men* are the l)nckh*^ne of rlip Ubprjil Panj wat&inptodif 
ttdvcCMca of Locnl Xcta in AnJ outiidc a{ his Cnbinct. Bcsfdn, 
It crtntninrtl n drx'innr* 1o l1i«* aJr»|>Tion and appUntion of 
which xhv »upp4>rl«rB '>r itx* Cburtih nf ScolUoil h»rr no 
Abjr^tion, Thrv askwl Mr. fSljidjitoiip morr ihati oncp lo *3I« 
the 'wilt di xhv people' lo bo dedftrMl, ^itbet io acootiUiKv 
with hia own »(ig^8iii>n, bj^ a Ofncrftl KIpction d^voUid t> ihu 
ifliuo aloncf ^^^ '^y '^ pUbitdtc^ Their reqiust was imk ^Futed. 
and ibc retuon la not fur to ac*k. 

Since i\\*f pMsingtin 1674, of iho Aot «holjthinc pntracif* ic 
thcChurch of ScolUnd i^movcd X\\c ccdciiailicai ^rieruicewtnci 
led 10 the teceitloH of 1S13, tlie Eaubltthmeint bAi b««ii npLdR; 
regfhining \\\c giound Icrvt in con«egijeacc of (hitt KTi^^'Ott' teni. 
TakiTiff th« ktpct date up to which fttMtiitin n*Win^ U^ the 
itTCOiCtii of nil (be tltfTcn-nl ScoHlbIi dcnomiivili'ins K&ve bocQ 
hmught, wp f nd ihf 'rnmmimir.Fintu' in ihr FjtnMinhnwm — ihc 
men (vnd women, thai i» to aav^ who, bavio'j solemn!*- jndic»tMi 
their Hiiiociiiliorj with ih*^ Clinrch, rvul] v i:iji)*(tlLUlr tl* sirvii^b — 
outnumltitr th* 'cotnrnunicnnU* tii rill oiIkt Procrat^nt Chnrcho* 
tiikt*n lo^tbrr bv T1,H4J^, »ind imtnutntwr thrt *c»minuaicftRt* 
of th« \yto Churches that nra eoeking its cvertlirov b; 16t>,W)l9- 
Hiibcrio xhv. SrnlEtilt DiBHentrng b<idir« bni'r utrmtfullj 
reiittod a n^Ujitioui cpnaus, BuC the Heporti of (be Rc>|n^Mn 
Geoer&l for t|i<.* It-'ii jcnrs ending 1892 (Elir laEcU publiihrsJ) 
■how Ihd p«iv*ntage of marriagea pcTfnrmt^d according to it*^ 
rites of ibc Church of Scotland to be 45'8S, m.% as^umt • 
[WKwniagp of 31 "05 perlortoed hv I-n*^ *?hurch and Unittfct 
ProbvE^rian xninUters. If non-ProCeiUnt and irre||iilat roar- 
Tjaj^K ar«* excluded, the Church of Scr^tland perrrata^ rues tP 
d^'i)6, or nn abiolalP mnjoritj over all other dcnominalioiw- 
Thr pnpuUtion mlhi-nng to the Kulabliibmrnt it l,rt2S,;?7l ; 
the popatation ndherinp; U> the ChuTchci thnt arc com pwiiajT 
iu liMwiifjill is 1^377,5*^3, It folluivH lUi^n^forfr thM, avrc 
Scotland iLikcd to a dircet and vinccrc Emhion wtielbcv or 09t 
it appiovrk of DitipalaLliibia<fUti the aiUucalca t>i that yi.hcy 
would, to «nv ibff Isait of it, barn an uphill \Ml\» ta ^fE^^ 
Bat bow could thcj- be expected to fi^ht with iiny bc^rt or bop* 
of ftocce** und^r s parlinrrienUrj' I^d^r who took iho fiis^ 
opportunjEv that offered iUr^lf to him, After hta a<CGe«*ioQ tofh^ 
Premiership, of plaHa|f a Chuicb in the stm^^ relation I« ih^^ 
Slate M \ standing arinjt and so of virluallj' dcnjriDg the t*iO^ 
principlv of ■ VflluninTj'icm 'f 

So much for the position of Lord Rosebcrj towards the tfJ^ 




EtUb paHtic?ftl <|ur4tion of th« firet jiriporinni^ft, wbiU h^ wah 
tlill muxiW bv ofltc<« aad committed to a prrjiriimnjc- which 
vftt ni>i i^f hit inrp]>iir>n. Ihu thi* G^^n^rnl Election i>r l^^Jb 
OAmufzlcrl LoH R'>i(^brrT| Aod he li^tok Jtn cnrly opporlunilT nf 
^m^iuiK'ing j>T<>gra[iiin«*B niid cnlliug uue fur the ' coni'tntrntirin ' 
«r bi« pjirir — not, hovFcvor, upon Scoitisb DivcfttabHihtnr'iii, 
but upon the reform of ihe ITouiP nf Lorilij, Ami now thni hn 
haa fxMnplfit^i) hit virtntidpAtion by cuElin^ himself adrift from 
iht ibftokUu CAFF?* at A mere lilitltir lendi-iBbip, hv hati not 
rfic»n<«4 on* of ihe heretiei vrbioh ttruek terror to fh« 
hamrU of the MIoiacts tbnt lookrd to him not onljr for li^ht 
tnd IrwHng but for riLthmiiuin. He luniU Apart froni thv 
LibcnU PaTtV, but >« «UU the mo»t influential Liberal in 
ScotUnd. Not iWb b^ tlArtd Hlune. Sinof his rKlrement 
nunv of the leading Scotch membora, incluiJine Mr> Jrihn 
Motley, Ml. Awiuilb, and Sir llenij- CAirpliell-RannermAU, 
hare ip"ik*n on th^ qonition of th* Tarmcv rau<H-il hv th&t 
mlrcmrnL Not one, not even Mr, Morfcy. h*t* t}c<:\nje6 
■puDBt lh« ultb[D&t^ r«litrn of Lofl Rosebery — the return on hi.i 
own terait iind with hit own policv — to ibo poat which be 
rr«tffn«H]. Muny, tuirb at Air. Munm*Fer^ifton, the Metnb«r 
for Leith and one of ihr Whips to ihe late Liberal Government, 
h»v* derlftrrd jnr<juivi»mll_v for hi» rrrwlh Sir Tlicimai 
Gib«oii*Cftrmichji,e], mccnior to Mr. Gladalone in the rcpreirn- 
tttiufi uf Midlcilhlati. iiidicutt-d in & s|ieech whii^h he ileiiiTreil 
tn lb* Lib«TQ] Aaftotriaiion of that cr>unt^ in the beginning »f 
Utt December, what he and other friendi of L^rd Ho«e1)erv 
hop« wilt be xh^ <viiir«» o( events. After admitting the 
diriuoDt in the Liberal F*rtj, and that h would not be worth 
Wding nniil ihete had ^ven ptaL'e to unitv, be Hid thai when 
the day of Jinion came, 

' £f it sfaoold bo ft>m\<.\ thai the Under ohndeo wu tlie honorurr 

li*ra«>d«at of ilio MidJothLhn Liberal A«flooialion [Lord Bu«eb«ryJ, 

thvy would oil rejoice, becAnao tio belitiTo) that ui that jnri of 

SflinlniMl at any rato tliny reeognised Ihnt thcini wt no man fnoro 

<!a|wblo of rvpxuMsDting what is beet in Lib«rLliftm than that mait 

^h.t> bwl at ouo ortaiH m ttto I'nrty'e hietcirj dooo «uob f^uod nervioo 

W Ua caoM bj briji^u^ Mr. GUdstucLe W Hidli^lhiEUi — that luan 

whu at aDoiltcrr i:ns(s lu th« P«Tly'« )ii4lL>ry lind uLovrn ifiat hn wu 

Itoi ofnkid to toko up thd reins whidi Mr, Gkdatone had laid down, 

«bd ytho at a third ctitifi in the Party's history hoil shown that ho 

Von willing to pat oa one aide the tcmptnticiua to occupy a high 

iKioitirjdi, 111 urder tudu his heit i\>r tliti imit}- cjf that PLirty i^bidi he 

troflMd a couitituenoy to Jou^ re]>rt<iH4nted oa lhlidl<ilh]4u hod b^eii 

hgr Hi' QUdi(too« would noror forsake/ 

HeK 




J 




282 7^16 PoUiirat Traiififorinatvm of SetitlanJ. 

IJcrv wvr Lurif, Ilk \hc find ]:i|jicr, A ci^nfcuion ibat llieic ti^ 
1WO pdrfLc* in Scrjitiih Libpniwm, and in tU* »mxiIh1 the 
OKprt'SAion <ii Tk hope tbat tbc modtnitt* »cction> to which ItOtd 
Motfh<'ry hju »p«cul Aflinitiea, will hnvo lU waj^ in the cctmirg 

Bur by for ttw mo»t iignlfioarit <p**(?rh rhat bfti l*w»n d#lhrttil 
in f^ilrin<i t\ncf Lortl Ro&cbcrv s ro«]|7ifLtion i> one wbicU 
Mr. Willinm McEwnn, M.P. fat thi? Cpurml Diviirou of EdiD- 
hurgb, ina<tu before bU consUiuenU on ttio 20tb of Norvmbcr. 
Mr McBwan nover tpeaki in ibv IIt>u*c of Comuiaa** tti 
b4> is rpcofniMd At one of the most inBacntiAt of SooUiib 
r'prc'ti^u('itiie<i, Hti I* aiitf uf tb« Irw men iif ^ivnE nt'^llb ift 
S<:otUn(] who tirlhrrcil tn Mr. Gindilone after Home Rolo btolir 
Lt}i tUf LiWiJ Fnrlj in IB^ii. Ell« tiiumpb ovcrr tbe Uoio ttlK- 
h*» repri-vvntvd (Iw Cc-ntral niviiion wh*n Mr. Gkdi 
ppcnlrfl lr> ilir coujUr^ in ibnt jrcir Ttrnih ooc of the icw ca 
Intloni In a cap at defeat and humtlialiori. If h^ 1ft na 
rioqucntf Air. McHwan ii oulapokca. He hat ncrcv bc^ital 
to uM bU tnind rn his rnnuiti]i>nt«, m'l^n whrn bit vinvt, 
upon his tatc chief* second Home Rule Bitf, were diamctrmtl 
iknpoi(>d to tbott- of the rank and fil*- i>f Sh Party, But in 
hit Tccf^nt ftdilrcM Xo hit ronittiiucntti be iuq)JV4ird bimaclf itj 
cNtaingc, rnndoiirf ami lucidity. He attacked ilir Oofi-rnmeai 
and bU own Party with equal vigour. Ho doacribed ih& 
Engliah Eduuilion Bill itf latC ti^ttioa aa an 'ilbcxnuidemJ 
iiiv*>urc>' He denounced the AjfTicuHuralRaliiii- Acta* 'odiou 
clft^i K'j^i&lution ^ and * the itiott duureiliLablr Uill ibat bat bcEa 
patted in my lime/ It cannot ba said, tbcrefare. that It wutB 
n Cvii»e)vaiiie in dtt^fuiic, ot even at an undeclared Li 
Unionist, tlint b« praised Lord Kutobery and ataailfld 
modern iirndrikci<-« iik Librraliam with equal cotdiality. Ofliio 
jtto b^ad^T of bit Pftrty, he taid : — 

'Lord Itoaobery't oonnLgc hot bc<n nooCHflil in nvLrdbg off* 
Cittn«tr<mlii\ and ho has novor eftood lii[<beT iu tho vttimatioD of Ai* 
itatifjTL ttiuii tiuw. IlappLly. AtUioti^ be Imb rtei^iied tbo lotdextlupv 
bf« hoA rf4 li^ft fhn PATty or jnibUo lif& I donbt nnt thai bitlilttO 
will eonio again, unA that hfe will ytt pity fi great riif in tfct pnblUv 
Uf« of tbi« Dountry/ 

Mr. Mcl'^wan alto pouTi:d o^ntempt on what he dcacribtd i^ 
uhe dap-irnp ' about the nfcettiiy for the bend »f a Uboi^^ 
Admutietration bcin^ a member of the Hotuc of Cocitcoiiff- 
He krpt the rnont pfTecltve portiont of bis speech, however, h^ 
the mittfeeds ol hit Party. 

' Al prcflont ^a hmo noithor a orocd nor a policy ; and eotH v^ 
Iiaro ono or othori no ofTootiTo coDoortod ftctioti la pMcdhlo, It «M * 



77i* PotilifGl Tranitjbrmutxon if SeaUanti. l&A 

'Ik dftj for Librr»li«u vihou »d Uriftbd nunj From tijo LlhnnJ 
1 8%^ ilrjfl«c1 aw«j, for It WM douu ucco&iciouRljr, Tbo 
dntply dropped oat of «igbt, ^nd tLo jouugor moD cif ti]■^ t'attj 
•roTculj tiuov whftb ii in. . . . IVu jnuv igo the Party booiLuie 
biuW vith iLe Xcw Libofnlumt nbirli lit ruiLily Colt eollTtHiii, In 

ont a bon«y ao BubTcmiv^ of tho priQoi|iloa of tho i'tuty, but hiv 
ttonliuD vtA vngroaatA by od« ^«^t qutfttiou. and Uctlc notice na» 
timii uf Uiitt Eitjw dtJUHiiiiTti- TIlo CuUbvLivinUi uutsiilcv iowuvdr, 
mickly p«K4lv9d (b^ oppOTtilDity ; and bi^mg stroug iii Liberal 

Ijbalroiva uaUc f>r tJio voice of Ibo cwtioo, boldly dicUt«d ft p*>lioy 

)o tlu3 Fkiiy, , . . Thci (Mumtry at tlin Guiuiml Floacion }ctt ntt in 

DO d^ubt Dt Xft Uio liuw il took of llie matter. It burldJ iw froiQ 

po^^tt iriUi tiomUt(kk»blu mrhuifuAtatio&s <tf dialiko, . ^ , Wo must 

pttTf* ootmItm <it Ibu h^rmiEvt uf tht^ i>ufit faw jaura — diadijijmtv 

QiamlviM ikon all inU>bTrjiTit aikI si>oiuli)iltr^ jtrcipiiMulK En xo Joing 

ve riiil) »gaia pat oanclvon in hTm with biatciric LibonUiftra, tho 

JiTtftoipicP of wbinh aro tho pailndium of liberty. , . . It i» <ivi<lont 

tfaftl fro luTi> iiijw iu tiw Libt-nU l^nrty twij aalagwiirtic forci^s^-^tbo 

•bo tbv Obi LibomltKiQ btwuil mi liberty; lb>? other tbe Xnw 

Llldr&tiuu bufed oti OoIloatiTiuD, bii^d ul BL>c?tikliuu und ijmmiy. 

^ia> Iw^ furcoa ooq do fOOTtf bo a&nuoniaod <jr bluuJtxl tbutj xvibtur 

^nib uP- Sociaor ur Ub«r tLt^ nill oumv Lutv ci>lU(]iou, uud wiiuu 

tiiAL djiv comm T km nfrnid a nwonjitrnction o1 Vnriitw will bn 

iuvTiUbloL' 

Tliorv U no r^nion to Iscliara tbnl Mr. MrKwiui, b^fnrn he 
undo ihU rxtraorJinarr conJcMion q( piiliticil fAilb^ ba<t buoii 
In oniiftiiltjinon with I^irH Ho*pljpTy, OriAin r^mArkt min^p 
V tilt? ci-l'rcinicr ia Loiid<kO iinroocj lately after be ontcrcd 
Ipoa ullirp lUggi^alJHl, Iu feay the leait, lytnpjithy vrhli ibe Nciv 
uWnlitm irtiicb Mr. McEwan doto«t* rather thnn with the 
vU LlbrTAlixm uf nbicb he is so sturdy anU uncxjinpriimisiEig 
*■ vtpoacnt. HtB lentunt^Dtff irxpr««i«d ia thii iiidvp<<iiJcDt 
WkioQ, &re oil tLc uuic nutublt; ta iadicfttin^ tUc iiuiiU(ii!iLcr uf 
« nticb more cerioua tpUt in Sootti^b Libvroliim thtin fiv«a that 
^»d by Mr, GUJst^ae'a aunraJcr to Home Kulr iit 1886. 
J^ TupTure of ti^a yaoTi agi> look placp ovft n polincal rapricft. 
^* rupture Tvbicb irill pioUabU he t'oimally couiummatcd in 
'^c cr^itrcv of the present yeux, vrill tdkc plac^ ^wer a locloJ 
""^pocy. No better jwoof of tbl^ could be Afr»rded tban m 
JJ^^iu miTRtnre of Mr. IL B, Hatdani*, \t.P- for ib*- t'ouniy of 
^**^iaj^on, a^bnictcdJj oo« of tbe ablest adU ia<>si juivaknceii of 
^ ^philoiophir irhnol of TJhrmU,' and leganlrd as nf lufln- 
Ct^t rruib, both as an Imperial oiiU as a Sootunh politician, to 
^*e bcvik briHi^lit funvanl by the Libertil 3ludi*tittf af lulitibiirgb 
University at tbo lost Koclorial elc<:lion — though in vain — 

a|fainst 





£M Tfre PviitU^i lyansformation tf Scottaad. 



ftgalnil Lonl Hnlfotir of Huilvli^h. Mr. Hal<lAn«> hxt r^crntSy 
contributed tr^ n. inJkgMJiic which cUim* lo be tbr at^;na if 
PrrigrcdBivc LiIjitiiSii, an nrtulr nn ^ Thf? NVw LibvnlUm>*ff) 
which he uoiidvQflce a numbcir <if his rvccut sfwDcbM, &&d nLJcb 
mA^ Tbcrefort' be n(T'>unt<'d aa a formal ftjklrmrnt of hU ItrlicTi. 
Mr Haldnnc btrt^ins cautioutly bv injinj;: *1b ipcaLiDj-uf tbir 
Nviv Libt^nilisuit it wuliKI ueUbcr be Uuv to piuulaliu a a*^ 
Pnrtv AB come into ri]«tpnc0, nor practical Co in^cit thaton^ 
should be created/ Tlitrc he Jnakcs the vcrr Kf^alficvit 
ftdmUtion thnt 

^iii the mntter of tlko lreatm«Al of Aoeinl |iT<obl«niii, tbo dutmalioo 
between iXtc Liberals Anil UoxLflciTatiTos 19 ono of dejcivo mtbcT tbui 
of kii^d- Thoi>3 is do groiLtcr dolusioa tliui that irlucb o foir jroin 
ftgn nas oiTrritnt unong a good manj pooplo. thnt wn an aponwfbla^ 
A pojiod wLon th4> difteronoo between tho two X'^rtioa voild tnrAOft 
OOonotaiti priiiciplo^. tbo ConwrrcktiTct) rominmg tnjti frup) 07 
t^t of SotrialiAU].' 



And, iiiilccJ, iho onl/ ddiuito rcmaiki that Mr, Hftldftoc uvi 
on bU subjpfrt niv tht^e: — 

■Th? Nii^ Libnritln I t^Ve 1r> b^ ttou^ nha tvtMmi & progn«J 
policy IQ nooioi uiatlcre mc>ro [ligbJj thvi ULjrtbiDjc cJso aI piti 
in LiberblitiTii . . . T^da/ ;t is bot f<^r indiVidnn! FrfrcdofD thftt 
hnvu tu Hlnig^li> ugiiiiiHt ulnnBHii unr) prjviltigb ; UibI Liilllo 
fongbt by oitr u^ot'^ti^in iMid wjii. liut ire baT« to Affbt 11 t«1 hutl^ i 
QgLt, iL Qfflkt for «iua]JC]riiLtir>n Irniu (K^nilitioiM whicn docij fair pWj 
to tLo colUotito CDcru for tb« b!0(>d <d societj m a vrbolo . . . Or«ar 
Ifthonr qiicitinnn, orur cdurndna. iwnr tb<^ |Hm«ni of niii iiriix>«iT 
bodioB, tho ttragglo mnit tako pliLc« tL> it did of yonf, Ua frc«don>J 
&01D hunpvring rcidtriotious* but roatnctiocd cot oFicibriJivd bol c'' 
Booihl LLviLjr.' 

Ttipsr mnarki, noteworthv in iht'mwlrM, nrc t«pc<"ially iiit**r* 
eating Ixxhuar nf thi^ir rracinblauor? lo boizil' pnBso^o IQ lb* 
Bpprrhe* rhnt wrrr drlivrrrd in l^ndnn dnriDjO; the irrm of lii* 
ri^muTvbip by Lord Koaoberj, of wbom Mr. UoJduie im * 
cordial supporter. 

It U very •itijralar, and hijfhly >]j{-nificfm1 of ibc di^ni«t^~ 
tion u/ the Si'oluaU LibFial pJirly, tbnt wlulc oop uf the l"^** 
mi*mb4trii of tb.1i p:irE_v wbo now reprM#nt l^ilinl^tii^b *QO"j'** 
IjAvr struck a swft»hiji|{ blnw at the Jncobms of tlir N'^ 
Liberalum, to wUon ev^r^ Collccciviiiit i* but a Ati>ppiD;;f-«loD<^* 
it »bould bftvr burn mervc<] for the olbvi' inriubct tu n>^^ 
nn Dqcolly o^^ctive crUUtsm of the eomporfttivcly mild t^^ 
Girondin doctrines of Mr. Hctldane, Like Mr, McErt**' 
3V1t, Wallnt^. ^f(ltnbel for Eaa: Edinburgli, has ofieo appriri^ 
as tbe auidid friend nf Wi% Farty, ita policy, and its (cadcn- H^^ 

iiiprdlc»* 




^T^Sf IW Mil rt» A ^ 

TW 0M« r^^rr Md Wdtfaibsp Ac« <tf 1879 w 
i«« to Ite MMALt^Ciw; vUk Mhmij malm lUi 



Tfiff Polituai Triintfarmation of Scotland, 



287 



nior«* mrccnst-s tbcLii it hat done miyu'Hf^rr? cUi?> Tlif^ miist 

■tartliiig <rvtiK'iici' uf tills was afToidr^J lu Nor[b Abi'nle'tri 

in N€aj \^^^, At the bs-cjertion caoimJ by ihn tfi£i£^ii(Llioii 

of \%j, W, A* Hunter. The LiUrral Aamciation briru^U: 

forvrnrd CftpUin Pirie, wht>, b«»idefl being a mililHTv officer, 

OTna connected trith a large local business firm, Tbc UnionUu 

rvfrain^^i (rmn fif^hiing \he seai^ and i^ave a genipral, H lun- 

guicl, ■upp>rt to L'jiptniii Piric, Mr, Tom Maho, Imwcvpr, 

*"*» Urmj^bi fofwurc) in tht Lnlmur intermit, nnd on th** 

CbIUd^ dav lecurifd ^,479 vatvt as againit :f,SOtf rt<c:cJrdcd for 
aptAio Pirir. Al lUc General Elt-i^noii nf llie jirvvjiius \*rAT, 

%Vr. Hnntfrr obioirod l,in6 vato*, and bis Lkboar opponent 

6Uj|(. No doubt A ditputc brtvrMrii Captain l^iric'a lirm and tbt- 

Tf»t|« Union s^rtinn of iu emphf^^* nccatintpi\ io «omf cxt^fnt 

f**f the itartlinjc dccrecsc in the Liberal vole and tlic cqu^lljr 

■tttvtiiiig inrt<^n«f> In ib^ L^bmn pitlL Th«>To i«^ bowvi-r, no 

dcn^injf that th<^ figure*, taken at a whole, uidicatc a decided 

"S^mocmiic n^rolt from LUiemliim in n t-it> wUirHi hns bUherlo 

1*<^n rtg&rited u one of id cbief •trongholdK iu ScoiUnd, 

The conlrtt in Aberdeen bai been followw! l>v a nuiii1>cr of 

Lul^ar iLccMivs in (be Xovetnbrr municipal election!. 

"»t*bJj' in Glafr^n, In the Tuwn Council of that city tbe 

tibotir and nibrr lem luivnnced politieiani wbo mle tbem- 

**)*^f^i PtogrciBivea, ate >o airing in ct>mbinnti'»n tlial veTjr 

*^iout fi^ara \Ti* enii-rtnineil thai ilangerous eip«rimeni« in thr 

uir*ctinn of whnt ij itjJcd * Mnnicipnl Soeialism * will be tried 

wore muur yt-an or even monlba are over Mr. Keir llardie, 

■moreover, ha« tince I bo Gon<Tral Rtcelion, *vhen the 5iB 

***>didAlea of bis pnxty were deftnted, ftUhougb tbey polled 

*^»&94 rotei, made il perlWtly d^ar Ihnt Uie breach bpta-M?n 

^^ Labour Fatly and Libcralisui U final. 

* WtutMVT auiiaUo* AiA good-bcnrlc^l iii*.«nib«T« of tfa^Ubfirftl Party 
^7 thix^tliuHU -n-liu eoutroL tU ik^tLui<« flee cLiarly tliftt, b«t4«^<'h 

j^^'^dttut Labottf Parly, tLeru citu bu au oiuou, »itd lluit ibo one ia tbo 
^*t»et abtithf«K of ibft otbnr," 

* *llio Liberal nuuiufnclurer wbci ba* hitberlo poff.'d od tlie obauipluu 
^ ^im ri^Ca of the people, ia foiiud to Iw a uoTc* bitt-^r ftjijmnt^iil of 
T^^'tiOtittO ucfrifiehjttc^iccnl th&u i^vii tk<i Tory jkrovi-d t^ trii to iLa 
*^Ukn^ou of political puwor/ 

r^^. Keir Ilardio ii quite at decided upon tbe iuDtt of th« 
*^^Urc as be is Li|H»n tbe facta of tbe pic&cui'.-^ 




£l^S The PitUtioai 7hiruf»rmtUvm ofScotlawL 

* Tbot t1iD?i} mLint li(« uiirty &moiig;«t tbe vaHoui fowM which mil-fr 
r^r 6 dcvclofjinunt 4'f popiiiur li^'hU, la Dduouded oil di bmde< Oa 
th<f put cf tbe ludopoTidciit Laboiir Parly* licmctrvT, ihtm u ^ 
«i)iuu]^ firm CfJiivictiriii thikt uny ulllftuno will Lilji^ndiAOi T[Ptild 
RIM&, not ■ etrcDgtlifiiiiig, bnt a vraVfTning of thew fvcm Tie 
Btmg^o tliDroforo. vlueh ia going on to-diLT. U rooUy aaa ftst la- 
prTamwy. Either comtiuiroifllifim muflt eiraUoiv aod abiarb tb* 
ni^diLltfiL UEovuiLieut, i>r Lhe Socialist movement iiiii^l t^athir la 'i\M 
thiwij BMHi^na of th^ voMMtiWidiy oa wliieb T.ihtmlism ^(T[M-iid« fcris* 
Ai]|j^ort> ftud tberoby become the 4<:»[iiiQAQt fuctur, U&til Ihii wne 
liAS hooa dooidod, tbo conftict muet couttniio.' 

Mr, Keir Hardie sora indeed no hopo f^r the rcuiiion if th* 
Liberal Vtxtiy »arc in ihc nccrpUacr a( Sacia\hui n« iu ^idinf 
principle or pervaclirig forffie, 

*The Tem[i3nm(^« qiiaatif^n, Atftnding fti a Aapfcinto iMaft,«itciiiMlv 
nnoh anta^i>]ii&m asitbnii^Baapi>art. Tho fttt*ok on tlto Gftfafali^icd 
CLuTcIi doe» tbc l^^(uc, Awl befoire tto people oui bo nuitod, Mttf 
tievr jiriiHTijiIi.' luufit be mliseil lo nltniL-L ihnm, Tho Indtptnitob 
Lnbonr ]*u-tj «lA)m tliKt Uiia principle ia foniid in Soeialixm/ 

Niniiing cnuld l>c dearer than tbU dcclnrAlinn. Mr Keii 
Hardie bai mifit^d ihd flog of the Social H«voluCion, and cftrritt 
il into e>ti\ coiiilitucrkcv wbcir iWre LnpprrLc II? br a vocnitCT. 
It !■ not ftl nil impmbflble tbrrpfnfe ibnt Siviilind raa^- tapply 
in tbtr futurr, as ii bria ofEea ftupplieil in tbo pastf a TaluAMr 
obJM*l-lrunn for ihe L'nited Kin^om as n vrhole. 

The actual posiuon of political oeclioiu in Scotlaatl h 
thervfurc ali»uWu*l^ dear; ibe falure befon* them ii nlmon 
cquafly •». On the one side there ii the URinnitt alliance, 
urong alike iij principles, in oi^aniiatiun, aiid in mihtt- 
■iastn, pMged in the lint tnttnnfrp to the mainlenaitce of the 
intr^ric^ of the Empire; anil, in the kconO, io ihr <.-atr>inf 
out c>f what Mr. Balfour bos teTmnl * cocxleriite and mioaa] 
rrfHormi ^ iu all dcpaTtmrnU of poliucal acttvitjr. CoofroDting; 
it it ibe Panj tiC the Sorial Rnvnluiion, which may not be 
povvirfiil in nnmbcn at xhti prctent mometit, hat nhtcb pro- 
fmoa lo be drawing rmuttt fnmi all qunrierr, and prodaimt 
tfaal it will not nut untU it has matie J^inlun ih« dominant 
pri^ciplr la LibcnliKQi- 

H#tB'een theiP tiro PartiM ia cothLnf; but a chk.o« nX 
wras^inf Uctionj. Of the«e the ftr^kcat, tho^h pouiblv 
atfto mun^irally tb^ l&r^ttt i« that wbicb *tTl» ttcvlf ihV 
'officul* Libcnd PHtj, but whicb ooofeave^r luts neilber 
n lender mtr a pulirv^ \tt guiding principtr, an fir iii| S^M- 
Uod and Scottish p->litici are amnmrd, W4« UU^tabliah- 
mrai* But DiSMtabliakairikt aa a |ttttjF crj baa reoeired a 

abock 





-Th^ /Ui^cal jy^mtfirmdtion of Scotland, 



SS» 



from n'hich it cannot rcrnvcr ia the dec lura lion by Lord 
tWij't iial iLv StnLe liiu ju gwnl a right Id eMttblliili a 
iTch u il liai to uinintaLn » stondirif^ jiroiy. Ditestbbliib- 
jDBfitt inoreuvcr. dew nut interest the norking clasie*, uJiiiin it 
^onld nai bi^nofit mil**?**!!/ or in any other way, >nU thejr Imv* 
lecHned throu|{h their l«:A<lrT« lo do liiivthin^ whatever in 
tnppnn of II If is quilr c«*rtain thmt » n«w Lit>ei-al Uadt^r whi> 
ibniild mnkr l)i»ritnbli*brn(rnt thi* cbicf plank in his plAtfurm 
br ScoElnnd would cocirt drfrnt, inninly owing tn ih^ grpAt and 
acre^vioj; »im;f,'lL of th« Cburch, but partly also to tbo 
Lbiiolutc indifTrrrncr of * thn drmnrniry ' to ihn ckld-fiuhirmiHl 
Ubetsl piindptot, nmonf; trhich * rolifftoui wjutihty' woi wont 
i> m^ciipy n Imilin^ [ilii^e. ' Tbu ui4VBe«' irmy vsvlt. tUrtntj^h 
Trodv Unions, <ti the; orghnixation of thn Independent Labour 
flirty, tu attain matrrlnl iudrpcudtnce ; but lUcy detlint lo »it 
|o«ni mZ a incra Bnink4>etd« T^nst of ^ipiritiial ind<rpc>n<3ciii>*/ 
^biDd Ibc * offiri*! Oj>po>iiii>n ' in Scotland arc iht Krw 
Libenli^ who«« tpnketman ii Mr. KaMnn«-. But b^ rnn tng^a 
^hiof better by wfty of inipiring bia pany with emha- 
d«ftcn tban u policy af 'iocial leglilatinn.' By bii own con* 
estifuif bowever. the Uni<jniit« aTrcaJy ht>ld tbo fidd in lbi» 
l^pnTtmont, and hifi ntEh^r lukewarm rail to nrmi hnit met and 
$RD moot with no rc«pnn»c. 

A iLtrO nrrlion it thai nf ibf* Advarri-il l>i-mornita, who 
Kwk the abolition of ibo 'b^'TfHliinry principle/ the adopunn 
^f tbe RelrirndBm, aad tb« * popuUr ^iRctioa* uf Cabinr^tSp 
rbtt Wderof tbift ■evtioa— within Parliatn^m ho i* tha who la of 
U—*-!* the Member fijr La»lE>)iLiburgb. lie will have nodcalinari 
hritb Mr. HaldanL^ and iha policy o( ihc N«w LibvraU. K« 
pn>aouHCratbctrprirf^'r«minL' rube iitti.'r]y unioipirin^, and deridc« 
Ihtif ' iDpcfiority." He i% «]ually ho»ii!c lo tbp Sociulitm f»f 
Mr. Kcir tlitrdieani] the Indepcndrnt Ljibour FArly- AddretttTic 
hii conititiirma or ihr 1(Uh IVrpmTvr \n%t. hi> saiH, ' Hr would 
not be a purty to any false method that would deprive ibe 
IndiTidual of bi> liberty. That was tbv meaning; nf Sftrialiim.' 
But the moat formidable or the TCCAlcitraTit Liberal aectionf 
il thii whieU ti Iaii]tm3 with wbai Mr, Keir Hardie aljle* 
*oommercJaJiam.' Tbrou^'ti iti l«aJur, Mr, Meftwan, M.P. for 
itlie Central DiTiiiim of I'Minbur^b, it deinaiuU a nrturn t4> 
*hi<torie LibeTaliii&/ Thi* ^bialone Liberalitni' i« *ynony- 
imotu fvilli that Wbi^er^ which, oerta En 1y up to LE^G^ and in 
r^ MBM eron up lo 14^6, had the control of the Scottiih tabenit 
poUtical machinery, and which meant eiAcntially a middle-clMi 
ilia!ill# to Con»eri-atitin of the ' la; id and factor' typo raibpT 
thao avrnpatby with Hatlicnl tcndenctet. The mnjonty of tbe 
VoL 185,—^^ JtfP. U Seoniih 







S9C TlitJ Fohticai Tr^nvformatum of S€ctl4ijni. 

SeottiBh U'bi^s d?4cn«d Mr. GivUtunc when b^ flurMMlm^ u> 
Home Hute in 1886. An influiriitial ToniDanE, howcrtr. Mood 
hy him, Urgolj', no <lfiHbl, bprmnp Liird Rpirlwry look Uii* 
couTftc, The icsignntJC'n of tbc Icftdertbip bv LonI Ko9ob«ff 
m^ani the aecesaion from Sepamiiftt LitwrAliiin — bocb aa « 
domestic and na • forei^ policy — of all tbc ^ biatoric Libtfralifln ' 
tbat wu kft in the cnuip uf tlie OnpoiUii'n lt>u yean ago- 

Coul<l w« ccificcive & General KlrroEton inking plac* ta tba 
course i>r the pnrsL-nt ^^tu*, it would chcrrforc be an C4^v mftttrr 
lo predict the reiuh. It is, to aa^' ihc^ leaiT, qtiit« poKibli* tt>ai 
ibc Unioniat alliaiicr wuul<], witbout extraneous help* aacccvd 
in dereaung an 'olTidd Oppotition' tbal » withnul n leader, ] 
vtrjthout apoiit, without a ainj^le apecialty Scottiab T&Uytn^ 
€rjr which does nut apell disaster, an<J in cmtvfrtin^ a miai> 
tiiy of 3 into a conaidomblc Diajority, But even were tba 
victorj to go the uLber way, it wuuld bo aliuual wurar iban 
a defeat lo ibe victora. In auuming-^and it ii a vary 
l«rge aasuniptioEi- — thai the tncreaaing strength of tbc Indr- 

E indent Labour Party proved unequal i<i ^«re«tina: «aau Jrovn 
ibcraliun, or eveiii bv dividing Ltbcralisnii in make a pvcamC 
of seats lo Unioniinif there would be relumed in the East 
of Scotland oXoae a sufficient number ol~ the personal followera 
vf l^cd Rnirb^ry, or of men who, iike Mr. M<:Ewaii, deiat 
the economic and utber false doctrines which hav* dlmtrVf^d 
the creed of tbeu pstrXj, to placr tliu UtiimiiaU in a niajorilj 
ai an^ mommi. And when the cbameter of tbc Ivgitlaiion 
that la (contemplated oi baa been promised hj Lhe prcaont 
Government is borne in mind, this means ibat, so far ns Scou 
land ii concerned, the Opposition would be placed pcnxw- 
neiulv in a minority. 

But a Gcneial IZlcction during lti^7 docs not coiim; wilhii) tbe 
range of pm^riicnl noUiiea. And the quriii<m nrisea, Caanut 
ateps be litLen t<j unite tbe Unioniit PtkTty in Sootlaikd with thoaa 
' historic ' and oiEjer discL>ntvutcd and modeiaie Liberals, iKtwecn 
ivbom and thai Parly there ia no wall of division except chat 
of a nomcnclalure, which baa abaoiutely cxased to baVQ aoj 
■Sxnifimnee ? May noi ihc appeal ^ 'Comi* over fo oar Mftce- 
donin and help us.' which wm oner addrcucd, and ultimately 
not in vaini to the Hitke i4 Di-vctiiildri* wlit'ii I jird I liiTtiii^tfiii, 
be now addreued to Lord Koscberv? liv positiod, by te»- 
perauieui, by his enlbuszaKUi for n ceriaiu data uf political 
lelonns, still more by bis lack of entbuslatin for another da«a, 
Im is a Scottish VVhi^ of llie old school ; and in the ineritabk 
MtfVggit of the future ni^inst the Social Hevoltttion, ScottUh 
Wiumterr ood SoiuiaU Cuuaei'riLVvaiu lUsiA i\jxqA lAunldier to \ 



TV lUilttai Tmiuformatioa ^ SeotJoJvL 251 

■bonldtir. On ihe tubjtfct of Dii^^AlablUlimenl, he Utu ukcd 

/u]guu« »bich btt pATttljfted tb« Activity of the only Mction of 

ScoUiiD politicjani of tbe 'NcnC'iatIc ProgranuDC * scbool ibat 

*V uiiaut«d bv anv of ik&t «atliuflibsm wLiicb is b«Bvd uuon 

pnnciplc, Ojuft'iicdlj' bi? la * not an cntbusiaatLC Honi« Uulcr/ 

Juid tiow nf his follower*, Uk* Mr. McEwan, who were re* 

ttnttd Id 13i8l> exprcvalj to auj>pcrrC Hoiii^ Kuk» now admit 

tbat Mr. tlliitHtnT\fi\ jurimn in ibac }-eaT wiu a ^rent mittAkif. 

f^ i* itaaoK^MtkXy io repeat Lonl Hoscbcr>*s view» unoa the 

"OWfl QuMUuii as ripre&ied in and to Scotlanil. U luuat 

mIBo to «ny Ibftt no politician belonging to nnv Parfj bft* 

foi-DiulAtcU with lumc power ahiI point wLal i« to all intenls 

uul purpo««> tb^r creed of taf^ and dignift^d paEriotiSEn, There 

f^Quuu tho qu«*tion cf the H<iu*e of LonI» upnn which Lord 

Roapberj ba4 ipoken with inch ptraiBtency — and so far at hii 

^^vty arc concomcd altogether ui vain — «« to Lave altnott nnado 

't Ills own. On the 27tli nf October, 1S1*4» he rentured upon n 

P'^JcLiUD before a Bradford audioace; — 

* Wbon tlio DiMolntion comcfi, what will it bo fought npon ? Will 
*^ ha fought DjKiu DiautakliBbniuut. or Home RuJei i^r the Liquor 
^«atiou f I hcur all tboaa mectiuiied as a lociiiv power at tlie next 
*«ctin&, btit in mj opimoti, and I givo it for what it ia vurth, tho 
'*■•*! vtotion will bo fought on nuiio ^f ihbua qa<;6tio]ie^ hut ou one 
^wcji laduilu ikud rupixibcubt &Iluj£ iU^— X metui tho JIoobv of 
*-Ofdfc- 

'~'ow tignally Lord Roieliery failed im a prophet, t>miuie he 
PrnxMl tr> l)« a leader without followen, » one of tht* mott 
^^l^kj&f evcnta in rrcvnt pulltlcal hiatory. And he fulled a* a 
"^^ttlpr to inddor hii Party ti * cronerrtfTntP ' upttn thf? (|i]r«tiaii of 
^Ho Hoiii« of Lordtt, Id some? catc-nc at all ev^nt», bccauio hit 
**cwi upon that qur»tiiiii wprc nut <:onftidtred sufficiently 
dnuttc. Even in the Bradford speech be «iud: — 

* I ouiiiiBaB quilu fiujly Ujat I aui a Sw^oud CUadiLut iuilu iu 
bH^flr. I am nil flnr a Sot^nuil Ohftmbur. 1 Am not for ike nn- 
^^■BtrolU^ govonuoont of a dnglo Ciiaoilx^r anj m>>ro than 1 am for 
^e uaoositrolkd gcrvonunont of a nnglc niaa.' 

Time t««iiarkfl are ciuito comatcnt with their aotUorV pr»- 
>>fMi> ntt«r«ncra jpon Ibc tloutr of Lord** Mr Lai pevei beoo 
For * podinp/ bui ev^^r for • mending," The ichemffi of coniti- 
tvtional reviaion which he baa brought forward in ibr House of 
Ixirdi have l}ef>n ohjccred n>, fntm th(* (]onsrrvatirr Htandpolnt, 
IcM bccanac they wore revolutionary than bccnuse Ibcy were 
luo ii>|{ruiousIy faneifuL Tiivtv la Lt^itBitily uuL audii ^ «vAja 
^^onnce beirrcen bi9 views and the leas e\ikltoraXQ «^f;f;<Eii^^^nwL 



392 



U^fi Politiral Trai^Hfttrtttntion of SmifamL 



made b^ hard SrJi«bury, c» pn-vrni a siilntjon of ibcr mati^iA 
in wliicU tbcj" are botb pivifouiidl^ iiitrrcrAttvl bein); altVD^d 
iu<?ftnB nf canipromiw- lli> {}^'\d FWrbiTy'*) uUra-Mof 
StotUnd Am nlwftj* his roott churnct^Tutio, nnd tli^rcfurr it w 
woitL icrtulling thiLi luur jf-:irti b(tfor« he npokc at Biad/uid bf 
AAtd nt A public bAnquol in GUtgciw: — 

* I tliink Ihftl tlie liiptory of JCnjj;lAnil hiw baoa ono cf p<ilil>v 
ftpfttliy, Torii^ ^ritlt pulitit^ul pm uxptm, Thi^ politic*! Aj^tby W" > 
CortoiiJ ijiimtiiir of yi^An&H Ujit iiiililical pitrnKfirnj follan* ; audi A) 
ftlwAys npprL^liouiiiTr thiit uuy rcviston of tlie Hocivi? ut Lordi^ vli"^ 
I b«U0T0 ftt tiiiK uamuut l4 ^cniandod ly both l^uiice, Ea(i|' 1*1^ Ji^ 
nob ftt 4 lu^'UiLut of pulitieal itpttlij, but at u luoiuccit of f<^Lbc«l 

ilut mridrniL* ri*fort!i« bnvi? btH'n nlwmyictim^rl id pirrMjds iwitbei 
of political apathy dot of political parozyftm, but of jhvlitia^ 
prncTT^iunli pcfln? n* lins brc*n ihr TPsiilt of th*! grrat IJniou* 
victory of mVl6. It wa* in a periud of political prace ttiU 
I.oicl K'twWtjk ivHK ubTi?-, wilIi cIi4> Ikclp of ft ConsoTViQit 
Gjjvcrnmcni, to toWa ihr question of a Minister for Scodtnd 
H« admiti tbal Wh PartJts an? dnnianiting couttttatioaik^ 
raviiion. Why should he not, in anulb«r period of poli^l 
prACc like the pic-K-til, ciKlcdVour to combine all Partirt ic 
lavour of anotUtfr mod^race rcfcmn? In anv caxe th^ i^UHlidn 
of tlic llouif^ of Lords ncred no mure ttaaJ tii tL« «it <i 
Lord Ro*phrTj'» ibrowing in hia lot tvilh the UnioiUt* iHw 
docD tbe <juc*lzon uf Home Kulc Ootb, in ihc rcrolatioDftr* 
Gladttoniiin iirn*<% nr* ftbelvpiU Th** lat^ I^aili^r of th* Libeinl 
I'aity cannot icmain for «vrr or indeed ior lon^ in a pQci&nD 
uf iM^lalion- Hit rr-iiiilateuir^iit in tUe poiiliun li« bas migani 
bsoomoi more ami inor;^ impvobablo ju limo pua^s. He taoD^ii 
letnrn tn tlm Patty hn hiu left Pit-^irpt at thr ilii^iatur ^ 
lu policy, and tbat will he vfft'CXtitkWy ^nvt^nird by tbukC 
aiUnnrrd apWlt* in it who hav*' alwaya rewiitwi and art tii* 
«iiiancipQi^ fmni hit cnnCrol. Hi* grtiivjtatton totrardt i^*^ 
VnHy uf ^ tiiuOcratf? and mEiupal Ttiunaa ' it iiicTitabk, ll ifl»y 
bo batlpncrd b^bi* i^alixalion cif thdfact thntlb^ilangorof f{3ci»J 
rrrolation U i^ot * a pbant«im/ as bij rciljpaiioa of tbc Libc-n^ 
l4'a(1ffr«hip waa baitnncd by bit recognition of the fact that ttt** 
daiT^r of A Kuropmn vtur wm not ' a phantAam^' 

Rut SrvitLEsh CotifiTiMiisnii in thv cujnprrbniiivi* apnit 14 ' 
national tpirit or trndcnry ratbcr than at a fvarly orgoauiiio'** 
dom tint drprnd ijivmi ibi? convmion or anvsaion of %^f 
poUticiant howcrrr popular, powrr Jul, or patriotic, lucrolulic^i' 
nnce 1832 hat procreded »i» »il«<mly tbai the twofold tnBV 
formfttion vrhicb baa inkcn ploce ba* tcorccly been obsen^< 



'Ih€ i\fUticoi T^^n^^maJ&m <if Scotland. 



2n 



Cjnatltation&l Paitj butt ittdf b«vo tninBforiiir<l. The 
rf*pronrh run nn longrr br ilinH^Eml j»g;(iiniit it ilial if ronnMls nf 
* the laird and the lACtor/ ot n Bcctioii uf n liraiUxl orittot-raay 
Mod iht^'it dr^wnOAnl*. In vjiit^, or Wi^auu*, tif rn^jufiit 
entOMifirs ol tlic frnnchURf tt new incjludtKi procticnllv iho 
ir1i<4c miildlt; cIa4*- its opponeiiu iil 1S3£ AnJ 1^43, ofl^tid 
ftod id^Of *rc now its 5rai aIIim^ The «ub-iiiiJdl« dus, 
■larmciJ bj the pm^Tcu of Sortnliim on one kklc and at Tr«il(7 
Uaiaoiim cw the ulber, nnd by tbe jK>T«rty and mitcry wbieh 
^llovr ill th« Tvukf: i>f both, u tangiQ^ itBirlf in the BAinc t;ump. 
The Tipws of mc-o of cduciiion in Scotlnnd miy htt gaib»rM 
from the tact thai the mrmU-Ts of iht ino Loivetsity icftU and 
ib^ lj>Jt\ R^clort of \hf f(i\iT Um'vprailiPt *re mII Unioni*t%, 
The traiufortn Alton in thr attitude of ScottUh public opinion 
lowarflt l1i4* Cfintlituiionjtl Party Ib not lett Tvniarkablt* than 
tbo tTAoiformAtion nf th<t Pnrlj itsclt Con«<^rvatiHtii is nf» 
iDngrr hatrd by dii- mA%% of ibi? SiMitliib projilr ni an ittinn 
foTce^ aj ctfut tyT;^nny iind privili-e<^ in a concrete lorm, bat m 
now wrlciHrrd nt n friemt. Tlif Cmmrrvati vr ^v^tkiii^ imfi is 
a r&ct ; in lh{? Went of Sroilnnd hi^ it the mastor of th(> poHticnl 
■itiutioD- The recognition of the Ccmititutinniil Parly ai tbac 
wlucb almoai from tfcK' bt^^inning of th<» c«ntuvj bju bt^n identi- 
fied with legiiJatjon for the protf^tion of labour ii nuvr coniplcU- 
and cofdiaj. In olbtT worda, the bed-rocic of the conicrvntifim 
which li«« At the bottom of the 8cuttj»b chardotcr — c^iulian in 
action, ' cnnnineis ' in judgtnent, hntred of thai ivranny ivhotb«ir 
of ciutca or of majontiei which prevents the free pUy of 
cnpTgT'^bnii at In&i brrn r^nx^binU The politica) war of the 
falure will be bctircca the fiircca of socia.1 order nn<l that 
^ocialijiin ttthicb is now rapidly adraocinf^ in Scotland In the 
conqueat of nn i^Roto Libenxhftiit. In that wnr thirrr tvilJ bo no 
jireddmin.int jiartner, because in Britiih ConKUiniional pnliiica 
ih«re are no Cheviot*. 



18&-— ^ 9$9- 



Art, 




THE 

QUARTERLY REVIEW. 



'Vlt.T. I, — Tilt AVir Reitrn. Tb« Dutt^B of QueiMi Vlcloria ; a 
^**niirtn piraohrti \\ tin* CmLfilrftl Ctiurch i>f St. Paul Oy 
cbe Rev. ^^ydnej Smitb. Lc^ntlun, lt$3T. 

, I ^k Jaouarjr 1.^3^, »ix mt>nih» nflcr \ht oc<tmiod of iHc Qdmtd, 

\^- thit fnllnsing pnun^^r njiprnml uniirr ihi* ahov^ heading in 

tb*- 'QuELHcrlj Krvi«w ' ; ' AlU*r an intcrral ol one huivltril and 

'^^titj- jrtafi * CiaiTit ajaiai" AicfinU Uir (lironi- of KngUnd ; 

^'^^l huTopt^ >c» witb & iurpriw and inirrcil — irnt unallovcd bv 

r^P^nbcnudtJt — the iccpLro uf Grcnt BriUJD, Ptirlugal^ And 

r**in, all b*Id hy frrmak nncl in(Txp«ri4>nc«il banda.' la thii 

^'^^QUj, at Icut, the loti^rcAt which wu fint aiouicd bj the? 

?^^^;«tt«toD of n y£>itlbfu1 Q(i»r-n hnt nev^r aubuJc-d. It ha> 

'■Juiced cban^ird ju charncler, m ihc nntion Km pa«ecd from an 

*li»iQit fcvrriiEj cmtbunt uf cuEEkUstum to llip »ohrr, h«<jirLr«>U 

J^ltjT And f^enen^l conu^nt which huv« gath^rod round ibe 

^))ron«. liul, in for^c uid vcjlumt?; it bn» incrcotingly gminnl 

^tfm^, u bcr Bubjecu hate followvd the vici»itudo« in H«r 

^lajf-vty'* Ufr. vrjih o aympHthv 1>[>rn of th« conviction that tlit* 

lut laboured UQccatia|fljr lorUipjr twlfare, and ivilb a roipL*ct('ul 

^Irctioo for on« vrtio boa iiliva>i abarcd with thr-m the ji>y« und 

jorrotri tb^r hnvp bn*n ihHr common Ti>t EVuIp In ib« 0<ic<rn, 

loprct, lovalty^ Itutt, ar« intne ol the fcclinjE« wbicli itir the 

Kn^lUh-ijirakjnf; ntv »■ lliry a|)imiadi ibr ■iktietU onnlver- 

mry oi b«r reign, and demand an outlet for tbeir uprcuion* 

In oor gmiiEudc to the 1inn)f, let us not for^t iIjc tjvbt ivbicb 

»e o«c itt tJie d^od. 

Id 1^1)7 tbr tipprchcniioni cxproscd m ihr pastagr< which \% 
quoted above %vcm tcrangely r^mole. VeE, iixiy yean ago, the 
oAxlcty vu no ifM natural tban the int<re»t. I^aropc woa atlll 
VoL 185- — JV*>. 37(?. If <^v«vcuv% 



J 



Quwn Vifiona. 



quivmnR frntn the. shock of tKnt political Rad social Cftrtlu;inkr 
wliicli linii ilian^Ffcl ihr. fatv of lUc? VVritJ^rn wurlil. UntlaUliuu 
yitfrv 0.1 that vvr^ naornfint paBbirii; iivct nmCioo »fl#T nfttm 
ivhicb might hi; mrrrl^ ihr subiiilju^ nnvrsofllic prcTinusiLp- 
h^avaE, or the trcmon ihal poitcndcd s n^ncvvTil of thr nvt 
tXjnvuUion ivhiclj Lad >ivcp( all bnrrirrA brfure it in iti^vat- 
tatin^ fury. In Great Britain a <M>D>titutional c^haogc of nit 
importancv haj b*en rccrrntlj f*l!ecti-<i]« the ultimate cona(X)tf«<* 
oi wliich many i)rpA(1pd nnd nonr rmiM prt^ilici with <viia:nU- 
We have f>nW to read the »]>npchc»» mcmoira, or letters «d lie 
iJny 1(1 «M> hriw wifit'Tiprrnd wai thr itiijtr<.'K«irin ihiE, in th« ■«! 
ftituro, the rcflultt of the Hrforrik HiJi ot I^IU, eipcciallr il it 
wett? fdllowrd hv the imiimliatr inituducrtiun ul iHc BftUoCf 
ivould Ijo Ihe o^frthrow of the monarchy, 

Thr pifttilical ouiIocpL in 1^37, tUr-ri-foir, fully ju«i&n1 > M* 
iiyr of aniiety a* to the course which event* miffht pam»- 
But to the histoiinfk uf thr fututt;, wtji> l(K>kit brick upon (^ 
p«iiod front thr vanCngisgroDfid of diatnncv, it will, trc MirTr^ 
be manifest ilmi uv circumiUiit-Tr l-<iu1J lave been moro/aTflor- 
Me 10 the MnttiliEy of out initiiuiii^ini than cbe acCffviioQ of* 
(JiifrUt irhour personal qualities vr<^re »i) atliairahlr, Aod fih*^ 
iraat ihu very fml, iL^cepteJ the daEic» and mpontibjliliw of her 
potttion with inch aurprmng dignity anil rcm&rkabledijcrclioa' 

The youth, iht «i, ihc" ineipcrienf* of Her Majeiiy njautA 
an entliuainslic loyalty toTvnrdi the Crowo, whirb crnil'^* 
liofirri^ ihi^y imi] Uiliro tmy tlvftiu^e ihap*», such vague inrlioa-" 
liopa toward* fOTistilutional inrovaliona as mar ha^c Iw^* 
funiiipif jn uieu*» tuinds. Sciuiething of iLls change ofalliiai^ 
waa nl once cxprcisod in Iho defcnts which w<rro tvtUiiDfld 1^3^ 
the Hodiral parly at the gmeTal electi{>n of Scpteoiber 188?' 
Not was it only that «very chivalrout i^nllment wai Ibn 
rallied In the luppon of ihc throne. Other f^^cUngStdnjprr na 
iiK»rc «nduTing in (heir nalurc, ttreng^tbcned and poqtct 
the iinpreuion already prutluced> Among b^r nunlvtefV ah 
her hixuehithi the unnJforipdflimpliHiy, lhrth'>ughrfu1 klmlnr 
and the cjuick sympathy of the youn(- <Jijccr» united as th^J 
alwayn were with ch? dlgnky, diKT^tloDi and fiwervp ih^ 
beBtted her station, won the hcattM and commnnded the respr^ 
of ull wild cnihe wilLin llip ran^- of her pt-nidial rliintf^ 
Ontaidc that cireic, and Among the f^vn/^ral public, her prudecc^ 
deliberntion, ami sclf-restnunt, her frrr^dou) from prrjmJtfv' 
her innrkod doi^rmination to listen only to the ^nnael o(b<< 
responsible adviser** ii-muved, as liiuc went on, wbatcr'? 
misgivings mtghl hare been entertained is t» the poasibtUt; 
unconstitutional inlluences- Almost from the commcacr 




Qwtn Victtrria. 

of HtT Maj«iij ■ rri^, iht iutif>n came* initift^ivvl^- lo xht 
codvidioD. xhAi ifac condjLl of tliclr voatbfiiL ^otrrcif^n wk* 
ffffuJalnd hv thr puri^fti mniivf ji ; thni thn iilrnl of ruir whirb 
ibe bftd pl&c«d before hericli wa» ihc proipcriiy oi her people ; 
mad ili4l in livr bjuidi the imi- i.lignitv tif the Ctown would bf- 
nilflcd And tiB Ic^itimAte influcnpo citpndcd. Accidmul cir- 
CVDiAtnAccs sliuiuUlcd nil JmnicclJalL* uulbum iif loyiillT ; but il 
waj tisu conviccion wbicb firtt ;;»in^t for ihf» Qu««n, when 
little more tEinn n ^irl, not on]j tbr ttfTcctiouft, but tlie Iroat of 
tker tubJK^i. It it ttiii Mmr tonviclion, wrpi-tunteil nnd 
txtcriiJcd bv the «xpcri«ncff of «iity v^ar*, which Ijus won far 
Qaev-Q Victona ihrDUghiui Uir i^ivilbrd wotlrl, ibai jMjpuUritj' 
which, sooner or Jmct, rarclj fajiv to do justice to tb» putflUit of 
nohir Ainii bv miMi- mrAnt. 

W^ miy be panloncd lor rocnUinir lo the tninda of oar renl^rt 
tomes Itaei wliith wen? tiiiUcn in )8^48 bj- H, Monckk^n Mjlnra* 
»fe^rwirdt Lurd lIougbt*>n, nn thi» »ppfnr!vnco of Her Majciiy 
** & public ccTemortv, TbeT iccm to ui lo be of inter<^U 
WaiKp, in the fir« j'esir of tJw new reign, ihey illuiiraii^ ibc 
fTowth of ifae conviction, that the »oarcc of the; Queen's quiet 
<lijimlE_r iifid miH^eil ielf-pos«esBion, wbirh tn od« in vmn^ 
*ighE oibi>rwu<' Ij^vp »<y;tn<'cl almost unnnlurftl, wm thft fttfcnfrtb 
ai-riveil from n i:ljoi«^ of the bi^bfic JlIcaI of. djcy and from A 
■irntlfutt r«*ftolv<* tbat aIL ber power* ibould be «inplo}'ed in it* 

* Hov nrt Thcin <m1iti umid thii Btorm. young Queen t 
Atiud thin ^viitt> and joy-ilistiucttrr] Clirdng ? 
Whtfro Kafl the r&u;;u "f lift-ciporituco boon 
To k(ie|i tby biuirl. ttm^ iir[uj%bli; nitd strong? 
C*n iho »fii>|[iiW cold which may briong 
To aiieb hiRli ilnto oompoHe ttiy ooLle miua, 
Withtiut Uiu duteous |>ii}}>obc [lot io vruDg 
Tiiu tnilb uf Kumi" Idta] iipirit-HiLii ? 

Pi-r.^hAfii.'o Uie ilttiitli lijf whAt f Iv>]d1j n*ikrd 
Xono ktii/Vi — tivr I. iter Thou, Yet lot oa ]>^7 
Tbftt Tlit'tii ill tliin cio<^liiiK ltJ*^r7 lUA^tccd^ 
B*^ nu; tj lo#ji i>f tiky tf[iQ HcKlKiguilcd j 
8lin ultl» at Ihy Mald-r'H fi^ot t> Inj 
Tbu living tuvm^ tiAluro of % <'Lild/ 

_^MtD Viciovin wu born, u everyone knowi, on Mav tftlh. 
It is lea» f^nenllv renirrtibered, aud lh.*s eoliiui deuce, of 
irVf^ it BiOT* s^Aienl th^n roni, ihut the Sovereign wb<i|* 
^*gn rank* n^xt to brr own in doTAtion was bom on the fAOie 
J!*J in the tntac moolh. Hr the old mlr ih*» MrTbdnv of 
^^rge 111. wa« May i^tb* HiJfi, tind ic WM ;1xc ^liciiiU^c^ \^ 



Qtr«tfn VicUfrw, 



th« CBUndfti in 1752 wdicli tr»(tKr«rrvd \\\M ftnniv^nan t*tbc 
fftmili*r Komth of Jun^. At Ken»jn^tOD I^aWc tbe Q«a« 
trliiUllioud wii patv«l in ihc liitiplictty and n-^ul^ritf ^hk*^ 
were con|;cniaJ to tbe ratl^-j, nn<l adnplcil 1o ttic tmittiu?^! 
mcnnt, of h*r mothrr Wc* ■hall not Atlrttipt lo rlpccrib^ in 
dccai! th<^ importnnl yoara ^nliJcb prccpdctl lbr^iJu<:«n i oocvMion 
in th<* tHrr>tif, On iliiit ■i)hJ4>ci, adeI, hs «<» iimlrruniul, nn iht» 
subject alone, Mr. Holmca, in hit fmibcomJiiK Lil'r, vriU >p«aJ( 
DDt only wUh aulUurltv, liul with ihtf coaiuinml W n«w mktrrial 
iupplt<*il by llnr Mnj'xaLy hcTr«^U> W* ihAll, lhnr«fore, mcrvlt 
indicatr tonin of tlic inilutfDcrt vihich probably ctmtrolW or 
irtCKtitipd ihv d«vclopm(>nt of tL« character and tut«t of th» 
futurr- Qiicrii. 

UV- fan h^iFdly tuppoic that the FrinofM VictorU'i aatVi 
MrA. lirixL. for ivliom h^r jkI iiaii^c nan ' U^bb/,* or ibe lU^- 
<i4forgr l>avT», after w:*rd» [Wn of Chrttf^r, from whofn, %l tow 
jroTS old, she bpjfnn lo recpivc elcmcntftrj Icsjoni. or her Sia:< 
gov'irnt'M. ih'* Diirhpttnf Nr>r[hiiinbf>r1jtrirl,pf>rmani»ntlr aAWifd 
ibc lorinAlion 1>^thn(Ju(^'^n'* character. Kvon Mi*i (subinqacDliy 
Birom-iK) I.flixfii, llif rlnuglit^r of % Prr>t4*<tiant vlf^r^'vman ni 
J Unovor, who Hn» govornc»» fir»t to ihi: IVinww K**Hj<*ffl i^f 
Lciningnn, niiJ tbrn to thr Prlncru \ ictnria, and tlischatgtJ 
her revjTontible dutica wilb rfiui»kabl« tact and fidrliiy, ptiH 
boblv pruducftl nt vcrj iitorkril or jtoniiBnc-nl imprcasiuo ctf 
tliccharacLpr of hc^r pjpil. Tli& inilucntrc* bv which the Quf«n 
wai moll iniwc-rfuHy ufici^tcd, in tUcin: improaiuiuible jeai* «f 
h^ir child1jor»l, w«Tf> iho«o ihni tU« inhrtttpd ffi'im brr gftml' 
motht^rt ibc DiichrMof Smc^Cobiir^. or her nioilicr, the Dudm* 
of Kenr, ikntl ihoip that ihv rvoeiv^ from b^r bajf-aiitrr, ihv 
I'rtncefti Frodor^ of l^inin;Grcp, or her uoclc^ IMace Leop«U# 
nfifiWflriU King of the ltel(fiiint 

Xhc Prtn^at FfTodore, till her marriapire In 18^8 with FridHOff 
Hobenlrihe Lnngfrnhoiir^, Wat the ninMJinc mmpanion of tb^ 
Printesa Viciorin^ and it may be re^atdcd oa an evidmoa o* 
tht- hisfiit^ nt(iirhmi*iil ]il-Iwi*ii llif* (wo oialeia, lUat aa Pnnrra* 
1 li>henloho abe wa» with the Queen durinj* aoina of th« ^bom^ 
ivccka wbirb followed the death of the Prince Contort. Tb** 
DuchMi of Kent wa« a woman remarkable rath«r for ber fttty 
and her deiotion !<> duty, than for any tlriking pownt of oitoJ* 
Left Q widow witbin two vean from bei maniage, almo* 
frit^iidleaa iu this rounlry, uitable ti> apeak the Englbb Uaj^ua^f 
«he larrifirrd her own bomp, nnd dnvoird brrvrlf veUb unlirtn^ 
un«elfiihnF4a Co the toak of training her daughter to win, by he' 
conduct and vjrdi^t, the irap^ci and confidence of the people 
over whom «be night one day be Cftlled to rule, in tb« 



QuMTi Victoria, 999 

QuoAn'* firii a<lilr««s lo brr Privy Couocil, <be anlefully r«t>rd» 
ibr JtU ih&t kbu owed to L«i inolLrr : * ]'^du;;utL*il in Eik^ldAd 
andf-r ihfr c«re of a moil oiTfOtionato motkcT^ I hn\t Icarneil 
Ipiinmy iarnncv u> mprct ftadlnvetbc (JonstituUo;iof my Qfttire 
rouirtfy/ Tho nhilary^ <»m*r|ry, »nfl rn**ntal pow*r of Sophin, 
^ocltui nf Sale -Cob UTjr, <in the oUicr hAniJ. were very rcmnrk- 
UfIp; and It it from i)f*T thnl^ in nil protia^ility^ Ibi* <j(]^*4>n 
iii^riu DO AtQ*il p*!!!*!!* of her "wn cibiliucA- From her 
lAiirJoKitbvr, n1tc^ Htr Msji^itv hat ttrrivrd her Invi? o^ nnturjfcl 
Mvnrry,^her dcLigbi in the mountaim of Sci^tland and 
!^iiECTlviO, in ibc •pft»vi*«» nf ihe UI<t of ^Vi^hi, nr ibr 
vnina of itoa an<l mnumnin on the sunny ihorn of the Me<liter- 
'anphu. It waia clivtaiUt^d pruject uf ibcr DuthFX!k8i]|jhia. foruicd 
*hfb tbo persons prlncipiU'v tfonofrrnf^d witrc mt^ra chiUirtm, 
'o ftnAijgc a Eiianiuye bclwrra ihe Ptinci-s« VicUiria \wi Prince 
Aibm. In ihit hopo iitfr /nvouril* son, Princv Ltrcipoli), ftilly 
ibsrr^, nnii U ttas hy liiin Um[, Jil Id^O, tbe uira {>f sach & 
tnmn wat fim com ni i^nlcalcd to tbp future Quten. l! w.i* at 
b«T uncb'a bocTK- at Clarrmont tbat the Princess ViL:lori(L piL»»cd 
xunvof ibi* bappiPtt flsys n( ht^r ohildboiHl. Shn mat nt yet 
^oonsdous of hf^r prnsprcis of jurf-mlin^ tbn ihronc. But bftd 
■Iwuhoicp of Mentor bpt-ri rintU' wiih Jtdibt*raiion, It contd not 
**<» been nioTe iortunntt\ It was not only llial Prince Lfopold 
**9 ■ mnn fif cvinipiirurkU* Jtbiliiy nnrl long-nt^blnl clf-ameit of 

^*ion. Htarin^ tbe wbolc oi hit residence in tbii coualrj, ftt 
*Eiiiie wben parly spirit ran it« hl^hi^st, bp bud AMocJAlcd 
H^nJf with no puUlionl iniriguc, but by tbc modcrmion and 
*J^ff:iou of bla conducL bad tteurr-d the rcspet^t of butb Whig* 

rLniuifhoul tbew cbibllKh y<r«Ti, if wc mny sny lu witWjt 
''••pusing on th*< domain wbirb Mr- l1o]m4*« will nlonc be 
*^\f ta occupy, rnnny of Ibr Uuren's ijiMrs firid interests were 
*Jncloppd. Among tbcie ««n«ciaUy may be inpnlioned ihv 
'^'ifiht in outdoor life, the lore of riding, tbr afleL-tion for chil- 
jWn.iniinalsiind pet*, ihpp1«n«iiT4«r1er]ve<i from the opera, or the 
■"[•r^ii in Arctie exploractnn nhicb dates from Cnplain Back's 
*'*V*(r<' in tearrh of (^aprAJii Rin». Another f^^Jirurp in ihc 
VoHft's cduofttjou 11 the knt>n'leil^i; jfaineil of ibc country ov(*r 
'Mcb shr ■(!» destined t" rule. After tbr acees&inn of King 
*ibjuD l\ ., ivhcR tbo Princess «(ood n*»t in auncession to tho 
^lOnrr, luurt vere mftde tbtough nearly every part ni England 
*^l IValtf. Th*> men list of the plncts lo which visits were 
'*ii| paid would imprii« and JntereM ibe rcatJcr, More th^n 
iMy y»ara ago. the Qu««n bad, for esiample, vivited th^ 
MtbcdraU of SsiJsbuiy, Wijichcslcr, W<ii««cr, Ikrefoidi 

Oifoid. 



I 



300 a^en Victoria. 

Oxford, Cheater, ifstifor. LioUfield, Hxcier, York, and POir 
bntdU^h ; ihp liAii inipi-cEci) ilir ^cnit poft* or noptiiii U 
ParUmoJtLi, Pl^inoulb, and Woolwidi ; iL« tiad bftfn |iiUMl 
ai sn IviHtinitifwl ; *liO liiul icrn ??lcrtn<'hvr>gr, »ncl SiraliorJ'Oft- 
Avon, nnU Kcmlivottb: the bud boen ov?r tUo mEton-miIb« 
HrlpFr^ tb« gUsi-wujks nt IlirmingbALnt tit* nail-votlll tt 
Broini^ov* ; ahit hnd bmn n gocsc at gtvat cou ntrj>l>oDMi 
Mtcli BK l^inrclj Park, Alton Tower*. Eaton HaJI, CbB(««atlli 
Wjihnm Abbey, W*ntwnrrh tTou*e, BiKhoptihi>rpo, H»rc«ood» 
Ifnlvoir, mnd \ititf\c\d. 

In ihif <xjntc*it, VI* mny add & few wards on lb^ CjvMfii 
litrmrv tastvv, tbough Ehrir furtiirxlioEi brlnn^ in fMrt la «lal0 
fktr. h iihDiilfl hr tKjrnn in miml tlmi Hrr MajrMy's Ivre 
oi rfuJinK ban n<rcT(^>»rilv b(*en Bubur^intitcd to lb« »IiDOit 
iuc^»t»iu Ulionra iff a liutv lifi*, &nd lh«i, <if recrnt Tcan, haokt 
h%vc been iifton r.Unaen for ber to be rend aloud fti » rcluatinn 
ALfl^r tbe fntij{ueii of i1ie daj-. In tb<fii? ciiL-uuiiLaiiccs. il 
onlr to lx» oxj>ocl(^i thnt n vjul maat af niodom Htrtnturc ikotU 
he unvr\itc%caled tn niiy tltt of ibc Qui^cn'* UiuutUe boobb 
Moreuver^ afci^r a cciluin tuiii^ ul lit>, w*^ inik« new fripoilv 
whedi^i ainoiJg incii or books, alowlv and vritb difBcuLljr. I^Q? 
aftKLioo for ft portieuUr book ii oftvn n mniu-r whicb wt UkOoU 
find it bird to explain to onrtelvca. Tbe place wbere itn> 
§int tmdf tbn pnton wiib vrbmii wo tb^t^d 11, ib« A^MtfiAtfoni 
tbfti bave ipLtbt-rcd round it, the country Jt dcscribe^t, — «ll iht^ 
at^ eTvmentH tvbicb ni oner d^u-rminif^nd [tt-rpi'tunu* (jjr<^botCT> 
It would not, wc iRin^tiic, bo difiic-ult for any i'Of, who i* 
initiiimteFj' Ac^juainied wltU the privnip Hfe nf Hft MBJi'>lj» 
ttiUB lo int«iprot tbv cboicc vt lb« books that foll^nr. Aauflg 
<Hir llnelifh wrjt4?rst ibr Qupfrn'fl favouritR p<iets arc &2uk^ 
spran-^ Waltt-r Sooit, Tcnnj>DitT and Adekide Pro<l*T. The 
b^inm >^f l^oiiJtr and Fabfrr are lbo»t' tij >tbit:b lUi" i* rapecisil/ 
sttAcbrd. Her I'avourilQ novclieti nro ihW wotnon- — Jkrtc Aniwi* 
CbaitlHIv BruiiiTT, Mrv Olipbiutii Mi>, Cntik, Cieorne Hiul* 
and ICdnn Ljall. Whh Gortnan literature, tb^ 0>*^n U 
lamiiiar, Hcit: her favoaritc writers are ticbillcr, Goctbc, saii 
H«ln», Il it worth oit*ntioiuDff, as a proof ef tb^ ihoroogtw 
QOfli of Uct Kng-iisb education, that, (bou^b abe learoed to resd 
Gt^rman before ber ncfTosaion, ib** wa» never aUowvil to «peak 
it. In tb» literature of France it is paturnl to (ind tbat t^ 
uii'inoir-rt iiii^r«t in wbicb tliHL Mtunrrj' tA tt> jiATuUarljf ricbr 
b&ve a eonipiuuoua plnce, and lo the cbnrm of Sallj and Su 
SiuKio [br* Quet^n h Keeidy ative. Atntin^ Frenca |>uets aAil- 
dramatiBlj, tbe <^uoon^a ffivouni^vs are Raciou, Ccrneill^, uJ 
Lismarcine. To bet tote for ibe Ivro ^r^i\t clnauc* Hcf- 



m 



QtfMit Vi€iar(^, 



301 



^P^ty probftlily owes tbtt rrmftrkablr puriti-, both in it^iom 
Bl cboicc of ootids, iritb which dhu tpcak* the French 

^nrb vcTT touif' oE lb<^ infiucnocs under which tbc Fiidccm 

Viooria ll^iFW up. Ry thri(< lii-r cbnTfit-iFr and tiUiE^i had lii-rn 

ifmt*}, wh^ji, oil June ^Otht 1837, ftbc auccccded 1<i the, throii4i 

A( the rnninrnt t»r lirr Af^^uiiitn nhf hjtd At her ftjdr [he? thrnivd, 

ugkdooA counveliorf with tvbom lune L4>opold hwl provided 

tier* Uuup SluL-lLnmr. Gfmt lu liis atfrvktri unduublcdljr wrrCg 

li i«^ He tliink. Lord Melbourne'! name which wp ihciuld at thit 

tim remeuihcT wiih tapetiij )<rutttudL-, Whatevuc ni»y buvo 

hnn l^ord Mo]bi>urm>'« Imdtt u» h *ULMinnn, nnd to ttioto the 

*Uinttcrlj RcvicH ' wa« fully aIivc^ he had, as wc bellcro, 

ocoiP in Lis conduct eu i^uldt* to hit youthful Sovemgri. )U 

vu iciapal^iialX loyal to hit <Juecn, bi« of^poncnu, and the 

attion. A man of w^lNbilanred jadifmfitt, wide M(j>^Ti(»rK'* 

o(ebv world, w<^lL'n.'nd, quoinl and anginal in bu oxpn^aaionSi 

^deling in <^invi*ruiur>n, and rharming in mnnnrff hi? was 

upibrly wdl fiticil ti>r the taik to which bo was catlod. 

4fifiiftan might iiavc |>rfjudlced tht^ (Jji-rn in favitur Hlher 

<^ democratic in«(itLitii>n* or autocratic power: btt^ Lord 

^IclLuuinc waa hiinnrir th> moderate and dispaMWaU: to 

attempt (o do vilhvT. A man, C4jld«r in demeanour, more 

*t*UTcd in UAttner, ai»d |Mrft«i:-a>ing Jc»i a{ hit ^ifl erf making 

<^4«UU« of butinesK nttrActtvir, mijfht baT^ n<p(f]l«d her from 

P^lkd RlTaira, Tor hla yifulhruJ pupil he felt a U^]y paternal 

totVMl and, vp mav vj^nruro m ^dfl^ affeotion ; and ic ii to 

** WtSng credit at a fLiivatroai ([cDtleman and blgb-mmdMl 

plidr-iikn, that he n^v^r nbuved the intl^^nce which bn namralljr 

^uirni over Her Miiicftiy't mind, 

EiEQ wUb Lord MrH>[Jume a» hw* ffuiJt\ the period frtim tUfl 
Qicen*» acccaaioEi in J line l^'dl lo he<r ijrLrrLJiea in bcbfuary 
^'^O wai a Irving iintl a prrilnuft ontral, * A wimr ii'hjHd for 
A^kiDj^ £trl, — and (be words are thottr of Hrr Majt^tty lionolf, 
~^Di uiP- m<jre detrimental Ui n\\ iialumi frt-1in|^H nod ntn-citiinii^ 
■^aoi well ba imaf>incd than the poution of a Qu«^n at 
*>Cl>1bcn, witiumt cajKiiinicc und without a htubaud tu tuppori 
W' From oo« of lh«» duu^^ri natural to lacb a p»iilion tho 
V'ttii bad not ctCMpod ; »hc h^i hdclf ndmUted that »hc WM 
°laiied by p^nj fcelinff* Thouj;b the nation wa«, ni wr tnva 
^^ftjiKularly fortunate in the accident, ih^t^ in Iti^u inch a 
■BUI M Lord lllelbi>arnr- should have Hpph brought into confi- 
"iDlUjd relalions with the (juccn. yet iomt; tucb bint, however 
t'Bconvciotift it might b*^. nn% tin? ioeviLibti^ieduU of bin prrional 
■Aflaencc. la tbta rcapentt tbercforc, at in almoit every ofb^r* 

the 



3(»2 Qwen Viciona. 

thp rlurarUr n( the man wliotn Her Majol^ choM fi» Wf 

1l i» iioE oiif ]>urpi>ar l» lUliite on ihc priTntf Virtues oE iW^ 
Pnriri* Coniorl, or td ptilarjt^r on lii< blnmHert ci>nO«iCl « * 
Ijd^band nnJ n fntlcr. His high nior^l qiiAliiJci, emundni »* 
ttiej- w*te fto ihe firm bwt «J religion, did iocltrrd tjJKtf 
tbrcftUgh tbr example of ihe Court, an tnflu«ncp upon socicir* 
The vnlue of which bat bf'j>n inrnlruUlilr. SimiUrlv v<f $StX^ 
ahsUiEi Irom ctisrUMi;i|| llic cnormouft debt nrbkb tbe nkiior* 
iiwf tv bin fcir lEir impulw^ im|iHtt^il Ci> tb^ »tudr of tc»-uoc 
(vnd of ATI, ioT Ihr iniLtAtion givrn In maoT lohcitics of pbtUa— 
lliropii: tntprpriM^, for ibt- proinoiifm of tverv wJunO pio^fct 
wbicb rould witLBt tb» proj^r^BS nt lb4* peopk or aBi#lir>rftte thc' 
i:t»iditiifn of tbcr working -cbusrv- Tbn»i? were pnHriocc* lo 
whicb be oould i^pcnlv Ubour tvitbonc provoking j«ftlouai««, and 
il it not loo inurb to s«_v th/it, hy bj» npmadc for baHOC«>t bU 
iTi&4tprT ^r intricate drinil, hit power* of nnpliralionf ami br« 
urj^nnixin^ grDiuSibr madi? tbirm, ai 3nn^ as nc lived, pccotiaHf 
hi< ftwn, U ia mib<»r wilh ibf* tpirit in whicb be intrrpreted rhr 
duticrft of bis pnation, m bearing on tbe development oi lh> 
cbarncter of tbe Queen. rbaC ne are rbieflv roricerrted. 

Prince Albert in IbiX iinpreiBod f^ir liobert Heel a« iW 
' tnoKt pxtraordinttrj' yimn^ min " be bnd ever mrL Hi< inld- 
leolual pi(ls wi>r« indeed of the bi^rbeftt order, and thev vcre 
carefollj' iminnb Ilia kr*r-n reli*b fur lUe ^{vjuiticion of knair- 
ied^^ and hit aeeurncv in il» retention, were united wiib tUr 
Btili givaler power o( t:oHjrdii]alifig fju.i9« of deducing principles 
nnd originating idem wbieb, thr>u^h viaTj wurv ^*l definite. 
Wc lay itreH u|mn tbe yreatiieiB of tbe Ptince'i itienul cnradtTp 
brrniJif by il alone can Iw* measur**d iht* gi^ntnett of bit rtlf- 
abne^nlionn Pi>liti4:Al|y he wa« place<| in a pi^ftitinn of extreme 
difllridEv It wnc one which be could nol licive held r«>r Mi 
inilanl, brtd be not poi»ri»ed ibe entire affection and implieii 
CutLlidetK^ of tbe (Juren ; it wni hIio one wbieb ft crlfiib, vain, 
or intnguin;; man would have foiiiid to be unteaable- T^* 
Heclinr taking pari in xhtr perf'iT'fnnrK-f* nf ibn diiiiea nith wki«b 
bis wile wa> entmated would have been the vale but i^oble 
course. To avseil a ulaiui to jmrlit^ipaLe opejdy in public bun- 
ne» would brtvn been to arouio the Jenlouain of tb« nallon- 
Tbe Prinee laid drivin U'x Ijiinielfn line of t:ondiu-t wbicb oalr 
a rrallj great and nn«elb<h wnn eoold ha*e pur«ue<J- He deter- 
min<?d to decline ]>er>onal di»tinelfoii, nnd Icr tink hi» ana 
indii-idunl exUtenee in tbar of the Queen, becauie, b^ to Umo^^ 
he eould beat »bare and lighten her burden. 

It wac tbe Prinee's resolve to identify biaiitflfin all tliiftf^ 

wicb 



■ ith the lEttrrc^u of thit country ; to ^nin, hy itudv anii obtci- 

vAticcr, the coofid^noA »f H4*r Mnjr4l^'c IMinuEon, arul lo makf? 

faimwirr vrbUedcffmnc totUf ngbu of bt^r irtponvibW &4ri*«T>, 

rumrrtJini with «ll jmltTicfkl trftnunt^iioni. Bin hit piranir nt' 

IboK cihjccf* vra* iCtunlH by nn ilciirr to mnke KJt o»t^ntrvtioii« 

■ilBnUjr i>r p'twi-r : b<- b:*ri nn otlipr end In Vtrw thnn llmt of 

uttuinjf hi« wilf in ^v^^ry pnrt nf tbc public bu«inr!>« which wa* 

Hroogtil bi^forc brr, itmi «f lUictding nnd pniti^rlltiiif, m far »■ 

*a«pi)i«ib1«, tho Qui-t>(t whmii he »en-uJ a« a aubjecr, and thfr 

vomui vrhom Wc loved lu ti mnn. Ln the dimtionft thui IniJi* 

'^f^, h« won tli« cntLrv confKlenCf* of lb« I^nil^ng polilifinnt 

'*» both lilies of Ibo lluuar ; Hbfrtlii.-r ihc MinUtCTt wck- VVbi^ 

w rorr, CunB^rvntivp or Libpral, (hey r-iuld, ami did, implicillv 

'*t' on tbt Prince'* fi(Jr!it.v. Gm»ping ibe prlnciplri of » 

'^t^^KEnnn^ nnd diMUinln^ th^ iniriguc^t of ihp p^rtv polJtlrian, 

'"^^x«rd«pil nn intiucncc wbirh was ntvraya directed towards 

^^v nkAintmance of pen:.^ Mtinvad, and rational, harmoiiioua 

?'^gTtst at home* Onily rnmmiinirrn wilb ft man tn pnrc in 

"^"11 ve, lo Inrjfc in »irw, vi untpldth in aim, is tbe kit, nni! bj 

^^ thr |»roaJ(tit, isflucnrr which hn» ticlprd to inculd th^ 

"'*''*ictcr of ihcQart^n. Thiinr wlio know ihc? rr-*crv<? tliat i> 

Xfltural to Her Nf rjrity. can :ippr«criato tbi* ttmif^tb o] the fpelinj; 

''^^cb iii)|ir]lf J Li'i ti> Jiiy l^je ti* Uvi ptuple 1.h<^ lioppiiit^ta ^f 

" wrdj«d life. Tbo tfrori wa* dio diicbnrga of a aarmd duly 

^ tbc mfnaorr of ooe, wbom inany of her aubjccta had »«mfr- 

****** mitjudgpd nr mitundvniond. 

Op ih^ pcriooal chAracttr of Qatta Victoria «c hftv*; >ajd 

*^nr>tigb, if noi roo mu^Zi ; Ih« timr has not vei come whrn, jn 

^* opinion^ iu fralarm can br di^cuiKcd witb proprjct>-, Tor 

"'nVtrnt ri*nK>E]< il ia impoitjblr lo iprnk of ibe QQ4*en'» 

P^l itica] life. Agi^in and a^io she has intrrvcncd* with 

*''^Ling »uccf«i, ti> r»ndlinli> l\w tnmMHir nf pntiy ft(rif«<, or ut 

^^*>n dan|r<^rout colliiiona between the two Holis^i ol Parlia* 

^^tift and iMftttPL'ti the GiirfnirnKiit lu^d tbe OpimsiLioiL One 

f**iiipt» of »uch an intorv^ritioii wa* given in the* Life of Arcb- 

**ln>p Tait, froin wbirh ibe public IrarntHJ. for the fir*t liinttt 

'*^ how larg^ a intasurr it owed to Ibe Queen the pe«c<eful 

'^ttlcuicat of the IrJtb Cburcb qui^tioii. Similar ciain^dva of 

^nre recem dale irigbt be quoted, if they did nfit turn upon 

''■•putea that bare not bi^CD finally dctcnninedt and tiuy bfl at 

^'^y fimfl re-f>p*npd Hut^ whpn :h# limP comet tn tpveal iht 

">lxc> at work hcbim) the cour» of pQlitical evrnti dLirinif the 

tifPfpnt reign. U wilt 1* Innnd thM, (or tlic» amo'itlt wnrhijig *>f 

'he conatilulional macUinri'y within xhc htt j»i«ty jrar*, the 

QotioD !• indebted ta no cine more thao to CJur^n Victoria. 



304 



i^HMji Vtttoria. 




Nor ia ii itu\y »i t1io» ttorm^ crlt^» of almncilM at fntn^tfl 

EoIUtc«i vrhich Eirrcst tho public teiuo, tb&t bcr inttacDco bitf 
ten t^iL-rlrtl- Througboui Iktt l{m<;ri!!^ii llKfcaloi, huh^kbIlii^ 
pruBSurc <>i hi^r tiAnil bns bf^^^a lo ^i-iurrn) vid prrvauvi» Ibttg, 
iikff iLr pri.'MiuE(^ <if ibc almuipbcri?, its tuucti luk bn^d uafEU^ 
Nn tuir-itnun hai «v«r Com? in r^unlacc i^'itli lier wiibout Wtng 
iJ«|frr»W b/ L«f write prudciii:-:, *■ vrcU ni struck bj bcfl 
•tJijjrular pow*r* of coDC4>nirauoD ; very ft*w, iwd tUoftr noi 
aikviijs tlic mo«l cajmblo of cBtimatLUg lh« capacil^f of olbcis, 
hnvo fail4vi to fcvl ih^t^ rnrnpftr<^ with br*r wide iLa^nrM^ 
ftnd loajc experience of nflAira, tb«ir own acYjuaiaCAaoc* wIlI 
pr^HiW i« fhort and luprrfirinK 

'i'hrcc tit the moit splendid pt^rlodi of our butory hhxc befrj 
inKMl uuder thr tt^ny of fnn^tte Sov^nugiu., It would bi 
kDtorc«tin^% it li bud ixyen iirioilv g«raiFiDO to tlKt «ubjoct, ti 
indic3kl<? imini' of ilic (xtntiAiu nnd racmbtanccs wlucb tbeii 
r^A^iectivt* rci;;iis prct^nl. But it will l>« eaoiigh to $^f thai 
ncicr bt'rmr, lU tbv huluvv of ttic nrmid, wu tu VMt u^ 
EmpirVf «vith its difTcrcnces of rncc mnd crotd, uid ili wwCui' 
ui uiuiiicrs. cjsLoin* or cunsiLlutiniml format buuod tofetborlif' 
ft n», «o fruil in ap|>c^bnincu. to tiron^ ia r^«lUy, aa ihff biAd 
which uniti-« ihiT hritiftb Euipjic in pcmjti^i ^ile^innce Ur, 

Tbcrr lit LowtvcT, onr point of cimtrasl betwacn the 
tbe Q[]i?r*ii nnd chnt of th<^ mom illuarrioLiv of her fcmnle pre- 
dc<:t:ii!mta, tu nhicb Ac wish lo allude in concluaiott. Und«r 
Kli/ftbrih, t|i4* Kngiiiib OJiliort ro«f.* from a vMYiikdAry px»ibon 
amon^ the i'oweri of Kuropo to « lcv«| with the mi};btLeit ol 
Ciopjim, Jinil tbr j^rpninesc of the ruler Ijiu lodelibly «(3Erp«d 
bcr (lAmo and pC'rvonrUity upon one of thL* inoU briJlift«t pvffiAli 
uf our hittorV' Wl, in [UiJ^^Wlli, tb<T move wc ulmiR! thi 
(Jueeo, tbemf)iro«'eeondctnfi tbc woman; m oao of tti« t«*o«idM 
of bi;r slrair|f;eIy-lilL*iidei) L-linini:lcr ahv wus Iru iLaa ik womtHi 
wliile ill tbc other »he wn4 ^reau-r tbi\n a man. la tba case 0| 
Uueeu VictoiiA we nceii MiArcely dniw out tbe coutrei>l, vbld 
il u our purpoi^ to Jndicnte. U ic riot to h«r Ai a ruli>r onl] 
that the lintisb rncc otTc-r the liomftu^ of tbcir lojalty. Milliooi 
who know littlr or noTb.in;[ of ib« wite ex^rclte of her polittci 
powcn or of the punctual dbcbar^e of hor puUlic dtttie*, |M] 
hfff th» tribuEA nf iheir re«p»eiful nfffietion as & womui wtii 
hht lUTTcr withheld from Ihem the syinpalhio wbidi ibo bft 
nUo ii^Ikm) from them in r^tjrn. whi> bmi roruiiieoLlj *et ti 
uiciety ibe eiample of hij^U ond pure moraSity, wLio, to lb 
iii>d>t of ibe cngnHsiii}; Kplrndours of her posiiion, itaM <Vi 
loved Um iiiapl* aod iiwocant plo«sara« of ilomMtic Ufa, 

- - - As*. 






( 305 ) 

Art, 11. — 1- TTitf Pulpit Ccmni^ntary : Ptalntx, Eipoutloa 
br lb(i Rvv, Canon llitwliji»uii; lloiullftirs l>> tuc Ror, 
T5r. CVindcx; HomiHe« bv Vftrioo* Autliow. Tliree V»!i, 

i- Ifte Peififr. Wirb a (-rtnrr>rHftnr*» »ml oThrr Auxiliary 
Matter by tlip Rigbt (ion. VV, K. GUdsiDnc London^ 
J89S. 

I l^liR * Pulpit Commpnlarv ' is a tnitii* of tti]|ff[p«tivc? utaittrr 
-L ior inrucb^rs aiitl l^acbur* in cburch and school. It h&a 
oiuiiuinri), wilbin ;hn tcnp^r Jtntl Umiu of il» nmci^plion, ». 
tiiflk Ictel uf exc^lipncff, nnU tho tbroc volume* wKicb Bt&tid at 
u>c licad vi i\ii% ajltcic Art: Tullj up tu the slantbinl allaiiicHl by 
™'^ pr«jece«oit, W« dt» not, however, propiwe lo criiiciMCi 
"> ■iciail ji w*itk, tLc utility ol which U -nlrcaJy so widely 
i>ppr<*na('^L Wr- prefftr lo utf it for tho pLjrpii«c> ftf ttiggmliag 
^ ■^niirclj liiflcrrpl mrthnd of commcnUns or tljc |'»i\)iii»— ^a 
■■^(^(-IvhI which l» ntit only, m w« hope lo fhcm', rich in matprlalr 
^vt h»t never been adopted, on nn adcqiinte «c'nlc, by any 
previous cniniiii?ntator 

*t It A well-koown KabbinicaL tmdilioji ibat hbove iho bed 
« «I^nvii1 thr>n* hLing n harp. Ai miflnigbit nn ihp wind ripp1<*d 
"^^r ihc >trinj:», it mad<; such muitc that the poet-kin); was 
^Oftiraiiitit III ritr* nut], iHl (hi? piJhir of d;iwii niw lii^h in the 
era h<4Lvona, lo wed wordi to the itrjuns, Tba poAiry of 
t Iradillan it KumuLciI up in the snvjng^ thai thr HooIe of 
■^■^Ima cx^iitjuns the whole mmic of the heart ot man twppt by 
'^^ laui) ufhis Mukcj, tu it arc ^uthcird ihe Ivrknl burst o( 
*** tendcrneftif the moan of hit pu-nitenct*, the patliKic accent 
Lib luffow. the triuxnjtlunt bUouL of hii vKturv* the de- 
'E^^iring ii>h of hU drfeai. ih<^ 5rm tono of hi( eonfidenec, the 
'*|>tuToU9 note of hit ossurcil hope, la it it preafniol tho 
^'^■^lojny of all pnnt of the iKimnn koul ; in it, at Mrire anya^ 
^^ cnUoctcd *»anri>e and tunaet, birth and deaths protnUe and 
^* 6laien|. — tlie wholr tlram/i of huuiinitv/ 

' ^a the Pttatm* i» painted, iar aJl liino^ in fmth unfadina 

*'^loota, the piciiire of ihe iuothI warfare of mnti, nfirn liaflled 

?^X sercr wholLv dr^feAtcd, stru)^j;liii]i- upwnrdd to all thai it 

^^at and LiglicBl in hit ualuie, ulwajs aware huw tthoiL of the 

^^%a £alii the practice, how ^reat ii the abyaa that lovnn the 

^^pinuiou from the achievemcDt. In them nv- <\o not find tha 

^*>iioc«nt ci>av«rM (ti man with Ooi] In th« Garden of hldoa ; if 

^^« didp ihc btjok would for our fallen natorea lote itJ value, 

^^a llie eunlrarj, it is tbe revelition of a toiil deeply concciuut 

^( *ia, teeiiu^i ill bioken aM«ut« of aLatuc and penitence and 

hop^ 




4 



306 The rtaintx in Higl&ry. 

hopr, to r«n«w p«r«oniil cr>ininunton with God, h««rt 
ihouxlit to tliuugliT, uiJti itux lit fticr. Il ii lliU wljicb g\ 
tht* Pultna xhniT external iraih. Il U th]« whicb mcilcM tb 
ontc thp bicTinij ami ihtt vialicuin of hunmnilj. lit 
^t\wTP€\ noi (in)^ pr^gmnt fttnr^ni4*ni« aS thn prifKip 
rclijrion, and coniirn»c(i mftximi of >piTiti»l lilc, but ft p 
tniiry of manly eflort, a tummiry of derniion. a mnn 

Grader nnd prjti>«, — and fill chi> la clnthocl in innieoaf^ 
: n« rich in poetic? Iieauty a« jt la univi^nal aod ^niltir 

TUf.- Fsulm*. llion, arr n mirror in wliirb rarh mafi 
tbt' motinn* qI his own woul. They ^xprcai in «<|aitit« 
[li(r afTiniLy whjcb rverv iliriLi|,'hlful liuitiuii Ifcutt ciawa I 
with a flupremc, unRhnn^inff, loving (iod, wlio will be to 
pmtirrtor, ^utiiian, am) friend. Tbtry utter tbc oii 
familjitr exftvi'mnctt, thoo^hit, nnd f^^plinga nf mm; bu 
give to itjfrac a >v]dlli of ranjEv, an intensity, a dcptb,j 
'^l^vation. which lran«('c*nd ib^ oapariiy ttf tb^ movtl 
Thc-y tranBlutv into Bprucb the flpirilonl pnation of thcl 
geniiu ; ih4*y nUo uitf»r with ihe hrauiv b»rn of intt 
simplicity, and wiLb cxiLct nfrcrnicnC between the f^Ul 
thp ^xpr^ttlon^ lh« inari](<o)a[^ and humhli> longingt i 
unJetccTod peatnnt. So it is chat in every eountry the Ian 
i^r ihe Psniins has henime pan of the daily lifjp of cii 
pMunf- into their proverbs, mini^linp with their con^n 
aad used at fvery critical iiagn of t^xUience, — Pit baptist 
marriajfef in fticktiess and death* To weary travellers:, of 
condiiioo ami at every pi-riijd nf hislmy, the^ have hern 
of rclrefthment and wells of coiiiolation. In tfaem the 
cotitrciversy and tbc strife of creeds are 
Pialtfr hns untied An^lir^^n and Roman 
And Noneonformist. Over the parcheil and heated 6« 
ih^ogionl pr^lemic* the breaih of the PcalrDi str^epa, en 
soft and balmy, l-'ot centuries the auppli rations nJ Cbri 
ohiEhnl in the Inn^unitr of the PcAlTer, have riien like ii 
to the nhar-thrune of (»od ; jn thrm arir eipre»ed, irom 
A^, the devotion and the ihrnlogy nf reli^ou* coromi 
that in all c^se were ot deadly feud. 8urvivin|; all the d 
in Chureb and SlaTe> in inodi^s of ihrm^hl, lialdta of lif 
form of ezpression, the I'l-nlmi, as liovotinnal exercises 
sunk into our beaits ; as ^uldiine poetry, ihey bare fm 
imnginiiMnns; as illustrAEi'iiis nf human life, they 
oDr intn<U .\ni] stored our mrm4>rics. 

In tbt* PtaLms the vnit hosts of sulfering^ huinanl 
fuundj fiom the tiuie of Jonah to the pr^r^nt day 



, mtAt.j •■<*>x' >*(,*.>■ 

Id tfaem the a 
for^tten; lorn 
<:athnUe, Pr^b^ 



TV P&iilms in JJuCortf, 



307 



HHi ixnott Uaibful cij>r«*«Lon of tUcir hope* nnil fcan. Dr tbrm 

lliPttnguith wrung fri>in <oriur«J lip« on tlie rroti, feC the «tAke, 

Afi^ on thi^ kcanolii, lioA Lr«[i L<^ulc<i aiiU solaced. Stroof in 

die atrpngtb that thrj iinpArr, jaang Uo\% nnd Irndnr gfrlii havtr 

iu'>l itQcn ihcir knccft in tbc breivtblca* •jnphilLcatrc, ibrangrd 

*uU its ^uivi-rini^ iiiulLJluitrs, A»d butdlj' fact-il the lions. 

^itb tbcin upon their tonjcucs, mrrla<U hare dicJ,— now in 

ijuict «i-k*n)nTnt, surfouaJed by aII wIh> Iilivi< loved them hrm 

in ]i/t>,— now sklonA and (ur (roan bomo and kindred, — ni>fr 

Ixnxiiii'd ifk hy lirrr^c rncinlrs bowling for tbcir blood, For 

fituric>, in tbe storm ind iirets of Jilv^ cbe «t«rnal qoiMliniu 

<^' ^bencir? and vtbj? »nd wbiihcr? loll iq ujmjl us wilb 

DLauot'>ri^ut iccratii^nr like the luUrn itirjjp?* of the tntrticLilftt* 

**^ U'ilb »1riutivd rivrvov, nnd acotcs kccalr alorl, men and 

*orn«B b:ivci ntktii] wbnt i( Hie and wbnt Iv death, vnd th« unlj 

■fl^^er to tbcir qupstion* h^i btrcn ibe echo <if ibcir own roicca 

'ct^r^rbcmliiif; ihrougjlL ft i-HVi>r^ii>im v<d<l, tintil, in wt-Htint-vs viid 

'Mpur* ibi'^v turned lo tbc I'snltL-r, and itt words bnvc wrrhf>pcd 

|Wui round Vikv n (uldiiiK Be^tiKe wlijcli bas bmu^bt :brni 

^"*T^n«babl« pt-acCi Tbu« in the IWlmi thcrn ar«r pr^fict 

't^atb are ftuiiird wilb the llie-blooii of LnATl>Ti» Jtnd bf^lffW^ 

*>tli the lean of Kainid ; others which are iUtiminated by ibe 

''Otj^rin uf wenk hifttittoLty vri ButTciio^ nnd fi^ar and ti?mjilji- 

****tl ; otlier* which ulow wich the brijfbtness of heroic conttoknoy 

^^«i almost su^ieibumao ciii:ru|,'<. Oici the fLiiniliitr nmds Are 

'■"ilien, as it »'*r^ in a paliinpseti, the h^ftrt-ftiirrin^ ront:inee« 

*^ apiiituni chivalry, the most moriniT tragedies of hLinmn life 

*"**! MCtiOD. 

Uow much, or hoir liute^ of our religion U m mftttor of liAbj^ 
**" ft pprfonnl nrrjnisiiion, it if not lor us to emjuiriF. But 
**%urcdly tbe I'salms i^o in lAterost nnd power from tbcir 
■ftMorittion* Hriiti boniAn bitloiy, and from tlieir ij«e by our 
^llow-men in every form ut IrinL ^hicb can eonlront hiimftnity, 
■At?ir (here i% an ulmiisl uiitiui.ldeii tifid fur iLk? coitimetLtaiar, 
^vtd It is our purpose to indicate, in general otitHau, itf 
^l>iind*nt wealth of matennL 

Th« Psalms b;)ve tnipiTc**! somv of ihf> tiob)«st hymiu in oilt 

wifuaffe. Thrii LrnntEatioji into Terse baa been the ouuupniion 

of many of the tnoiE f*ilted men in our history, — of ItaVArda of 

cbiftlf^ like Sir rhiJip ^^idnny ; of men of science Ufce Lord 

"•OQO, in whose vemon the philoiopher overmaat^rs the po*t ; 

*^ clostical scboUrs like Georfo ^a^tdy*. perhaps the moai 

•vcteMfnl of our p*rly tninaUtori ; of rnurripr* MIep Sir Tbomot 

" yau, or cATftlicrs such as Sir John Dcnham ; of diatinguished 

T^ctatea iueb na Archbisbup Parker, or Blshf>p Ken, or Bishop 

HklF, 



508 



7749 Fttoiiii* in IHtlory, 



Hall, ur nUhop Kini;; <if king* Hlc Jnine« 
PtiTit&ns cocli at Frapcis Roui ; uf Cr^irifrplttan capUtuu 
Gcofgi" VViiliiT, wh.rai; iwrct vuin rif c»rl^ |>fwU_v w»» •■fare 
the vin^jfar ol politic! and poJ«mici : ot pur?U like Cowpe 
MiltoUt wtiotr vrvttuni fall below iW atmiuarcl wliicb wc tb 
havA i»|kDci«d hi« lyric g«nia< urn) dc^'oiional Ten'oar lo mil 
of retired country clcrsjnieii liko Georffe Herbert Aod 4 
K^liEe : of hf-mra nf t^<* nnnHAi) like* Sir Htrburil ninAto 
ttx Liikn MittiQurne: of miLitcTs t>t proie Jikc A(Jdi*oa 
VoiKMni iorm i « divtn^fe »arb na MrrTi<"k or finnc VVnr»- 

FiHTU nnd men of icttcH like llAntc »nil To-mo, Shnkctp 
Wnrdiiwirtl], W^iU^-r Si?oii, Carlylff »nd Rnnkin, Hriiw 
Hcrd^, 1'am:a] and Lninortinu, C'niDO«ni aod CcmatM, 
&cknowi4^dg<Ml thn unrivAlIcd charm vS the Pialtfrr. 
Sfafikctpt^&rv, (W rKamplr, Whelhtrr he wiu indeed 'nnlol 
in the Itjre of Gioecr uiid itomr ' mnv 1>e oprn to dispute; 
Ron** ^nn doubt bj« rjiroiHarit}' with lh» I'^ntmi. * Dnc 
ihc Pialmist aaith, is certain to nil : all v\xm\\ die.' So 
JubtIov STmllow 10 SIIpticp, pMhap* alluding tf> PiAlm 1x1 
4t^ *WbtLi miLn i« he thai lircth and ahall not wv ilw 
When Queen Margaret m%, in the * Second Pan of H 
iheSiilh,*— 

* Wli«i ! art tUou, liku tie u^der, waxen dottT? 
Be jioE«oii&iii too, ftud kill tlij forlorn Qimn ' i 

or when lUct^r tella Paris, in 'TtoiIlu and Crcaiida,'"-] 
' PlcosTiro and rerongG 
rTave c;(vri more dc^af than oddcrn lo tlio totco 
Of imj' tniu doL'ihiim/ — 

ihcy alludi* ti^ Paalm Iviii, 4. 

Ituckin^haiii s words in ' K!njC Wi:ntj the Elgbth * refe 
pMdm csli> ^t * L*^^ t^^" lilting up oi my bands bo ma tm 
aaciiftce ' ; — 

'And. a« the lotigilivorce of 8te«I falls «tt me, 
^UkA i>f y%>nr prikjore one ^wout tirwriliaot 
And lift ntj sdid to icAVon/ 

AnloDjr'B piajcr In * Anton j' and Cleopfttift ^**< 
'Ub,that i woro 
tJpon thu hLll of BuaUp to ontroer 
Till' humed hi^nl I for I liuvo mvAgo cainu ' — 

pl&inlj rpfirrs to ihe Ptnlmiit'i ' hill of ItLiian ' and the ' 
cS Bflian/ The pntyi-r t*f Adaui in *Aa Vou Like 

' Ho that ddlh Oxa mvunn feed, 
Yo«i providently ^ateTii for tho ipuTOW, 
Bo comfort lo mj ago ! '— 




Tfi« PfalrrtM I'jt Fiirt<*ry, 



309 



H IMutlj fonrulwl on Piftim oIvLi. 9, *H«> fe^^Imh thi- voting 
rivnin ttiAl i;h]1 ujivo [liitt.* In ' Kintr II<^nrv' chc I'il'ih/ where 
tb(< King Hngi bi« * Non nobii, DoinJne T ' iti cbnfihfjfivlng for 
bii -rictArr 4I Agincoarl, — 

' O OoJ, Tl)y nrm wm bnrc ; 
And not Ut iiii, hnl to Th j ana alone 
ABmbu wo fll),* — 



Li:i 



I 



only pMWphfUti tlio * Xot unto nt, O T.nni, pol unt^ iH, but 
to thf Kne ifive (lie praise' ni Vnilm cir. 1. S9 die 
(t^ftCfiptton of God » *i\te v/'niti^\ ch;iinpic>n unci (k>l«QC« * 
i» takua fruQL tbo FtAlinut^s ' l-Alhcr of th«; falfacrlcid ami 
tJtfendctb tbc c^ute of tbc widow.' WU^fi ib^King in * lUtnkt ' 
mIcs — 

' WLal if Ibii cnrso] hiuirl 
Wura tbkckfir tliou £Ui]If wltb brotbra-'n blnm], 
]« lb4Jv» lul t*m cuciU|:U in tbo awoot h(iiv<iiui 
Ti> w**b it t"bite as snow ? * 

be nf/m l» ESnlm )t- 7. 'TSimi shaft wA«b mo An<l f tUnU 
b* vbiiTT Lbnn Rdovr.' The detcription of the npproNcti oi 
Alcibijulf-K in *Tiinon of Athens' — 

■ Wbo, Liko ft loftT too AftTAge, dotb root up 

**em lo inggrst Pinlm I111. 13, ' Tbr wild buar out of thir 
•rood doth root U up,' Tb« addr«M of Roini*o tr> Jutitt, wbere 
^<^ comparra her to * a wing*U iiirvBcn^'er of Heaven,' — 

' Wbftn bn IvHtrldvH tbn lasj-Tinrfng clou^A 
Aq'I (oiln upon xho boM>m of Ibo aij,' — 

*^'*ini a reziiitti»rviic^ of «ucb senleitciti« in ibv P»alini a> 
* Minify Him ibm tidnli upon ihi» hi-Jivrni, n% it wmrit upon an 
^«Tk' f IxviiL 4)t or ' Who maK'th ibo cloudt Hi* chariot, and 
**Uptb up"ii itir wing* tif ilir wind' (civ, 3), or ' \lv rmmf* 
'^J''ift{ apon the wing* oi the wind' (xWii- 10). Kioallv, tho 
I^^Hi^ irtjm tbr ^SpcornI Part of King Henry the Siith/ in 
^'Hcb ibe King addreuei Humphrrtv, l>akc of Olostm*, — 

* Stkj, llumpbrey, Duk^ of Gloekr ; cru Uioa go 

Give iiji thy hlafT; Hvnrj yriW Ut hiniHtlf 
Protoolor \ni : and Ood abaU h» my brtpo, 
My sloj, my guide, and lantern to nty f(«t ; 
And go in jtoftco, Tlnmpbroy,'— 

^hokeapetiTi* tnalcet otc of tucli poffyoa lu ^ truly iiij Uupi? is 
ctoi in I'bnc ' (xxiiz. d) ; ■ but tb«Xard irai tay stay ' (xvilL L9) ; 

^our 



310 



Tht Pgalmi in Ni$tofy^ 



'our gtiidft nmo dciftth' (kIviu. 13); and *% Untero unto nr^ 
feet and A ligbl umo m> paifas' (cxu, lU^). 

Frnm tbe P«Almt our bymn*wH(ert hive drmvn foine «r 1be& 
matt atrikine inapimtioEii ; Ihcir trfiniUiioo b» U^a ibc ona- 
nnlii>n v( inpn of nil pri>rr»ioni iiml pLinuiU at cV4^y Ewrintl of 
liitttory : tUcir Juni^uagv, iinivg^ry, mh\ ideas barir ik»ciQ«tHl mca 
of ihe higtioAC pKiir grniun. Dul, tit-iiiili^s ibr indin^rE inflomct 
vrbich they have tbiu eicoroUed on litt-rature, the Piftliaa mtj bt 
i&td (V have crcilrd a liCirraLtirr uf lUfir wil OraU tbjil laut 
of wricingB in tvhich ii rrcordcd ibc inner life of Chritliui, 
tbcy are the prcciirs'>iB and tUc pailcrti. Tbtj are (b« p«r*p[i 
of thoso reli^ioui a-tiidhiogrnphtft which, i»wi in titenrr iAci 
pavcbological intert^at, riva), if ihcy do not aurpaMi lb9*C» 
f«-Eaioiit' of llnuBSoiu, or the ^Truib and Fifrtion' nf Gonbf: 
i'rom the Pulma nrc dcMT^ndrii l>ooki like tbc 'Cupfewou'dT 
St. AuBimin^, ib** ■ Imitation n( Chriit* of Thomai k Kmjni* 
tbe 'Devotions' of Hiabop Andrewoa, the 'Tbougbu' of Bluie 
Paacnl 

In tlic pag:c* of aucb vrorkt tbe tone and apirit of the I'adit^ 
An* faflhfulty rvpn^aented ; wlu-lb^'t- in itevolio[i:il (^^rcinei, irv 
gutdea t» tbc spiritual life, in roeditntlo^ti and coaaiela orft 
h(dj^ living and b</ly Ojing, nr in lb? uncrfaiooui n^canlt vf 
the personal hUtory of r^ligjoua ninda, thvir inHotnc* i^ 
ffvffjivberc present. Tijev a^(^ ibc inapiraEiOD of ibac p«* — 
■tunaU' lolll^xiuj at lli« clLTont* r>f Gikd, in wbicb Auguscip*^ 
IHiurt'd out bia at^ul before a wvHd ivlicb ii }^l UsEcnlng, ju fv^ 
fift«4>n crniurira it hna lialrned, m hia 'f^nfMsiona' ; <4 tb^'' 
glowing meditnlion bjr tbe autbnr of ibe Imilaiioo, in vrbid^ 
burn* tii^ lntpnw»tt lovf* of ihf> SaviEtur^ — (bat v^im from it^ 
far-ijtr sgca whicb atill ipeaki. lo the most sceptical of ^ea^ 
ntioni, of tbe beliefs and experirniva nf a humnii aoul^ — 
that ehronid« of Ioa<^l3' airug^le, ttuat, and iriumpb, trbic^^ 
thrilled vilh min^lcnl awe and hope ibr hoan fif Ms^^i" 
Tullii'4ir ; of the beipht and depth ol tbe relij;ion of the •aiatl^" 
Hiaboji Aiidcrwrs, tvbowr [iilvitte pru^^i^rB, in ilirir niti^ «'■ 
Affiipaihy, their elevation abore doctiinal eontrovfrrateB, lbe>*' 
gcfieivait/, mauUiieaa and rcalitjr, aud in tbc brcwith uft<J 
cooiprebcnaiveneas of their botiaon, iMm to tmnsUte, f^' 
individual oae in tbe doiet, the public worahip of :b« Aaglicsi> 
Church; of the keen aigbt and unsparinf* sm-erJEv with wbicb 
TaaLal pierced to the heart of trutb. »• wdl ua of xhe boklftra' 
with which hp confTonied ihf* pndciund and terrible mfaDrrSr* 
of the vmon ihaC biH greaC Jutcilcct conjured up before bu err^ 
Thus thi> I'sniina, npArt from their own iramMeodeat beauQratiJ 
aniveraal truth, have enriched the world by the dcatioa of> 

litertDUr 



liUraiurp nhlcb^oentury afirr mitunr, has not only commaiulpil 

tbe udmifAtion of »c«ptJcc, bul elovauJ the char&c^tcn of innu- 

B^rihbZc bclicvert. cncnuragrd tlitir wirortncas, cunttolpd tbtur 

"wrowi, \\i\vX ihoii douliU, aaJ guided their wavoring fooUtopa. 

TnJi^, for ^iAm[>1e, one L'f ihcw rcligujus ;;utcibia]{r4pl]icv, 

'Ic ' Cofiffwiont' of S:. Aitgusiinc, and tlnrtUj^li ibo historical 

Jttrt, wbicli cIvMS with the death of Monica, crnce tbo iiifla- 

ence? of thr I'talmiL Thrnughftut the ' Conleistoni/ which 

^^t% with the quotations, * Gicnt Art Thou, O Lord, &(>d greati v 

*♦ t>* pnit««rt Gri^it is Thy puwer^ and Thy wiftflom infinite,' 

inc^K-c ii flcnrocly ft pag<^ without & rt<f<<renoe to the aame source. 

* Wilb my ttioihcr* milk ' — so says Augustine of hims/^if-^ 
'' ttUcJt««l in Uie name of J«5U« Cbmt.' Through al! the wild 
*>0^4iC!> of bJH youih, tU^ irnljitioni itml ifit<;llect(ial vanderini^t 
^f vJ^r-lifc, the religious imprestioni of infancy remained 
^j**incL Hi* »oui * longed aftei Gi>d*i it was 'atbint* fur 
*J»«ai. Hft ncMTc? loflt that paa^iofiaie detliv to know the tivin^ 
G«>^ which buntfl from bis lipi in the opening jmtMge of the 
' ^^^^tifeulon* ' : ' Tkoit mihU^tt inao fi^r Tby>eTff and the heart 
"■^oirs no icpoM till it ic*l» in Tbcc/ 

Kvfr cTaring for simnihing idna! and fndjnnpr, haunted by 
^'^*i suHtude of bis own mind, be obeyed the wibl impulAca of 
T^Otb, punuM dr>1ightt that appeMlnl to hit artisllc or teniuoufl 
'^*^tiirc, «oU|:bt djAtractiona in object* pleaftiu^; to the eye. in 
P'^rrti ftiid musir, or in the indulgence of texuEiI pasiion. Vet, 
*^*"tUfed by reproaehi>» of conscience, he reaped ixo bort'est of 
J^^josr ; he only gleannl arlf-loatiiirg, AmbiiJoLiB <if worldly 
'^Oic, he pursued with eapemess hia studic^s of litcratare, of 
'**«t<inc, "»f l]»e MriiriMPH. Sl(ll rrsllc^s, he lurned li> bi^hr?r 
^*^(i bctlcT things. The 'Hortcnsius' of Cioero iuDAnied liiin 
*^itb a pussion for vriKloinf *fur Wisdom aloni:, to, she might 
I^Vttl berMlf/ Vot, «v«D under the mattery of tUii Longing, 
^^ ' lunied to flee back from the things of earth to GcmJ.' 

In bik ea^r quest for wiidom and truth he larnod lo tho 

^^tADJehrcs, wbi> claimed the possctuon of perfect ki>o*rlcdge, 

■■Vnd drridnl thp Cbnitinni for tbrir blind belinf. For nine 

y^Mn Augtutinc wandered in the tnazea of their spcculationVr 

hi* inielleot stihdurd by tbeir subilmles, hit imagination 

^bnimed by their symbolical interpretations of nature. Here 

too he found no abiding hnppintrEi; Lis fa^ilb in their lyttem 

vr»a gradtijxlly undermined- When in 3^4 a,d. he came to 

Milan AS a icaebiT of rhetorie, lie camr rmbuifml br a lenie 

of deception, inclined to ^-eneral acepiiclsin, yet •till asking of 

Ms soul vhy alie was so tftd^ and vrby «hc waa bu disquieted 

within bin. 

Vol 18G.— J^. JTO. i. At 





The Ptalm* in ffittrtty. 

At AiTlAfi Augufttlni? fA\ unilcrr thr* iitSuemv of Ambncr. 
Ha loved the rnnn, wom churm<Ht by his eli>qii<iii<v, ■nd thrwigk 
Ills prraching IcnniriL to )iLu<ly the Old Tctlamciit. He nt 
•mnuing at thi* gate vi the sanctuary ; but a hard «tnigg[* «v 
to be faced before he crossed the thuTfthoId. His moilio 
Mnnica irnt now At bit ticte. Sh^ hati rrossH Iht en from 
CtrtbiLgc lo be whb ber belovt^d son. anA htr praycfful confi- 
d^Tife in Ma uhimal^ triumph titer Hniibl roald niK bm 
inHucncc his mind. Slowly the conviction came to him Ibtf 
l!ttf peitrp f]f Gfxl WAS not lo be vraa hy the iiLiud uloiie. Tbf 
lofty KkalUm i>r Pjnto turned his thoujE^htii upwitrd and inward: 
but it gave bim no moral sUeiigth tu nuv; himvdf from iht 
earth. Then he gave hiuiEelf to th«i tcudy of tb4> Hlbl^^ iiit^ 
especially lo the study of St, WuV^ KpiAtks. Here be Ic^unoi 
tho flouFce of that power which alone cnablM ni«n to^tnbodj 
hi^b iile&U in JaiTy practice. On the po^s of the riACooii 
writers he tinds, as he says, no irncp nf ihr ' hnmhlF ami 
contrite heart,' ni * sacrifice of the brokc-n apirii/ 

'Ko oau dings ihoro ; "Truly my boul wniloth apou G^; fro« 
TTini errutiith my julvatioii ; Ht-. ituly ii4 my nt-k and my salTalUS 'i 
Hoifl inystrcatg tower; T ahuU not ha j^rftatly raoTod.* It i* o»* 
thing/ hQ ooniiutieB, ' to soo afar off, from tbo ^cnimiiit of ft Iree-d*'^ 
mountaiu, th« fntborland cf ]>cfii:«. and, without any piUb gaidit>-t 
thither, Lo wAutler tLia ^ny and that, hml, oud weiiry. uiuuug ^njvcv 
hautttcd hy lions and dnigons iliat Inrb £ii nnhnsh to SeiB» tWs^ 

Iirey. It ih c]iiit« another thing to iretu\ i^ecaralj oo » t04d to** 
oodsdirocUy to it, goarde^l by tho hand of a H<iaTcnlT Onpte^-A 
where no rohhurs who ba^c de^t^rUjd ihn cobiJitial btisl bo in Wftit ^ 
destroy/ 




Hi£ struggle grew in Intcnsit/ till it b(*c4iinG on apiay. T 
fleih luilod against the spirit; the l,iw in hia in«mb«T« wa 
against the law of bis mintl and held bim captive. Rut t 
Kuprem<^ critii was not far distant It cum^ in Si^ptCEnl>er < 
in the '6'tin\ year cf hia age. He ii&d thrown hJmK^If down ji 
rptirrd t-ornrr of bis garden, and th*TP, und^T thi? sbade o 
fig-tree, poured out a flood o£ tears, ^ How long. O LonI, hf=^^ 
long?* he cried. 'How ^ftng will Thou b*: angry? Ob 
member not our old sins/ As he pmyed, be beard ft ro 
bidding hiat, * Ti>l!e, Irgtr. Tolle, lege/ * I repmsvd,' be » 
' thfi flow of my tears, and, rLtsing myself from tbe groaad 
received thr word as nothing less thnn a Divine in^iunction ^ 
open the Scriptures^ and read the first ohftpter that caaghl r^f 
eye/ Had not St. Anthony* whoic lifci written by Aibftnftii'*"> 
he bad reeenrly read, Iwen converletl by ft similnr oracle " 
God? Htjrrying to tbc ftpol yth^K Ht bad left bis Bthje, Aff 




7Vi0 Pndms in Ihitonj. 313 

fn!itct»l it up, i>iwn(^ \lt |i»gr>. and ir^il the word« : ' Let m 
work lionnlly, &i ui tho dny ; n^t in revelling anil clniokAineM, 
cot in ch&mbninc anU ?raiitDnnr?>s, not in stnff atid jcslotii}'. 
En ntjt ytt an tho I^M Jfiiua Chriat, nnd mrtbr not prnviaion 
IvrtFiu Jl(>sb til f'utlil tlko luili thereof/ The vbnclows ol' iloulit 
tnd Jj^pnir ntrf iJiip^-nrd ; (h<* li^tit of jh-ticw irrs'UaTpd Itifl 
trtvt; a* hfr finished tbc sentence, iic Wl neither deiitc aor 
ottil lo rau] rurtlifrr. 

Tile pftUAi^p ti>kl him, u in the asc-frtie tpirit of the og^ hc> 
md It, not' rrntj u> renoEin'f liit wild lifct 1ml lo fimrgo bis 
Jiurrikgi^ ahandoQ iho panuitJ and honour* of the world, and 
^It^JJcirc hiuiscirwliully to ihe servjc^tf uf CLiIttU lie mi^oit 
ttitofficeu a tCAchnr of rhnlin-io, nnd withdrew lr> the bills 
■fcoTc MiIad to prepare fijr bnptuin. There he rend and re-read 
|bPii!ma, iippnding lialf the night in tb^ir iludy, -ind finding 
iD^ctr ivords the oacpreitioA ni hi> ovrn dcepeit Iccliajp. — the 
Md Urri'nt o( penitT-no<^ riiin;; iniiy the Iriumphnnt song of 
J"*i*c for the inriditc mercy of iioil, 

'la whnt necentM*' he vayn. '■palcrf T vnUi Thue^ my Gutl^ vheii I 
Ittd ^0 TmIiiu of Pavtd, thr>fl« f&ithfu] uciugfl ujid wnutda of 
wotion. Trtiich abut out all awcUmgi of tho uptrtt, whcii I. % uoriOO 
■illkj Uuti lovi?, HaUt mi ri-at in lliu villu nilh AlypiiiN* ott^chaini^ii 
Mill tajwAf^rrty innthor HflaviTi^ imtn ns — in >v<>m(mH goi'h Lra!j\ 
bol with A roaEi'A faith, vtilh thu pnacoflilaoAH of ago, full td axc^vAy 
Iato lad Obrifltian ptf.tjl Wlmt ultcmttooii tiecd I to eccd tip to 
^Ue in thofec» THOuiPi! how thrtrugh thc^ia avha I biadleJ ti>nimL» 
TliwT Iww di'l I buru to rubeiirM*.* iLphi, if it wr^r^r pinwible^ throiigh- 
<^l thci wb<Ju ^(.irLd &gA]U((t tht> prido of niniikind I ' 

ll WAJ PipecUllj' the Fourth I'lJiJiii Thnt worlted upfkn hia 
sutiil : ■ When t c^ilM upon I'^biv, I'hini didiLl h'^r m^, O Cind 
*f BIT ri^hleouanr-u ; Thou hint *et mc at Uberty when I was In 
tPOdfcli- ; Imre mercy uj>[>n nie, mid be&rk(':i to uij piujcr.* Aa 
^^ rMd it, he motiniM] ov^r the Manieheet, and pitied their 
WaiI rvjcciion of the Old TeaUuncnt. 

*Vi>uld that Ih^ oould hnvo ho^m Ti<nr Tn<i/ thonght the eonvorl, 
'^tLoui d]r lEiKiwuig of ihdr i>rW)enoo^ aud eouM havo noctt m^r 
'^aud limrd tuj ToicCi whoot in that time of my re^t, I redd tliu 
Tfiurtb PaIid, and cimtd havu icurkud bow ;t» words wrou^^hl 

^poaioo!' 

On E-iiftcr Sunday, 3S7, Au^^Uiline wu baptiT«>d bj Biahop 
Anhmne. In the sumniL-r lie set out on hi* hoinewnTil jonrney 
^ Africa. A'. 0<til^ in a gnrdcfi- window, lie aate with hi« 
mathrr AloRECB, ulking of tbe nature of the elc^oai life. It i» 
lU ttioin«iit i^ved by Ary SchefTer in hia famout picture : — 

z i 'Th« 



d 



su 



The Psalmt in Hiatory, 



* Tlie dear oeTDentbg bands an Itnilt 
A&d «)tliw fBOOi as tWa tboj «i1, 
Ih liIW na to aom«lhisc aeon 

B(?>cjid ihe 1>1uo strcne/ 

Mother and Hon imvelted an fmnhrr toward* hom*. A fr* 
i^bvt Utcr« vrhile ihey ivcie still woitinj; (or emborkatioOi 
Monit'a H'h* ftinick down hy fevor nnd diet), In thff 56th jmi 
of her D^o, El was in llie Psalmi that tbc mottmcra f'aund iht'ir 
cnntoUiion^ When tlir first g^utli of wfwpiog bad ftubiiiM. 
Au^uilinc and bis friend sni)^ logntbcr tbc wordi o{ pMlmcit; 
*I will ^ing iif mrrcy ini] judgmimt; unto Thcr, O Lord^J* 
1 aing.' 

Su fnr we liave flpc»I(en mainly of l1i« inf uvqcp of ttw Pvlw 
on thought. Rut tbeir woikin^i in Ehit iphcro ot action baire 
Ix^en even more striking ai\^ int'tv unlvcraiil. No fiagniEniaf 
the ^EoriouK t«wpl&A xi Jcruanlr^m hn« aurvtvoO tb« lapvt tf 
tiuiu ; but ibc trnpcnibablc hymni of the JcwUb noi^hip live at 
with morc! than piiMtinfr jitiw^r, nnd havt* animaitH) lod eialofd, 
tta tUey vrjll atill continue to in»pire and <-lcvaic, lUe Urea aad 
the deTOtions of lur^ceuivo gpnrralioni of inpn. 

Fatbm of the early Cburcb. Ilki? Ambrose and Angotfiuft 
Ath:knniiu«, OrJgpn, ami Jprnnip, — npoitlrt of British CbrU* 
ttanliy, ftucb lu I'Jdvt'nrd, the >whAftti)Ln of bln^land^ CoJambi. 
Cuthbi'it, Wilfrid, DuEiiiLjtn, a^ul Rwle, — m^dian^nl tainti fit' 
Francis of A>aUi, lirrnardj Ibomas of ViUanova, — ttAietmid 
likn HtiTghlry^ Ximpn^^ nnd IMr. Gla<Vft1one,^1iav<> tirttiArd 3B 
tbc anivcraal truth and beauty uf the Psalmi. With a PmId 
upon tbfir lipB dtci.1 lliiaa and Jcraine of Pragnr, Llibtf. 
Melanrhthon, /uif;gl]it«r ^^^ VVrcltffe. Philooophora, locb i* 
Liickc and Ilamihuti, l>esi;arl<if, Lt-ibnltz and llunboUt; 
men of scjfinca llko KomnurK ; amor^ minicinaric*, Xavi^i 
Mait>r], Livingstone, Dulf, Markay and Hairinglon; riplond 
iik^ Columbuc; sdi^jbrft Itk^- Cntulwn nnd Salmauus; caitbl) 
potcntalca like Cbarkmaenr, Vladimir Monouiftchua^ Ulldr 
brand, Lnuit IX-, Hc^nry V'., Cathfrlne dc Mrdlcjo, Charias V-* 
Htrnry of Nararrt', t^H^^nbctb, and Mary Quwin of Scots, hi** 
finnd in tbr PKnlmn thrjr innplrfition in lifo, ih^ir drmgtb ii 
|>cril, or lb("ir support in d<?ath. 

Though thv induencr of Lhp Psalmi liai bepD ocinGncd to D« 
age, no cliuj, and no creed, there have been apecul paoaJl 
whrr tbey have spoken with ]>eruliiir fnm^ Ttut hat tva 
paUicularly Ihocatfrin time* of persecution, when circmnctaaeo 
gave to the iTords an imme^liAle personal applicalloo- Such * 
period was the infancy of Qirisiianity, when cbildicn cmI 
out by tbetr parcntSi alavci oppressed by tbeii muiers, citiicni 

wsldiri 



Tht Ftatmt in /lUiory. 



315 



c] iUftprrtMl by their fiPtghbourf, tobj<'Pt< pmsrrI1)«d 

^tb<.'ml for jirav<rT and praJic »ccr«tlr. In pttil 

titidrr rnvrr ot nighl tt nt frtrXy <lftWf>, In ihp 

of gTimt oitict, in nrorkahops, or in the upper ronmi 

Iionaf^ on tb^ ourakirU f»f lowni. In ibcur wrviL<t*i 

HI formed a conapicruous part, And apcicini IWLrna woro 

Unl «j pu-ticulat fK'caiion*, luch m thr liJrtl fir 

ing and tV 14l«t U>t th^ (^vcniiif^^ wonliip. Thesa 

np^ntcs a{ wool-HDrkiM'ii ci^hLlfrB^ fiillrr*, irbfii^urc^ 

I And tlavM — ' ihf? muit vulgar anU illiuTate of rnLn- 

itb whom aiBcmbkH) a li^iidful of jxriaonB of lilifher 

Uijoo*, gnvernmcnt onicinlt, nnd Indies of noblo 

in iJanfcr of ihcir livc». They were as "abccp 

tobcflntri'; bui t\w LortX wu9 ihmr Sh^phf<rd, ;tml 

ID Htm, conquering tbcir f(*An, atill apcaht in ihc 

res un t1»e ivalta rif suhtrTranrran Hourv 

bfiatiaAilv iprcod nnii bccAmo n potrcr, tbc Paalint 

Elftr|[«r and stitl <i Ur^c^r i|mcriT. ^idoniiu Apottinnris 

bow Uie boatman, aa, toLJinf; with Ix^al backi, tbey 

Ifr liulru bnrgf^s Agnin»t ^tb<^ str?nm, sang realms t'\\\ 

hhtknkt t^hoed bnck thoir Halldujaht. When Joromo 

Utlbl(*lLeiit bift laiiums kltcr t<j Mam^lhi, hr t-sbcjfU 

irata tb* iotniili« nnd iliatractions of Hotn» to Iha 

driit'i villAgp. Ilerr, he snyA, la ihc miict of 

fe, unbroken cave by the /^baming of Ebe Psalnii. 

bmJLTl, leaning; onbis plough-handle, uogs bla praises 

ibe flw^Ming reaper llghient bU labciurv with the 

cf tlio Psalm > ; tbc vin^^'dresacr, fts he prun» hU 

one tit ibe inngs of Oitvid, The PBntrnt an? ojr 

our postor&U, our implements of husbandry. 

rh A PsiJin that AriThntiy bi ihe (lr«eri dispersed bir 

in obedience to a P«idrn Pambo kept th? door of bit 

& Fsalm Athnnulirs uiM thv aasaull <jf bia eneniiea 

-burcJl. It VM a Pialm that Augusiino wrote upon 

by bb bettiide as be Iny dying. Snatches of ihe 

1 from tho lips of PaulA at fibe pnsaed nwav nt 

sad At tker JeAili, il« Ji^romc celli us, no lounds of 

or wailing were beard^ but from every pnrt of 

and convent, in crcrv tong-ui:: of Knit and Wi-b^ 

h (he rhaniing of the Walm*. It wm witli ^ Psaltn 

oslus did penance for his crime on ih* fl**or of 'he 

ti MIIho ; nnd almost llie ImI labour of the ffreal 

irho gave absolution to the penitent Empe^*'? "** * 

y on » Pinlm, 

a noiti thai tie b«foK« us wc might treble thv number 



J 



816 



7?f« /WoM in liatory. 



of ihesr lUuntnttiotii. Rdt n^ liavr t,ntt\ cnnagb ba indiatf 
the wealth ol bUlorictil nMociutions tbatf in the infaacj «f 
CUridliuciit^, gatWi ruuud xhf Va\uta. Aa wc advABCc ii 
history, the iksfiocintions mDltlply rathnr lh>n decrcovc. In 6t 
MiUdic Ages, we iniKljt alioi* U«w tbcjr iiaplrcd pU^nmifo 
Anil cru4iiiij?3, <'i governed iJie icienc^ tnd cfiitmograpny of ll* 
dftv. Or wc iiiie;bt givr in«t4nco cifthc influence wtucb^U^ 
«icrfr*PiJf il tut>r<.-tn« criit-i in Tbr^ir liVM, f>ii K>m^ of ibr 
^'Tcoicat oftoica m biitorVp Vet w^ lliinli tliAt vre c&o beri 
illQitrnir our tulijrat, wiihin ibr liniu of our >puv, b^' timdog 
their innucnCfT on mcdiu-val mucnutidsm. 

Drivpn from thr wiUI gi^rgr* at Stihiirti h_v tb*? rril fl«tioo 
ot ilia cncmicsT Ucncdicl lounii a rt^trciit at Moatc Cuiio)' 
Tbci« bd fiiun<lr*<l niron^ n. \m^tin pi'0|>lr \\i^ capital of tbt 
monutic onior. The tvmpic ot Apollo w<n overthroini; tb* 
aacml wochI was fclleJ, Jind ihc fftllh of Cbrut pTcacbcd to 
n poopio who, two centuriw &fti<r ConsUntin^, and m tb« bcafl 
of CbiislciiJuiD, blill tyoftbijiprd ttm ^iKLt t>f ancient RonCi 
Danie bat tnld tbo «Torj {' Par^iso,' canto xxU-} :^ 

■ In obi lUjm, 
Tbat mounlain, nt svhoEn cido irojitiiao rotts, 
Wan, on ttn boigbt^ ficquoatcd by a ra^o 
DeouWed *U]d illKli[*|i(ii*oJ ; mid t it wii» 
^Vho thither cuirit^d frnX tbi> naiQO of Htm 
Wbo brought tbo HutiLoubliuiitif; trutii to taui. 
Am^ auc^ a «|iuc<liL^ f^nco i»bouc orer roe, 
'r\uit irtiiii tliiiir unjilouji WLirfihip 1 rodaim?^ 
Tbo dnUlcTH round oboul, who nitb tbo world 
Wore in dclnuon iotL' 

'Fram the beoil ot Booodict, as from a fountuD-beul <J 
Pikrw]ut\' rtuwcd the monutic life of tbc Vit'ral. MoDte Co»«0> 
waa, as it wcrs, it« Sinai. From it liaiH^ tho fatmNU Rolvflf 
Sl Benedict, the code under which lireil the vaat majnritf" 
those who embraced the uionaitlc dlft^ipline of labovr nti 
obcdicrtcc. 

* Hearken, mj ion K lire thi* word* wiib which tlie BA 
bc-g:iii*,and Musru[la« O filtl ' arc the words which in Cbrilti>i 
iivtpn^apbr are invrlbftd on the book ptatefl in tbr baodi oi 
St. BoiuHliot. The 31tb l>«lm (vv. 11 lb) Mrikea the k«y*ipv 
of the Rulr. 'The Lord/ s^ya Tlenedlct, * who aevkctb Hii 
lerTAQt in lb(> mtdst of the people, atill tailh lo Wd>< 
" AVbat njan is he that luHteth to live and would faifi «* 
good <iay«?'' If at that word thou answereat^^'lt i« I/'lb«» vill 
the Lord s^iy tii dirr. '* If (hfiu wiruMnt bavc lilc, leep tht 

tMigiw Irom evil, and thy lips that tboy apeak nd guile, Etcbf 



H^HBila good: t^vk peace, and cnauc it" And Ui&t being 
^BnP"Thrn shall mj ejet be upon jrou, aod nnj eAii «hall be 
upcn t0 jnur crj. And, cvco before iliou caIIc*! mr, 1 »IiaU taj 
to ih«e, H^r^aui I/*' 

On the TMlta* ixrc burd manjr of tbe cbapttr* of the 13ene- 

dirlint Rtilc, With a Pinlm novi<va vrrr ftdmUtpd inio xhp 

Onkr U'iili a FsaIoi the utc% of moituU-m^ were often 

dospri, ami wiih n I*»]rn ihi? lonely iDonka^av thpy rfsim] tlii>lr 

Uttlli^ cxorcUcd the (icoioni ot wood nod forcflt nnd hill. The 

I Falnu irc^rr* the intjnrmLjun of BrcbiiecturL- &nil uiniic; as 

ihrinct for tbt^ Ptnlu^r onr cfttbodmla ond churchi^a wtrre buiU ; 

KfiKcfriim tbr l^udm* n^puUuii ih^ nucnlii^r anil ciincr of the 

L *tnn lerviivs ; vrilh a Pftalm, ipecially appuintud tor the occa- 

I una, the bell* were ca»t ; il waa In the spjiil uf llio Pudia* thai 

I tbi ntediitvaj btiUdon laruhcd tbeir gcnins and ibeir lov« on 

1 uig6 aod capilalt on iJtar tbrJnc, purlal and wiuduw, tliai tbc>' 

I nlgk l>r^aniify a dwrlJing-placn foo* th^-ir (lod. To the 

I bedwfol tnook the choir ivai ihr garden of the Lord in wbich 

I Uliboured d«j and mglil; if woa his pinultie, ivKprr, in iIip 

I ^ liuidow ca*t bj bi> Kcdecmcr, he iri^ht icit from the 

I ^nln^ beat of the world- One of the <^ontrinporaTi<-s of 

I T^niA* h Ki^mpia dcflcrjbtA bim whun h<* took part in tbo 

^jfii£i of ihc? Oburnh: *\Vhilit he was iinging^ be? waft to be 

^H^MTod with bit lace always raiacd toirards bcaren, at if 

^^■pirrd with a Bsrrrd rtithusiaaui, carrin] and borne beyond 

MntcJf by Ihc non^errui iwoeinou of the F«alma.' Tbis wnji 

I ^ ipiiiL of minitirval Piabuixlv ; and as iu tide lolled foUb 

■ "^rtl *nd day from convent of mona*lery, — qb il awelle<! over 

I ^ and feiJ,<— ui Id n it'll t wayfait^nt, tmveLliug ii) fear of tLi;jr 

"im, tell that, come wbal migh:, they wore in ibe handK «/ 

^«cLaoU labottrer*, i^inif forth Uj their work ai dawn, or Tc*ting 

i^Jloon, or rvinrning wilh nighl, know, thocigh they uudentood 

■i^tbc irords, thai their toil vim contccrated in the tight oC 

\i C^: Paaimi prc«idcd over ercry part of a monk's lifa, an 
^y «'<-reptneDt with him in hi* de*th- Wlitn a brnther Uy 

I ^/inj,', th« liau-<ilot]) was aprend, the ashes were scatterod, and 
■n chrni a cunt waa traced. Hera th«i aiek man wos laid* By 
bLoncoD a iKiard the bn^thrcn were tummonud, and, whereyrr 
^y wcie or whatever tlii-ir tHX-ujntioiii, thi^ ran to hit aid« 

I tod remajne<i wfth hini in bi» an^i«b, chanting ihe Peniteai- 
^liWnisnnd LiEani<.-t. TJms in Uic presence of the frawr- 

I *itt, in Mckelotb and ashei, supporteti by the ■nffrnt'e* and 
^licaliouft of their biulhfen, with the words of the I fcUma 
tilift* on their ear*, as they bad sounded ibioughout their 



77tf Fsatma in Histoiy. 



llvri, <1ictl llioLj»inttA of goml nml \ia\y monkft* mriDben of 1 
gTi^at^ii and moit powerful of inedi^^viil inilituiiont. 

TLroug:birui tliL' MidJk- Ages, whciL ibc? Eliblc gvncfalLy 
n cliiHcd book In ihe laitv, iho Pijilier was prniiilt*<l lo be Vn- 
tUt'ir bands. Hut il wa* nul till lit I'saliuj were ti^mUln/ 
inio thi> vulg*r i^n^e, thai llicv gainrd ihpir full pon^r, Natr 
ibc strc&m of hiiloricftl jis»ooiAlioi;, alrnutv bruod ind <Jm|^ 
ti^coines A flood. Loi ui cute n mpid glnnre it ihn intl»«*nc«af 
the I'lnlmion tbc HugucnoUin l-niRcc, the I'uritnns in t^Aj^uOl 
and tlu- Ccivenn-Utm io Scotland, i^et lu umjili* inuiic, ihr 
F>alms c-tovfi lu tbc xnt^mows and rooird Ih^mU'tvc* in iFtr 
hraiU of ihp pi^iiple, TliiT eirly Protr-slAot Kf^fiirtn^T** itif 
bunted Huguenot or Covenanter, the p<^rff7<.-ul<<d C-.'i'irnol» b«[j*td 
bijiJSL-ir in Duvid Orrliig 1u ib^.' iMuuiiTuina ta a bird (u ihctiilljh 
bcim^cd b^ bij oivn familiar rrirnd, or plunged to a priioii 
ham nhicb dcatb wn> \u% hsppy leleosc In lb<f atmigth of the 
PaalDii, rasTtyn went to the >uke, niount4>d th^ sctifnld, or 
endurcil the lack. Men, wt^mcR, and thlldrcrt, dragged to pal* 
■nog Pvalmi along thi* road, and, ai in the days tti Paul vtA 
Silii», duo]|,'ron» rr-souiHkd wjlli rarnctt glorjlir-aiioaB <rf G<d, 
clfirbnl in the %ah\in\p yrt fnmiEiELr latiffun^ of the Ptalmiff- 
Ur, again, lor the evil wa« ever blvndi^t witb tbc good, it <>«* 
vt'iih the wonlB of the Pialmut ihat lanaliofi dpmmncnl lliei'^ 
foes, (UTfcd them with Ibo awful imprecations prononaced orv 
tile Divine encniLei, eicuseil thfrir own bailjnriiim, an<1 nppfft^' 
priated to thenuclved^ in the prcaumption of pcmonal clectieiar 
the promised made, and the mission given, to the cbotnt people' 
of God. 

Early in the iiKloeaLb century Clcintrut MArtfl, the Cavooritc- 
of iVUrgnenle de Valoi* and vaUt dt chamltre to Francift 1-t 
translaied ihtrty nf the Psalma Into Frrncb venr, and \tt^ 
irnnsktioni ivere <trcnUted in manUitripi throughout ib-r^ 
King's Court, ilis ' ^ancles chonsonnettrs*' set lo siiapl' 
hallEuJ tun», drove the love-ion^a of The courtiers out of ib^ 
field. Francis I. recited a Psalm on biv deathbed: Henry 11-, 
M mighty hirnrer, delighted in another; Catherine <le \1ediri*i 
tUen a childless wife, claimed another as her own. Kre^ 
Diane de Poitirrft had her favovrit^; and Mnmi't vrrsn itrfe 
sunj- by the princes and princeeiei, the royal inistre*i«at ai>° 
the lords an<) Udlirs of a Juiurious Court. Tlif* Imnslation ooff' 
picted partly by Marot, partly by llexa, passed into the lw]vl< 
of tbc people. Etc)/ evening at Paris, ju the P^tnuth" 
tbouinnds of persons assemhled to chant the IVilms, '"^ 
among the crowd* might be ttccu the King of Navnirr, ^ 
Prince de Conde, and tho Admiral Coligny and bit btothrr. 



7%e f^ahnt in Bistor>f. 311 

TTie P»a1iFT bpcntnp, in n jK-ciiHar aenae, iho inheriinnop of ihr 
iiiigv«ao{«, ' [t w&s ih^ Book of PWm*," «ja do fn(?iidly 
witxieMt FiorimtiikU dv Ht'im^nd, 'whicL foiLered Lhe ikUttvit 
TJrtUM of iho Hi3|Cuenot<, cind ftr^^n^lhen^d those mnnyqunliticfl 
wbieli made lljcui llic pick of the n.-ilEi>n, It wa» that BuLtlw 
wbirh tuppoTff^l fftLnrtng; cour^^, tipiift^il Jnwncaflt louUi 
invpired heroic Jci-oti tin,' When ihcir hour <if iri*l came, tbc 
HugucBOlt, irroii^ In llip slr^^Ttgth x\it*y ^thereil rroin tbe 
Psftlter, proved ihcm«Hv<-4 heroes. 

' Wbon tbo CAthoHcfl,' ooDtiQuos lU^iaondi ' 6»w siuii>lo wotuqq Mok 
tr>Tiiiciitd jn □r\3nr to mnrtifefit llteir /nlth> nni] gij to i1eath« cr^iu^ 
ijiilj on Chriat thnir Suriour, nr elnging n Tultii ; — when Ihny savr 
mma Tijjg^DS go to llm HcikOold lu g^ily nn they wotild fio tc tbo 
■rial tMUch ; — tvfauu ihuj «nff llio moti rojoioo bt tbo Hif];Dl of tbo 
bortiUo propufttioiiA auJ iuBtram4?uts of Jontb. mih Lalf'bi]r[it>i1 itml 
nMiCod, oonloDiflAto fnuA Uio htuku tlf^!r inijmfiilirig lortiirtiH^ Ktiitnl- 
ing twm M rook* omon^f th^ biI1niv« of gHsf^— in n cror^i, dying vritk 
• mile, — thoir benta vopt as v!*M an their oyoi;.' 

A irer*v fmin the Fialma brul liecn the? baltlrr^iTy of tbtf 
BriConfl al tbc t)ftttl« of Mold, of Clovis, of Demetriut oi 
llir rKjn, of John Sobtcuhi ; n PiaIth waa the war-cry of 

' tb» Kni|;htt Tpiaptar ; 4 verBc ol tbc^ Piilms Huit^d on the 
btitner of ihc Spanlih Arinaclii; Another was the wutcbwoiil of 
Oq»uvi» Actolphai, i^ in tha Fr^neh Wart of Keligion % 
PbaIiq wm ihr *Mftr»ei]|&ise' of the H Ujruertot*. IJefore every 
bflirilr ihpir chiffa kneh in priy^r. anri with x Piatm thev 
repeli«i Ihe chaise or delivfTcd the AssauU. l>civ nftor dny the 
BUrrjug cbanl uf the PiiLlinft loun^leil frorn the w;i]|i of HtHbelle 
or MoAlAubin, ns the $>>tdien of th<: Lt^guo (Jrow o^ their 
beftien furcirs. Coif tor tearn risked their livci iu onrrying the 

I P«alt«r ta the reriiotetr corners of Pri>teitaa( France. In vain 
vm* tbc chanting of ilic Psalm* proscribed^ and the books 

I bamed hy tbo baxidi of exeeutionerc- The meetings of tb& 
Hngtieflotfl were iiimmoncd by psulinody ; in woods And 
eiTera«« in iluogenni, on th<* gnll<*yiit ^^ eiile in Americn, iho 
PsaJmi «ill sounded Irom the lipa ol the sturdy Protestants. 
In the IrtfjgUiL^'iL* iif ibvr Piitlms tUmv vtiio Hed from the ronnlry 

i GomiDotnornCcd their eicapn, and an old seal is in eiistonce, 

I usee tbc property iff n Elu^ucnot refugee, vrbich benrs as its 
dt^iC9 a n*x below ^nd Hbt>ve a bird soaring upwards, and as 
itA motto the words * -My soul is escaped wt a bird from the 
i&sre of (be fr^wler/ 

We mifht t|Dote innumemhle occationB on whit^h the use 
v( the P«alm« WAS trrikin^ly nssociatcd with the history of 
th« Hngtimots. We must be content wtlb one oxamnlc. Lt\ 



3S0 



The Psalmx in Nittanf^ 



March 156S Ibc Trentv of LongjumtQw gpivt tbe Hufpi^txiCt * 
brcaElung ^pacf^. TLctr leaden nrEirtci Eo tlit-ir bcmvft in llic 
councvy ; th«jT followpra nrrnr tHibftndpd^ thrir anvrreoAiia 
4li»inis«>d. Gaspord de Collar, AJmiril of France, retomed 
to bis terrai-^il gnnl^-ns on ill? altijiei of Cbfili1toii*«iir-LoiD^, 
^nd, c^lnd in ibc drcs« of o fikrmcr, prunc^d bis fiuit tre^t. But 
thr I ncAcbemui calm oaly Lult cunt-'ralcd thv ^-illicriag atontJ> 
The [>ea«« xvat unr«ab Catbonne de M«dicift onljr sought id 
g»ih tltiie in onlcr ti> strikv ^Jtb ^ri^jiicr ciTvcu 

No effort wna mude to rPAtraiD Ibc viok-nre of tbe CatboUci. 
Coli^ye trcaaurcs had l>«cn acucd and be could obtiLUi iv> 
rffdreu. Shota were iired nl biin ; one of hi« grntlinnm tn« 
mardered, tuid he wu ordered ta Tcduoc bis retinue. He 
retired to tbe CHSlltr of liU bmcber AnJelut at TnnU/ ne«r 
ToAncnc, ao thnt hfi mijkfbt ho in closer comntunic^tioa vitb 
Cotide at Kovers, On tbesL- tbiPt^ mcD dFpciiL.tuJ the fortuiMl 
of the Huffuenots ; tlieir dustruciion was tli« fi'im of Catberinr. 
In the {frUDfimcr months of IbG^ tbc tovaL trnops were mtislcRd 
in tbe neighbourhood , and royttl guards held ibe gat^boium, 
fords, and bridg;c«. A warning reached the Huguenot duc&. 
A borsemnn gnlb^p^d pnu Nnyert, inunding hU horn, and 
crying, 'The stag j£ in the »imrt* ; the bunt la up/ Initatt 
flight was Di^r-essiirv. At iiiidniglit. I'li Au^iust 2h, 150^, the 
Jcaiicrs with their families and IM) follf>vrcrs Jt'ft Noycrs to run 
tbe gauntlet uf ibeir encoiie*, otid Liaverve the many bundrciJ 
mileG which lay between them and thnir mfugn, Koch«ll«. 
The pursuit WAS hot. Led by a huntsman, who knew th« Conls 
and toTtfrcc-paflis, lL«y reachi")] the Loire at ;v tpni nboTe CosuFi 
near Sancf^rTC. 'I'hcy crosx-d tbc rivcr^ thctr bcnr«c9 wadinc 
only to tbtdr girths. As day broke, tbe rivyr ro«e in flood. 
Tbe LULfitiTt's wurc saved. I'boy had placed a barrier between 
thcuiEcivcTs nnd their pursuers, an^l KochHle might yt-t \jt 
readied. They fell on their knees on the fuitber bank, auJ 
gave tlianks lu God by cinglng the In ej:ita Itrml: ' VVb>l 
ailed the«, O thou sea, that thou ileildciRt?' iLc. 

We Lave seen something of the power wbicb the Book of 
Psalma has eKerciied <tn the history of France, Lei ut turn W 
the history of i'^ngUml, ^nd UacCi in tbe career of an individual* 
the influence* of the Ps:dms npan a tnnvetneni whirb is siill s 
firing force in our midst. Throughout the stirring limoe of the 
Puriian revf^lutlim^ Oliver f^romwril waa the foremoat figure. 
the strongest type of the stern religion whieb raiesed bim to the 
sunimii of fame &nd fuitune. Tbe spirit thai be r«ad iaio the 
Pialuis govt^rned tiis actions at ciLch supreme criiis of bll 
stormv life; tbe most strikLiig stages in his career arc nufkcil 

by 



322 Tl\c Pfalma in IJusturjf. 

Btand bj ycru and help vou/ It is God wbo mtkei ibc Kov«list « 
ft! ^fttubble' b*fort the iwcrKls of the Purttuift. In him xn^l 
in hU tfv>(>pcT» burns tb*? spirit of joanp Wftltoo, wbo died 
MnrstoD Ai'ior with one thic^ only ly'tn^ heavy aa bii touf 
tbnt * God had not luHcrcd him to be Anj more th« «xocutioi 
of His enemiea." 

At Nnscby fight CVomwrll bftd Kcn 

* tho <«cm;f dnkTT up imil mnrch in gallAiit order to^mrdit us, (inil 
A com{»iuiy of potir ignoruDt mdu, iit pumn tti i>rdcr trtii battlv.' 

Vet lio 

^ smilod oat to God in pmuic^A, in lUiLiirckiico of riotory, bectuo Od 
^vonld hy thingt that aro not bring to unnght thiugit iLbl^flrcv Of 
trhlch 1 hml gru&t HHHunuivr : and G^A did tt. Oh lh>l iikca vodd 
l^nref<>i« prarfto Ibo Lur<\ irtd di>clttri) tbo woii<l((rs that Ho doolh fa 
tho cbildroti of ruoti ! ' 

As ihe victory mi Naarby it Thr < hand of God/ And ' to Him 
tilonc beloEif^v the f^lory,' to in tbo storming ol BriMo) he ■ mmi 
Ix' a very Atbt-ist wEio dulb lu't arknowlirdgi.- Oi>d'* wotL' 
The ftAme spirit is manifested at Basing Houae. Old uid Nv« 
Dasiji^^ each Rttrd to make *an empcroT*s mun/ atuod. a< 
Hugh I'^ters di^scribod it^ 'in il« lull pride, and th^ Haomf^na 
pciftuadcd thai it would be ihc latl piece of ground UiAt would 
bo xakvii by the Pari 1 am en t/ It had stood sieg« after ti«fte, nil 
the Uoyalists call^ h Basl'm^ tluuBr, and tnilji so long »> it 
WAS bM for the King, no rnrlinHK^nt man rould travel th^ 
wotl^m lOads iti safety. The Marquis of Wincbfstcr, to whom 
it brlon^tj was a rcaloua RomAn t'nthollr, and to Cromwdl tt 
WHS n ni^st, not only ot malignants^ hut of fopisls, a stmQ^boJd 
of dnrkni'iit. a jiEa«<< of idnU. 

On the Mh of OgIoW, I045iCrom>vcll nrrirod bofoic Haaiiig 
with a train uf ht?avy Arttllt*ry. On the 11th his lKiil(?ri» wric 
in pniition, and the gurrison cummuncTd to surrendtn'. If ibey 
refused ciuartcr novv^ on thrtr hrrtd» l/v It, No me^cy would be- 
•bown. The aummoos was lightly set laide. Lord Winchester 
would hold * Loyally J louse' to iLv uttermost^ 

At midnight on the 1,'ith, two wid^t braar^beE vnrc^ p^c«t#d, 
and it was rtij'j!ved to storm the place before sunrise an tbff 
morning of lh<* I4lh. Thn assault was d«liv«f«Nl. Tlw de- 
fenders were too few to resist Itie storming parties. No quorur 
vras atked and none given- ' Our muskets and awonU/ says ^ 
contcmporafy newspaper, 'bLowihI little compassion/ UrttlC 
was ihe ptunder ot' pintv and jcwdi, nf gold and siUrr, inpeiiry 
and rich attire. VVhcn Cromwell's army morcd away, tl>r 
ik^endeis had been put to the iwoni, the nttars thrown to ^^ 



^^^P The r»a2m4 in HUtory, 323 

l-rouud, tlie nrietts kilW ur n-terrtd Im tbe kaifb and the 
gallowt, and Basing H>>u*9 wm jl li«Ap of blAckcD*<i n«he«. A 
^im coinment on the poircr of the PMiou Ibllowi. Lieutenant 
General Cn>mw«]l, Hugb P*>t«ri l«[l« \Uf 

'httdipctit nmoh timo with ((i>i! in jirnjcr tito tii|^'hl before tbc storm ; 
■nd BoldunL ^litii viUiout bl>iijo Text nf Scrijitiiro to Au^fport liiru. 
TUs tiioo hu TUHtod updii thit blfHscl Word of Gor). written In tho 
HofiJrbd Aiul HfteoDth faolm, Eif^l^tb vuno. Thajf iltat nott/f them aro 
like ttalo than : 99 M rr<rr/ mn^ tJuU trturftrih m ihtm, Wbicb vrillt 
aumo voravH t^utfj Ix^foro ww uun (tctuiiuptiaLuJ.' 

Wbeo the war woj cndc<l, it ii tlill in iJic aame ttrau tLat 
l^tam«r«tl tpt^ki. Thus, in Novrmber 1648, he wnt«« to 

*ff i> Lato not Ihhiq witLoat our BLnre of ticholding somo rcmark- 
HB&AyldftiiOM Ui^ iippeajuQceti <if tbo Loril' His preeeum butb 
^^^MMgel nil ftn<l t>y llio liglii of Kih coitntenAnoc^ ivo liftve 
IfVfnilod.* 

Ii wiu Ag^in m th(? spirit of the ttern«it of ikc Punlmn t1>nt 
Cromwrll cali^rcJ on the [rifth War. He it &d armwl wJdier of 

,Goil, Pivruuiig Hit juilgmi-nts upi^n Hi* ^ncntiea, t«*rrtl>lfr ik 
ileath, rcUntleu as doom. Vl'tth ifae twont in one bantt nncJ hh 
Acu of P^rliiUDirnt In ihc utber» be ulTi-n tbc chtiict; of (lis* 
4>b«divocv and tJ^Atb, or nbedlenc^ and life. And at Drogb^tbi 
and Wcxfotd tcstifict), his words represented derds' 

In Joiy l^bO lh4> war with Sc^tUrtd bpgsn. Charlei If, 
accrpteil the Covenant, nnd witU lIuckin^hAin ami Uilmot at 
bit tide' — ttfAngr inECruEnt'nta fctt surli n laik^^Ikad 4^ruiB«l thn 

'MM from BreJa 1o be the earthly' represcntotivc of that 
ifwuoiij which thr Scotiiah Kirk desired tit see eatabUshrd, 
CrommU, retomiog: from IruUnd, was mxuie CommandeT-in- 
Mci, and vniit to tbe front to check the threatened St-uttliU 
ifiTotion. li waa with a Psalm in his tDind that he set out on 
his mission, A few d^yt bcfiitv his departure, he had a stmnjfc 
inten-i^w wUh fJolonel Fdmiind Ludlow, one of the at^rnect of 
Ke|><thlicant^ C^Jlin^ Lud]i>w aside into a private ro<^n> at 
WUit^bkll, btf rhnrn^l Lim with a rh&nged coiiolenance 1t»wanls 
him and with saapioionB of his objecta. He profcasod his 
rasdinets to sacriAcc bis life in the service of the people ; he 
<tecUr«Hl that be desirod nothing better than a * frc« and eqoal 

, CoDiinoriwonhb * ; he ipoke at length uf the * great providence* 
of God no«r nhroftd upon the earth/ Then he* spent at Wrt 

I sa hour in the exposition of ihc Hnndrcd-and-lcntb Psairn/ 

, ^JU>S *^^^ ^^ looked upon the design of the I^rd in thfit d^*^ 
tbc freeing o£ His people from cvtry ViUtdca, «ii ^iMiL\\* 




J 



zu 



The J^alms in IliO^ry* 



lijmiclf wju the chfii(?n instrument for the occoropluhineat «f 
the CT^ti fon^rnUI in ilint INnlm, 

So CromnclL sti out, oiiurcd that tbc Lonl woul<! mAkeirv 
mtrmi^t Ht» footstnJil, xhnl ' in ihr Any ttf Hrs wtmIi H^ «w!d 
'Irovnd rvvn kin^a/ and thai Hr wou]<l 'Jodgo amon^ tbt 
b^^aihrn ' find * fill ilif plru^ea with ihr dmH b»dii*i/ At lhp«ff1 
of July he bad crosiod llif' BurJ«r, and loochnl iMiutclbcrEti. 
Btlween him and Edinburgh lay Ornffral Hnrld Ln1i«, n- 
In-iichnd behind »tTon^ tinc^Cf ind prot«!cC«d by the fiuiu «t 
EiHnburgh iind Lt'itb. ll wus a ltisIs i>n t*liich were Cfntrvd 
Bllghtj intorcati. Two hoitr, croch clniming U> tw tbo ht^ 
chocen pci^plc, were about to put thi-ir d^mi to tUe^ tctt. To 
which should victoij Ije girpn? All Croinir«nV cflorti u> 
induce Uic Scot« to rUk k Wtic vrcrc vain. A&ira of uutpMU 
And tkirmiabn tix>k pla»* ; hut daj nilrr dsv Leilie Iaj Mndf 
within hiB lines, while Un>inwdl'* prormcn's wrro fulinjr loJ 
hk nitmlir-n: dwindling thmiigh licknpaii, KcjnftlW (m\U wrrr 
(Jromwcil's iiltyinpls to persuade Ihc Kirk CommiuionFn thil 
ihi'ir iimtnv ua» unngliln^Lis »nd thjic Chuilr-t StL^wirt wii mtx 
le nilo over a godly people. He rrc^'ivcd hut ft curt lUitver t> 
hi« Appeal, bu:kt?d tuougti it nu by the: roniiiliTnt ft«itTti[% 
that 

^hoforo It Iw^ V'Tig. the XifirJ will mAntfaflt TTIn pord pI«ftnnM.H 
nl] (diAll Kc« llim.and IIU poopio ahull aay, " Thin iji di4 £«tAlNli 
and it \* inavvt^ltoM in ofrr <ijt4; MzB i« the dfi^ that Ae £ivJ M 
mofii? ; we aUl rtjaice mul he ijtail in it." ' 

Dftyi pcuued : Cromwi^iri pruvUiouK inii ifmrt; tba wv«diff 
wn8 wot and ttormy^ r>o that hia %iqjv9 cou Id not h« l&nd^, mA 
at the end of Augiut he fireil his hut& and inArcbnl Kiwmh 
DunbEV^ LmIi^ Landing on hit rear nnd kecpiuf; on the h\gt*' 
gx<ruiid. Tukin^' full fidvAnlHt;^ <'^ b\» superior kuouW^ ^ 
Ut« country, the ScfjlUih Qiminatidcr optrupiffli (he Drmn Hill 
A spur ol the LAiiiiiR'ruiOrjr lilllfl, atnndlug futnard {tow tht 
rnng'* I'lUe a wnTrh-tnwrr^ nnd» fii-izing th«* f ^ockhHmipath, l<>f 
wild river chnsin eastward of Dunbnr, which forma the nppiA'l 
li> B^Twirkj ihni4t in his ariny bnrwp^n Cromwell and Ibo Kof' 
lilh border. Hcrt? thco was Cromwell with a force of ll,^* 
oppcarHl Eo ?3,00[}, hfinified iti bvincf-n the htflf and the acst 
with Scotland in hi* rent nnd Lcvlie'i nnny in his front, 

CromwHl knew that ht: was in di:»prrjlr cue. * Our nwU' 
tioo,' he «aye, * wa> iniwlo yery aad.' On the Ifnd ofSeptflotvt 
be wruti- a letter, hnilily foldf^d bcfurLr thi* ink whs dry, ta^ 
Arthur Hatlerigg, the Gf>v«mor of Nrwcnatto, aakin^ ftir >^ 
and bidding luir; prepare fur the wrirfi. On the Annie day (n 
which ibis leilCT wna wriupn, L^tlii? bt^gan ro movie hl> uut 

ivwt 



7TU rtfUms in Tfia&f^. ass 

A^wn Irota thp Doon f lill to low«r gfoand, Trom which ho |w>- 
poted ihc next morning to ikttAnk ihc bni^lUfa ^xmy, 

Th<! tnomrnt ih^i Cmmwt^ll iaw ibia mrjve-tnent hn ivimgnlM>d 
thr lulTAnt:!^* ivbk'ti it ^\\\c hiin. *Th<f Lord hnth ilr^livcrf^ 
ihcm ii)1o otir hiiniU' i» ihc (Tn^litionnl rx<^lAinAttrm ihnE burst 
fr<ua hiG Hiic as be e^w hiA anlaeunist * iboj|ri^JO|( ' down the liiU, 
H<? dctrnmEiiHl that lio wjuld liiiiM^rlfbc tli^ aHuuIantQt sunrise 
on tb« n9^1 morning- ThroughoLit ihe irct and oold nij^^t of 

t MoiiJaj tbc ^d, in tbe >U»rrai uf ram und sleet, he lundc hit div- 

I pMttioo. Wh^n^ at 4 oVWk, tli*» rajinn shnn^ out tlirough thw 

'Lsit-cloud«» ftll VTA* not )'et roadf. An bimr Intcri tiir tniiDpcti 
pMiTftl^ xhc rnnmm rr>[irv[l aiding rhe lin?^ nnd Crmnwrll'v horas 
Aod loot, shoulinjc ihclr w»ti;liWf>M ^ Tli& Iait^J ul Hosts,* burst 
upon tL* Sfx>liUh tri>D^iK, whci, stiifened hy ihc nj|i| ahiI wtHi 
unlighted matches, were begmning lo stir tbcmtelvps lu thir twi- 

flight crept JiJuoEi); tliHsLockauf corn where lli«^ hitd bjvuuu;kr?(]. 
Here and there the fight was stubborn : IxtlWs horso boldly 

, oiuwcTcd bock lUc Eaglish cU&IIcngc witli their ahoui <>r ^Thx 
Comunt/ Hut the position wai such that the Srottitli gL^ncfal 
COtdil xttftkc no uic oi his SDpctior numbers, and when, uvcr Sl 
Abh's Hrad ind thf* GprniMii Oi^;tn, burst the rising $iin, rh(^ 
(lenm drew from Croinwciri lips the triumpbant cry, ' Lot Clod 

i triar, and let ilis memirs be scattered.' The hiirst; bntkfr nnd 

! Bedf tnunpUng d<»fvn ih« undiscipllnvd masses behind tbcm; 
ihc itnit was Lvmplcic. The ' cbntr And (ficcution' of ibf* 
fni^tiires lostn! for eight mtlet, till the Lord (leneral madi^ a 
Wt in the pursuit, and laiif; the 117th Psalm. It iros bui » 

I, brief rMpit«. Praeiicnl in his religion ns in all clae, CrumwcH 

,. choM th« ahoncil TsnUn in the Boole. 

I A yoar Utc-r, on ih«< suuie ^It^y of tike month, September Snl^ 
IG51, como the 'crowning' mercy' of the battle of Worcester. 
On the MMTiDy, wri(«4 CriiiEiwi.-11 to Mr. Qjtton, nf nfition. 
New LntfLand, the Lord ' rain«d *nar»s»* so th»t ' of the whole 
ann^ of the Scitttish King foid the Malignant ptiily, noL five 

'^ am were rotumpd. Sarelv/ he adds, *tbe Lord it greatly to 

!b» r«Kn«lr and to be pmHxl/ 
In 1663 chfi Kump bad h^m pxprllm!, nnd in their ptiicevrerv 
I «nemb!«d 'di/e-r* Persons tearinieOod, and of approved Fidelity 
And Hon«-fltT,' wli^ corisliEuLtH) the * Barcbooef ^ PaTliauient. On 
. JiAy 4tb, UromwcLI, ttandinjc by the window opposite the 
I middle of xh<f table in thr- centre of the Council Chamber of 
, MnUtehnll. the of&Gen of Iha Army rang^) on hi* ii^ht and Icit, 
|ft4dm«n] thai icnm^e avsembly, every member of which was a 
in whom Cromwell hopt'd to find ' faith in J*vi%Omm». 
l/nrc to all People Mad Saints' HU apCccYt vs \(»i«\«^ "wX^ 




4 



3ir> 



Tltc Paohtu in Uhtcrtj, 



lerviCDCCA to the Cmlms, ciprciall^ Fs. ex, aiid P«, IzviiL He 
hinti Ihftt their meellnp tnaj' bo MJn» door to Ufher in the 
Tbinira tliat CJoiI tins ptumiacJ, ivhich He Lo4 ict th« h««Tl« ot 
Hit Propio tft wait for xind Pipect.' They *re 'at the t^dgfr of 
tbc Protni*c* nnti rrt>pLeciefl/ anil tln?n Lr rTxpoundi Fi^lin ijcriii- 
GekI t< linn^iJt^ Hi» Pt-ciple nut of dt^^p ivitLcr* : Jlir it mtiijii^ 
up the glory "f HU Cosjiel Church. King* of ormict bul fled, 
and the spoj] hAiJ beea iliviJed. 

■A-od inik^ the tnumph ci that Punlm >« oxooodlng hi^ adA 
great: oud Uod m MoomjiUflhini; it- And tho «Iom of it, — Uut 
cloef'th with mj heart, and I do not doubt with youra, — " ITie Lord 
Hhakcth tbu billH uid luc^uritniiL^i, sfjd thDjr roul.'* And God hath « 
Hill too : ftn high Hill as tho Qill of llnshaa : ani) tlie ohariols of 
G»'l nro twenty th'^usuod, oven thousAUds of Aogaie, Mjd God will 
dvell QpciQ tLJe Hill for cvorl * 

On Motidtiy, Septemt>«r 4tb, in the follnwinfc .rcitr(lG&4). 
the Lonl Prniecior tad relurn^d fn ifAi^ m Whitehall Crom 
WeatminBter Abbey, Entering the Fnintf?d Chftmbcr, ia all 
llie ph^nitude of hit power, he delivered a aj>eech ti> tlir ^Eiinnbljr. 
la ii he enlarged on the stupendous providencct of God. 

'Ab David,' ho coniiuuofi, 't«id lU the liko cmc fP^tm il. 5^ 
*■ Many, O Ljjrd my (!<.h1, are 'Wj w<iin.Urful workn wlijch Tbon hi« 
dune, and Thy thoughts which aro to iiawiinl ; thoy oaEuuol W 
rookoncd up ia order uato Thoo ; if I nvitld declare uid »pcttk of 
theuit they arc moro than can he numhot^od,'' ' 

Once inoi^. On Tur-sday, SepleinhL-r IGllj, 165ft, Cmmirr^ll 
wa« reading the S5th Psalm id VVhiCchali. It wa« the day 
bt-forc thu meeting of the aecond I'arUAUient nf the Pioirciorate. 
The next day, with ibeUBDalcerF-moni^s, I'arliainent wat opened, 
and the Lord Protector addressed a speech to the uiembcn. 
* Yeslerday,* he said, * I did rpn<\ a I^ialin. which truiy mar not 
unbecome both me to tell you of, and you li> uUscrve. Ic \m iIk 
a^ih Pialiii ; it is very instruttite and iigfti(ii-ant ; iboogh I do 
but a little iiiuch u|>on it, 1 desire yoitr perusal and pleasure.' 
Then he expounded to ihcm his vliion of hii]H%^Gud's will dotte 
on earthf and England an emblem of Hearvn t^hcre God's will 
reigns HUprcmc. To ihU work he exhoite<I his FailUnifTiil to 
set iheir beans. 

■ And/ he eaye, 'if you eet your houtfi to \i^ then txm w&O mk 
Lather's rsalui (iWi). Thiit i^ a mro Paalcn for a Chti^iaD ! cad S 
ha sot his heart ufwn, and cau approve it to CJod, wo sioil hmr liim 
uy> -'Oiid is oar refu|je and atnMii^h. a ycty pnwint Mp i& 
UtJithfe." . , . If Tf'pc and t^paiiiard, and l>«Til and all^ gtt th«b' 
eoivQa u^nat ns,— yet in Ma^ u»ao ot Vbt \iati^T« sboold doatroy 




7^f iVx/uM in tlifiiorj/. 
Tho Lord of JltMie ia iHtb <is ; tko Go4 of Jio^h ia cjur 

Tw(> jtftra Uirr, on TbuDda^r Sept. 2m!, ICSS, Cri>mwt-ll 
l»y drinj, 'He wot very rwtlew moit pari of iho night, 
■pc-Akin; often lo IiuhmIT/ using ^ towurd* Rjftniinf dlven hoK 
prprvciiotit, implying much inwnnl contoUlion and peace.' 
Hb^Q ibp morxHw'* sun ^o*f^. he wa» sprc-cblni. Uj three or 
Ibar in ihi* nfL<*rnoiin h*^ Uj ilrful, Ojil he ^uengthen hiniarir 
for xhr Ust batllr of bi< miJitani life with the Pialini? Were 
tl>e woiJi wlilili he ft|H}ke tu himself lucb as LtitMe?— 'Th'iiigh 
1 walk thTi>ugrh tbe Va1I«| of th« Sb.iiJow of D«aih. I will fear 
DO crit ^ for Thou oit iritb tnc ; Tbj rtxl and Thy suff com- 
fon me.' 

If ire turn to ibe bUtorjr of ibc Coven^ntcrt, wc find that in 
SoollAEiilf At vtrell at in Frnnre ami Fnglnnd, tbr PinlmB were 
tbc inipirnlion of a p[r<.'at |>opuInT movcmrnt. It ira> irltb 
a P«n|rn ihm at DrufiinEog thrj roiilml ('ln^i*rEii)u»f^, ftoi) at 
Rvllioo Gmn hrld nt hiy the troops of DaUt-U. It wn« o 
PaaJm that uervrd Mau» ileadiigg Cu leap ht^r borMf uvr-r n 
vaII; it waft a Paaloi that the daughter of a C(fv«naiit«r, 
Jeanie Dean*, markeil with bor 'Kylevine pen* for her loTcr, 
Kraben Buvler^ on the eve of her adv^^ninrout juurn^y to plead 
for her litlrr'a lif^r, or that ibn repealed in her bour of pvrllf 
wKen thr waa nt the mercy oi dt-i^i^Mte mfhartK on Gunm^rby 
Hill. Supported hyii PsaJm, Hu^h M'Knil, Alojcandcr WiUon, 
Jolui Oihflfin, Aleiamler M*Ri)bjn, Atmnndr? Hum'^, John 
Niab«t, June* Renwicki Itabvl Aliton, Morloa HarvcTi and a 
boat of oiber hcroGi and [it>-roinr4 of (he Coveji^nti faced lortunr 
or A riolcnt deaib. It was the Pialmi thai cheered the captivoa 
ott tbr Ba>i Kock, or in the dun^ronB of BlnckncBs and Dun- 
nottar, and t>>Taeed iheir ncnry inipriinnmi'nt. It wai the 
PMlotft Pfain that encourivjccd olhen to endure a attll harder 
&tv, «a tliej toiled in exrle and fllavcry among the rlctvfieldi 
Bod «UC«r plantation* of tbc New World. 

Hrrr, u in tbe hittory of the Huguenots, we may take a 
aii^e illutlration. Among tb« Ticttma of ptrtecution who 
tonrml for conicicncr' anke, there were none whu (ritited 
more intereu thin the Wigtown Martyrs, Margiirot WiUon and 
MarfveC Maf:lachLan. \Jp ihc deep channel of the sluggish 
BUdnocb, with its itrep and sloping mucnmnki, iwire a da^ 
BW«eps tbc *ea, with its yellow tide. Slakes were >et in tbc 
oon* of the riiet'-bunk, Co which die two women were ibed^ 
Tbo cJd«T womaiii Margaret Maclacblanf was act lower down 
lh0 ri»et, tW tbp younKT-f sufferer might xc ber struggln asfl 
bcroocrac fmiihed bf^fore the h^r«eU was teSkC^kcd b*j \\k«iuA\vi^ 

Vol J«5.— ^i*. ^&, 2 A 




■ 




^28 The F^oim u\ HiaUfr^, 

icft. Pit^inif her vouth, tb« ciEecuticncrt tried to lare Marpirtt 
WiUfrii. At \he water tvirW ibout hi*r IviHv, thi* w»« dr^vro 
to the oilgc of the Ifank, antl oftprcH her liic, if she trouUI Bijr, 
^ Grid snvr- lEir K In^/ uid tak<* thi* l«*ii. ^\\v nas raa'lj to ny^ 
' May Go<l BaT« tbv Kin^, if He vrill,* for »b<T doaind, u* MbL 
tIip UklvAtiaEi oi all mm : hut hhe woukl not fimwcar hrr Cti^ 
or take tbe tiMt. So sho wa« on« moro tcourrd to tho staU 
&nil luft It) Lrr TAte. With ItL-r (letW ytmug yo'ux, ^^ ihv 9tk 
warn corl^] ntiorc her brcait and nil but loucbcd her Hp«, the 
saiilf the 2/itii P^Jm : — 



Uv elus amt fanlt« of youth 

"Do Thou, O J/jr3, forgot : 
AfU-r TIl/ iiif^rciua tlktiik on mo 
And fjir Thy gflalnoia lifPMt ' ; 



I 



SI 



and so ci^ntinued singinf till b?r volots wru choked in tbe 
rising ti*^e. 

With one mote iltiutmtioa we mutt Cf>ndiide, \\'c ban 
inid that tli<- Pialtj?r, wbife il eDrnurngrd (he rnjmliei %iTlairiol 
the Frotc0tant», woa Abi> interpret t^d to cxeu»o tbo forooitv of 
rhnir vrn^irmnci^. In this dmij^vl wr mnv ti^aII th4^ ani^rtlnln of 
Xhn Hij;biand obififtain who on bU deoth^bcd wru Mkcd by tho 
miulalvr tu fur^tvv nu nivHti^rate t-nem^- ' Venj^ajicw n iiune* 
tailh tho Lord/ was the text quoted by chi\ mcin of peace in 
»ij|jport of bis at;gumcQt. '\r», t» be Hire,' nid the d>uig 
pf^nii^nt; *ii i« too Bweet ?i iiKim?! for a monah U>ll,' 
added. M forgive liim* Bui* — turning to hU »on — *do'il 
you, Donald, \f t/cu Cot^ve him I' Tho ipirit of the Hi^ 
UadcT inftpiml the ferocity of the Cdv^nols when tbey turnof 
upon ihptr persof^atora. h U with thtr opmin^ uwne ia thil 
Htran^ epiiodt of French hiatorv that we ure here conocmed. 

On the t^r\d of Oriiihor, 1<;S5, Mirhel li* TdlJer, at i^ath 
ecllor of Frnnce, Bet the acaf, almost with hin dyinj; bandits 
the Ret'iiejtlion of Xhe Rdiet of Ninttn. The gienectilioD of 
tho Protectants ftt onr>e hegrin. Towns and viilsgM and bowi 
ivprc pilhi^cft out] %ci on fire; ftidds nOil Tini^yarib vrm laid 
waste; Uundrodi of tho Huf^oenots were buroed alivei, brobiA 
oi: the wheel, hung frifiu tbe gtthet, 4jr cut to piecea by Cbe 
drgigooRS^ Thinr midnight nsfipmbliet were Agftin and oguo 
ftjrprued, und the uif.T»t vrntrrfited of ibeir pei5ti>n wero executed. 
iVor were the vieiimii who died th» f4>:i4t to bn Pflvicd- Moro 
tenible itill wa* the f ite of the men who were chuncd to the oir 
at lie f^nlleyi, or of the women who were doomed to perpeiwl 
imprUoomenC in the ioothtomc dens of mcducrU criaelty, iudi 
a* the Tour Ccnitnnre in Uif Cutle of Aigues Mnrtes, whefv 

the 



i 



7^r PAoita4 la IS*t&ry, 



<bc pTiBcMurn, U«nl^ lojfelber in dark and itiilinf; ditngronfl, 
wrere left a pirj tct thp mclnncWy iboufjht* thai hariDunUcKl 
with %iic monotonous mdrnc'^ oi the ward or clicwlnil luutuiiujc 

AmonjT the tnvngc •tcrilo r4at&c«a«« of tb« CrTcnncs the 

■implf* rr-lj^ion of the PrnmtnnI mnuninincvn nMiimocl u tterti 

nftd gtooinv ca<L F«v<^«r «a«ily poMcil into fanntiriin;, tind 

<sr>lMU of fftith rrjidilv lent thi^mioltyt Ui wlf-ilri^rpLiort. Tb** 

€Mfanti th I>i^t, po»»r>s4Hl by hystericik! hriUuctnation*, cl&i>n«id 

for iLrir VfiM wiiriJi a pruvplieiic i[ij(^)Eraii<}n, Goailnl to 

^■l|«t«tioifc by tbdr «ufTiJnng», ihi? peft«:Lnt« w*»ro earned away 

^ ibe fiery appro-lft of proph«u nnd prophctcuo vihu ur^'t^d 

tiion to iinfi HfniriBt the f^nemici of God and fig;ht to tbc 

^Wb lor ihc true Church, Upon thrir cicited nunda lbs 

'i«Jmi rxerriu-rl nn ^klinott mpprniiiura] pnwfT, 

* JiA >o(iii,' K«7« Duri&iid Fii;^, ' rid wv liirar^l tbu cLunl of tbo 

^^■iltt wbicb lx> B'ordH CAQ (Hiprc^q, ]I<:iwnrLir j^t^il mir fkkti^tio^ wo 
'^ou]^ ol it DO more- Tf^ laviDc-at tlii^ mi^nc ('J' tiio I'aiinia etriick 
^'^Ur Mfv, TO grew ligbl on air/ 

"^xib >urb tcir]|Hfraiti«iili, il iitr'dird but a >parL tu kiiidlr tbr 
W <:>u9riiir in:; fury of ther people intn n flADK^wbicb ihoajfl sprf^nd 
''j»'*:>ogIj l\\v uiouataiHs with tbc dt->n3talin|- iap;dil_> of lisbu 
***>((. TUut tptiTk w*a Lighted by Kranjoi* dw Chayia, Prior 
'''^ Laval, iind Inspector of ProtcttanI Miuiotij in ibo du- 
<'*«^l of Gc-vaudtn. 

Iliia man iras tbe cbtcf oecnt id the pcraccution of tbo 
Pv-cMMUtnTi of tbr Oiri<nneft. Hii bcimct? nt rout dp Montrim, 
n^k«c to the bndjcc over ibe Tarn, wat at onro u prison and a 
t*»'tiift?M!hamWT, ill wbkb n^-idier *ci nor a^fc wni »pAird, fwd 
* ti«t* ehildrm nod younjr RiHi remrtd i;o mercy. la 1702 
^^^^^ Abbe du CbayU b^Id -.w prlfl'PiictB a QurnWr (?f Prutevtonts 
vt)^ bad beon raptured in an nitirniptrd t^irapc to Gr!iu^rA. On 
'^^^ nrc-Dis^ of Jiiljr 23rd, 1702, a P<uty at reioiutc men, 
nutnherinff fifty in «1l^ gnadpd hy tbf> nppflaU of their propheta^ 
d^tcrnuned to rctcac ihc priaoncra. A> nijfbt Icll, ibcy met 
mdcf thriv- ^if:intiir lierchri on the kIojn? uf tbr mcmnuiin of 
^'vDtv*! cnJIcd in tbe paUmt of tbe country *AUo fa^'e.' Some 
•f^renrnwril irilli isrordH, some with MTjlbea, some wiib bnllieriU 
■** Ueiont incUto; only ft lew teamed jruni or piBtoli, Hcl'ore 
*^^ wt out on ibcir eirtt-rprijc, ibey ptsycd togctbrr, ^nd ^eo. 
'^■wiair ^^^ Ptalmi of j\Urot u tbry wt-m, mnrchrd on Poi>t 
■ ^ MoaUril. They reaf:bef] tbe Tilla);r about aine in tbc 
H ^VfnuiB; uad, >ttll ■IngJnn^ thr Pttlma, tnrroamled [ho boaM o( 

|| 2 A 2 1W 



4 





330 Tfit! P^aJntt in IJistory. 

TUc AbW wni <)i[im^ in r;ompnnv ^iilt Eii* fclIow-llboOTtflB 
uhcn th:? rmlrrlmnmr ihr PialmBrriLrhrfl hii run. 8a|ijHWQf 
that the ProlOlnnle lind vmiurrd to bold a eoorcDlicIr within 
«arthot fif his lu>u«r-, lir- iHilrnn] hit gUAitl to ipjxo tW nub 
wonhippen. But the houB« was nurrotindad to tb&t dooc rtMiU 
puEi out. On all 3]di.'s, llie cij wai hratO, ' Drtnic otit ihf 
pHionerSn' A delenninrd mnn, fh« AbM «hnw4»d tbnl h*voitiU 
jricld ojiU- tt? force. At kis romrn,iiKl ihc *o!dicrs fired D|mo 
(h^ Aitaikms, nnd ohm of The iirojtIiHi w^t kiilrd and oih<Ti 
WoanUcd. The inl'urtatrd l'rotr(e/int*» iohia^ the trunk of* 
trcr, brat down tlie duur, twariiieil into iht? huuin, and nul»«d 
to Iho dungeons. A second dischar;^ pruvcd ftU&l to aootbfr 
of the reBcuLiig |farlv. EiAijierAi^Hl by thpt >ig1jl at their 
tortured brethren, and provoked by rcti*ianc4>j 1h<^ Ci*vifaoli 
piled toother the furniture of tbo houar. rnkrd up the Btrav 
on which the snldicrs slepE^ threw on thf) bonp the scAts from th» 
chapel, and sH the buUding on fire. Tbcn ihe Abbe and hi* 
fripnds endeavoured to eicApc from the wlrtdowi at the biwk nf 
the home* Tying the shecU of their beddjne toother, th^ 
attempted 1o reach the ganlen. T\u* AhbJ fell and broke hit 
thigh, but, crawling into the bushev, hid himfteU. Others, morv 
foitunaEe, came to the ground lafelj, and, plunging into the 
TarOj escaped. 

As the fire guthered fierceness and eaLjfjbt bohl of tUe tiiubrr 
of the lir>Ufle, the glare oi the flDinefl revcalpd the lurking-place 
of the Abbe- Hia cry for mercy na» mocked. Drags'^ ^^^ 
the open, be was killed. Eaeh surmiive aMsllant^ aa he 
delirercd his blow, cried out that It was in rcngcancc, 'Take 
ihfti," emd one, 'for my fathrr'a "nkr, whom you broke on tl>e 
wheel/ *Take that/ cried anctbcr, 'for my brother, whom yoo 
vent to the gitlleji/ 'And that,' fthouted a third, * f or my 
mother, whom you killed with grief/ Fifty-two wounds wen 
found nn hii body* of which twenty-five wer« uiorial. Ooly 
two person* diBCOvered in the house were tpnred^ All thtt live- 
long night, amid the crash of falling t^mbcia, and the roar and 
biit of flamei, which drowned the murmur of the Toiw, tb# 
deliverers cbniUed their Fsalmi in wild ccalaay of rengeance, 
and, as the day dawned, it was with n Pinlm of triumph thai 
they withdrew with their rescued brethren to their mountain 
fatinesiea. 

With this ferodotia act of vengeance began the war of tlif 
Cevennes, in which, with the Pialma for iheir bnttle-i:ry, a 
handfui of peaeanU <3efied tbe armifa of Louis XIV., delcAtcd 
hii mci^t ikilful marshals, and negotiated on crt^ual lefma wilb 
the Gnutd Monnrque him self. 



1 




( «1 ) 

II. — TR# jCt/# and Lcttttt cj Tiifjijamin Jofvetf^ McMttr ef 

{qt Cotkgt-, O^ftird. In Two VoJunici. V'ol. 1. bi 

L«irUCaaipMl; Vol. 11. b/ Kvelyo Abbwi. Lonilon, 1607. 

rilHK «tilijt-ci of thrvE' rin^inoirt tH^'upioi n iiniqap pince in the 
_|_ lii»tory (if \\i% lime. fticn^ fiuvo born men ul that pctifxl 
lar ciorr rnntpiFUoui^ Diorv lirillum, mor^ crvaiivcly original. 

IJonrett was mi^ in the urdinary vonftr, a It^ndcr of mcn» * light 
«0 llg-lkten popul&r ilflfkne«i, a loft/ iitt^lleciujil ^niui, (lii>ug;h 
. Jcmethm^ nkin to their power, tio daubl, underlay hia tmnquiL 
wiftdom »ml j^f^ninl nuitnit/. Yet, if we \vm/l\ to point to the indi- 
I lidodity which, darjng: thfr Utt ItfCv j^nrt, hfks molt contributed 
I to mould jk^oaEli, to r^iic and n^^uUtc upirAtion, to CQunscl aikL 
I encouragi* activii^', to fAiliion und l^^rr^per liE iiiitrumt^nti fur bigh 
parpoK«tto imilcatr; dircclian <d choughi. work, and fcoling, w« 
\ fthduld unb«'ittiilingl)' ivnnt to llie late MotE^ of BallioL Per* 
ttonJilitj'— jnAucncc on cliAr&ctcr through cliaracEcT' — thia vrai his 
, •cnpr nnri ibt* w^Irhword ol his corLsisIenl rnrrr'T : in thiiprovincp 
|l be cicrciitfd an iniiuuncc as wid<?»prcad il» it wm vnobtruBive. 
: Sidc<r thi? EiEiiL' of Ji^wKi's liivoLiillr, Dr. Julinion, iin corr(^«|x»nc1- 
1 inc figure hnj ftppcarcd in E^nglifth Aociiyiy ; no corK^cpondjng 
I figurr hA4 cvrr Appcacnl in T'^ngliab «Cpidr*mir;il vocirty. The 
f late Dr. WbotvclJ w^s alio ^ iTifin who touched tlw big woHd 
I Axun iho bmiit of Callrgr lifir; but it cannot Ix^ «aid of binit u 
it muit be mid of Jowect, that he formed a »(?hool of itctioa- 
Ov. Arnold, from \h^ iihhrilo !gnurr<i viint;) ■;(-■; round of a 
pablic-ichooJ bcjulmnalcnhip, p(<-rmi?n(cd tvitb his idoaU c\-t^y 
ilocnaiQ which eminent Kug'H:irkii5 bavf.< Eidoiticd ; but he did 
iWCf Uk« Joweit, ^Ttf'AiP n ichoo] of mi^ninl ntiiiud^. In morr 
frccnt da^J the laie I'rofr^uot 'J\ H. Green did form, in the 
verjBallio] vrUicli Jnwetl [runtfontied, n leliiJol oftboitglit; but 
it vat of ab«irftet nnd mcUphysicnl thoujfht, njuL he ilid not, 
lihr Jo^nt. cnQftoUd^te inlo nu exttdonlin^rj' brodicrluKKl men 
who were eontrary and even conlrftdictory to eofh other. 

In ibc BiiioiMith century tlrptfimLis, * Lhif f^llki^r (if HibltcAl 
eriticiio),^ and Sir Tbomat Mure, Ihm 'patron K^^ncml lo all 
poor devilV aiUL^n^ LOjjttiLu^juiury ^aviknU M. Keudu, who^e 
nauagtt vrai that tlierc are many religions but one religion, 
pmcni elements of compnriioni But, to fiad a more inward 
anaJogjr w#» muit Wi^ui^ n mnn of another age and anolh«r 
natioo ; a man unrimtlinj' to I'JngUshmen, and, iiutwardly, very 
dittimiiar lo thr< modern Mu«t'*r J>f Haltiol, We alljdo to the 
phtloiopher Mendi.^[«Kjhn, thcgrHtndbalx-r of the great composer. 
From tmall hcginntngi hr? diitancrr-d hii r<f]riipmenr. Hi* mild 
and Imninous intellect outshone the «pUcre of lonxning which 

hia 




83S 



Bcpjamin JotettL 



hii imlr>miL'Ll>l<r will hixd conquered- HU onl>V and iwwetfib 
chanr-trt- subducJ the moal confltcUoc elcuariiU of hu fc»- 
Nomiaallj', A tli^olo^ical emanripntir iif ib(* Jntrit hit bengv 
&I1 educational power in German tbouetiL Lciain|: wu bii 
gnleful ftpprPTiEttor ; and to l-iwng GoelKi*. tLv moil com^ 
liiandiDg iallucncc oa mmlfrm life, wri> cortciSRcily indebted. 
The inicrml iikrn^^ns brtwnrn .Mand^^liKihii Aud JowiA a 
ourioasly c!o£C. Dolh were incpired bj Fialo ; both t])Miri«i in 
Kti exOf*pli<iriril d>-[^r^t* tlir iiL/srl< willi ihn pnunirnf, UtfrfpiHtnJ 
with Iho intc-HcctunL Dtivoal iniih and rm'crond rationiliio, 
fbrend wit and »lin-wdcr aimpUt-'itj', an i:hM-^ctt:ii%lxc% ol «w^ii. 
Both und«irElo<xl tho limits «■ w^il u tbc IxTOptitc of comprt' 
miic ; hnth wfrTf thr? pmfeucd champtoiu of ^ >ounii»ASomMrd 
to a ceotijnenlati toIi^TaiiCfl ; both n'tnnioetl udhcri^ntt Xo tonni 
which ilir^ wifthcU to iuapirc ; both were e^nlJc coairoicr- 
tiblittU, boihf funhcr, ^v wliboat being diAiileTit ; both kJ 
' greatness tbrutt upon them ^ ; both sjajpatblftcxl inlc-nnly ntlfa 
yf>»th and povpTty. Rnih wpro »t nnra? kern and wrpn^; hith 
regnrded conduct &s * three-fourth* of lilc/ And jet, to *-U 
supf-Hirinl glnnu-, what mntraKt oiulil \ve morr %tMttii9g iba 
thftl bctw<?cu Mcnddssohn and the MrDtcr of Bftlliol ? SoDW 
ii it thnt rnrirnnm^ni dfrt<*rminrt the difTenfiioe* lurtwtvo men; 
chnractLTt the rt-scmbUncpa, 

Ui>t, on brond \\iir», Dr. Jnhnaon i« Jow^tt'i re«l pnt<^ 
type — *our fn^at Irirnd/ &> h(! delighted lo caII him. Jo«*^ 
h&d tend BoHwcIt fiftj' ttuncs ; * more tljaa onctf bo W 
lortoi^ tipnn it ; ha n^^rded ih** work &> cui «Hlu<^ai 1^ 
itself; Ite Wed the ei g Went! i- century circle mirrDred in l^i* 
pag^l. *Sucb nice people with u reml society and tivtmg cb^' 
rftCters, and tbc^ come sr> near to us,* ns he romsrlcs id one** 
Ilia Lptien- Hia conscioas nnd uneooscuoutt ofl^nitiM to 'i- 
^ monument ^ strike tbc springs of chnTacCcr and iiece^sitsW oi 
ocimplnlr, if rnmpre4se<l, ;inaKfiis. 

Id theii tr^nius for morality, their pftriuncuiit nad aiuTen^ 
application of the moral outlook. In their Christian emplustt ^ 
the spirit above the letter, in their ' nntur&l pictj' * coDJoiiittI »il 
* rational entjjiTv/ in their (?onimmi-H-nsr Ir^vcnin^uul leti^nv 
bv speculation^ in their engemess to * dear the mind o( t9n% 
thrir endeavours that ^ wiaihirn ?;houlcl aetualljr opemtr on 
life,* in their tfialtation ot judgtnent even ttbo*c iifiapftUit'. «' 
of robust worth above any ro«<--water virtue, la tbeir caUtfui^ 



* II««IsDadailredthptnliJorAuQUnli>c1(A<^c«Q5iia *Tostdln ywdii 
isaov thfi pramlsc Id fuilil hia piuJLit and tvilix<ui Uia tenaiBtftA ■» v4<di 
Ibrr viadfooUoD Of BvawuU u vvuicu iLDd ut uuu/ (SttiahofMt *SM« ^ 
Prwc and Portry," p^ 4I-J 



Batjfiiiiin JoicdL 9S3 

inunatirtg hi.-tpfulnr!n, ihpy arc rondjiinrnully lli« Xiimi^ 
Tbe eM«nr« of «adi is noticeable la ■atmosphfliv,' in conver- 
tttiOD T«lbcr Xhitrt m btivkt or cvua uiatractioa. Holb were 
toffgtttive tUinulaiori, not mora preceptor*; they inflaonced 
Otben ihroun^li thciuaclves in oiUitb ; iLrr brouglil kuowlc^gc 
to thrr wrtHil nnd ihc wnrH ta kaowM^n, Johnson intl^^cd 
nay be said to bavc founded a collrgr ol Hfc, ^od Jovrdt cer* 
tniniy fnrnM hit o»h ^^llcgft info (^in^. Hofli wer^ r^iolot* in 
tbeir um *Dot to make ihi? wont or both world*,' 

Ftlany €iS tht^tT main cfinrncterUiii* nre nUr> similmr. 
Jobnton'a relation to IJ^D«t I^Dgton and UiniickTlt reminds 
om; of inirrtr« to thr Ulr Dllkr of HrvifiiJTd, Jowf^lt'a llffu 
kwg anidety to Joriviwrd by every meana the caiue of 'How 
clAurt can be mad'.- di unrler^tand arxl re»pi-ci one aEtotber, 
li> impma in«]i and womnn of high aiandioit ^ilh An iJcnl 
oF htgb reiponaibility,^ ]\x% combination of meutotabip and 
eampnnionthipt bit appreciation of good l>r«Admg &nd tbfr 
opper cdfuao, all remind one of JohEiaon. Identical, too* i* 
ibelr ^Wntin^ friendcbijx willi liidW and tbvir <*ducational 
OOHOCTD (oi dcptriidanta, U'c Tpcrccivc furtbtr p^ialkb ia 
ibeir mriTiction tbni 'a Univ^nity it \ Kchnnl wlifio pvpry- 
Uuoc nay be leAtned'; tbat memory and indeed molt even 
of th^ higher faculties for arbj^-vfimfnt nre MpAy a malter 
cf strenQoDa c^rrtion ; in tbcir joint detcrmi nation that ti«k- 
sesa aboutd never binder cix-ial dntiea^ nor old jif^e hAivpc^r 
utxflaj^infT napin\tion. Uotli, too^ if W4< altov lor altevM 
o^odftionx, v/rrt* drvntiaily irnaiMri of n ' miisnion,' and, by 
ri>nverBo of every description, were ironatanlly * itnproTtci; 
the rjTOiaiDn.* ItolJi iigajn {atutl tbia it Ki^nifioiuit) ajmjKjL- 
tbifted with iha rf^nUtj of the Melbudist rovivaJ, thoogb 
JoUoMQ naa an old High Cburchman. and Jon eU a rdbniitr 
nt ill* * actual/ a member of ibo * ideal' Chancb* Their 
bnioeose Ijilent for friendship and for 'keeping ^^ ><i repair/ 
ibeir Biaaly gralitudr, their stflf-diiolplin^, th4>ir djtfnltv, ihelr 
true courage and humility, their mji^nanimity, ibrir aWpfcM 
indaatrv^ all unite them; ati do th^ir tinyl*"' minded atraight* 
forvrardncfis, tbeir kindnei* to children* their euntcmpt for 
flonety, ibrir impatJimce of afTecEaiion fir of * big word* for 
little tbinirs.' 

Many itS ibeir alEghter tendon cl^i, too — the •trptry^ia ^p^tjQf giaX 
^9jfiM tM4 ■:rathiii ?iv whioh, ai Plutnrcb justly ohtervcft, ^ to 
vnpkuijce condui:! — were akin. Dutb lold ^mihX kiuries ami 
B«t«r manly for e^ect ; ibrir bomour and n-nse of buinour 
irere Allied — it wai .\ ronvrrsatjonal buinour, and a twiokjiag 
MOW of bttniAa iiuor& >either WfTt* atbletei, but both wer« 

pcriptttctic 






M-l fftojauiin JoHXtL 

Lipatetur n1iili»i)f>hrts, tii\t] rrvclleit in tticir ptijucaJ fft* 
&nce. \\* aJJ rtfiTif^mber Jolinion twamuiig ihv troa, uid 
luniking A TACT- ; Mr, Swinbamtr, in Uii :f>o brief rccollMrltMi, 
|ftvtf« uv .1 glimpftc uf Jutvf^lt, la hit old af(«% »la&dui|if, after i 
BtifT HAJk, on iJte nuiow parntKrt of a ruined caslJc both wtte 
bound up with ihc citira where ihoy dnclt ; anil, ifJobuoa 
* thought himacir an (JliIo aw^y from London,* to would J^acs 
bJive done, awny frrinn Oxfnirt ; t>f>lh w(*r«^ gifcttl with ihr 
knack nt ^ pichinjc liraint * ; both pt>Hc»cd ia ^ramie cuPMrtUf 
both Hi>rr mviAf ri> birlrrg ' lentsed wJib quet(»iiia/ 

Both, njznin, ncrc jiinjubltf atoic*, both indifTcrcnt to the tail 
wiml ; bull] vrerv lal(< woiki-rs, and JowH-t could iumrtiui<^« al>* 
be f^n early risor, OotL were ocostionaily rud», and beiiirnd 
ID the efficacy <>f ^ muhs * — i[iuba hy hath oflnn aiuplacvd ; both 
Klru^gZcd against a oonatllulionAl «b>'[]«»; and, in thisrvgud— 
in regard to what br hirQ»clf atylcd a 'humiJitttion' — Jomil 
would cortainly hatx' endorsed Ihe coupkl of the poel on whom 
h« wa» * brought up * : 

' Our funnibilitioB arc fto acuto, 
Tho tonr of being *il«ut mchkos lu mnto.* 

Botb« not withstanding, boasted conaidemble icIf-cnnltJnKviJi 
msiJKTi whi^rp ihi^y w<?re not nlwaji mor^ ooid]wI^dI ihra 
lho»c to whom they honestly dictated. Hoth tvcrc at unf* 
pronf to ciJour their verdict on iHtriki by their opioiov nf 
ftuthor*. Boib uGt«d on ibo uiaiiEn of ^ IVulIa dies sino liDca** 
and rrenrdrd in t^oiuinonplnrr hook* not only rvmti and ct>n' 
¥cr«ation>, but idro rciolutions and prAjen, Both, Above ftlL 
evirn in corretpoodvnoe, uW to crystJillixe r«fl««tioa bv ^i>f 
and pointed tenicnci^a, — in the Johnsonian nbrucf, * To t>-J 
trerything i« well m 1 iti»uld aoy il-* Jobnain ■ koIuUoq ^4 th* 
frco-will nroblom, u* 'All tUoory i» Agutnsc it and aII ci|*r- 
ence for il,' mijfht irr^ll bavc bcrn utlcicd by.loivctt; lihll^ 
th« former's * Thrre are fctv ways in which a man may b» muff 
initi>ccntlr cniploycd UiAn in getting: money/ mocu ui ccUo in 
the lattor * ' ThetTj arc few wayt in which p<wplc con be htna 
employed than in rending a good novel (t do not Say tliit 
thi*y thtnild do nothing else),* 

A few of tbeir actual circumstances, moreorer, vevvt b 
beigbtrn the i^tembf&ncv. Katb sprttig fn>in a UQck «^ 
ffinnlly ycomrui ; to each oaHj poverty vtks a ii>itrc# both <f 
■tiL'ijglh nnd of weakness. Tbongb Jolinsiin^s oddities fftt^ 
elephantine and Jiiwe(t*s cherubic, tbe unci>utb oont^iiioitt "^ 
the one, the lileiice and nbrujilneM of the othnr, allks u crttfl 
embairassDu^ni, Tliey each passed much of tbeir tioie nv^ 



Btujaiiiin Jojctiit. ^^^^^f S3( 

fooni: an<l limpk natures, aq<L were pcmiteot kttcr-writ^r*. 
Luily, iL^r cloiiDj; lot^n? tn 11l« live* of the itvo Enciif boiL of 
■ bom lived in UaDtitiunnl agrt wbcn ncn forcr* vitTo atTixung 
oUt bifli^fj, pretenu a solemn nnd touching analogy. 

It «iil» bowe\-«r, be leathered tbot ihc point* of divor|E«nco 
betweva them arc innlerial. To touch i\w 4J«t*|WBi 1^nt« Joweil 
vfti AD kleaEist ; ho wo* ronrc drejimy nnd more tubt]y *piritu£il 
tbaii JuLnsuEi ; aud he Imd an t^mlrrjc: >ide— an aijiccrL iLal 
brrnki out from hit lal«-r (eit^'ni Jn utrangv and uneirrected lighu. 
CiiUcaI jiicolism WA* x\\ti\ Ui Ji>hiiboi/» eeiiLurv AnJ dttpoiUioD. 
JowMt vr&B perc4>plive u-tiero JuLnsoo euuld never hav<< hopi^d 
lo be to ; JobD»oa wa* Midom, lu employ JuwcU's own vordt 
'disHiArfd in inward ligbc/ Thnn^ ^^KAin, Jobnion m%A ua- 
wifish, bot bif cuunterpbri tended more and mi^ro to become 
' Bcldea*,' — no; only to J(i&« htuiB(<1f in oth«it, hut to I'^w aIao 
bU ow:) »ou) in Cod; bii aipiralion wa« ever mountiag; he 
realueil that ' Turtle u frojii the heij[bts.' In their ^t^'le &l«o 
ibrrc ia a raal ditfarenc^— not lo bo explained b^ the roagnilo* 
<(accit rcd&ndancc of tbe Johnaon I ad age. Jobnaon was modelled 
oD Ocero; Jowett, on Flato. Th4f one c-uineU ugaclty into 
pottdc/oot declamation, tbc oibcr elii»el]ed idea* into beautiful 
espRHion^ We caonut imngine Johnson, men hod Ue lived 
BOW, ever )>vnain|> BUcb paa^aget a» * The fjuaLtv ul human lifo 
duea not clximU in hutOr or Acijvitj, but in »lilb)i-M and in Lhc 
bcvt,^ CT 'Tbcn A world, wcnry of thi! duit Etnd heat of cun- 
Uorejay, of ■|>ei:u]attoii about (jud and iniui • • . wrury of ita 
ovo motion^ would reCarn hoinQ and find refit/ Such spiritual 
pubott iuue» from a diHerence in the loul : Johnton wna 
tt«lgbtJf>T and RMtre poailive; JowHl, larger, finer, in5ni(ely 
iwtrc inlerpretaiivc. In vninller matterA the contrast holds. 
Focul Ai JDweLt wna of eotnpjiny. lie^ unlike the 'dubbjiibh: 
Jebiuon, *i>ugbt comfort in country suliluJe; bie oven lem- 
permmcnt did not abarc .lohiiftun'* morbidity, while on the 
other band be bckcd Jobnton** buoyancy And ^volatile »1t'; 
tod ^rt lili idealiHm lent bim wings ; \n% detrriuination lo live 
oo, working and thinking, was unquenchable ; and it mutt i^ 
ftflicmbrred thaE hi* youthful trial* had taken place in a more 
^^DgeniAl aimriKphere, Jnhn^itri bt'gan wiEh hiprflture Jn the 
eighteenth century ; Jowcit, with theology in the nineteenth ; 
he had never been a drudge, <!« John*on had nevt-r Ireen n 
■narlyr. l~hcn, again, Joneit was mu<:h the most methodical ; 
IK was nn pBit of bii cojnponitiim to * dtuh away ' ; and yet bia 
difficulty ID writing, aa we now Evarn, lay in tbe congelation of 
^hat he called Iua ' tpark*' — a ditlicully which the un*parkling 
* Colouu* ' CMild never bare expcrlcnixil ; cu^t dvi ^4k««v\^\\V« 




as6 



B^Jamin Jotr^L 



Jolimnn, m'l-T i^njoy t1iA.t ^bnuntUraft l«Uuri?' wtucU, u Diflufi 
<ni«e obMrvod to 1iiin> * vre literary men ncoci/ 

To ihc AU^H-rltcUl wforW loll, it U true, ftpfkeftfcd W i» 
^onicJci/ — Johniuiif of orihodoxy, Joivctt, of ttt« rtv^n^jtU 
me lh.ua trquaily latjdW apoatlt.'* of llic obrioas. Iq otve tcur 
tbey both are to — ia ihoir complotc tfinit^- oihI wbukcomeM*. 
Then u lomethiRic cmmcnllj British in tlus TighiuiindcdDo^ 
ffnm^lhing of genluf ifi ih** pfv1^d\nn lo ivhirh ihp«i> tvonxa 
carvicd It ; for tlic^rn ii a f cnin* of th« otrioDt as oi tk 
^XirannHnary, and thcr dIjvIoui ii nfErn di;uiie(n€ii11y oppoari 
to ihc counmo[iplncc. It is jv \^r^»X cktncni m inflQcticc, tki 
tlir Pti)liitm(-ft rannot qiiaiT<'l wiih a prr?iw:licr on the »cotfiJ 
vccvntricUy, * \V* mu*t sholUc off prejudice*/ wrJU^s Jowiuio 
ono of thf*c li^tien, ' but noi grt ltd of rommon tmsc.' Neidtf 
CcLTlyle DOT Ruikin could ever hAVc tLcknowledpiixI ihii ^' 
muaitj' frcinj ltoUIipls, and their iFAching k&» tht-rcb^ \at 
the fnlL Atnrngili i>f it* nppoaJ. But, poraonKlly^ Jo«rc<% Ml* 
Johnson, oixeii iufTrml fioni hU 'erj obviou^acsa. ArJrat hq 
impetuout orj^niiizatioiu nrc wont to chafe st a colourti^a n 
impassive aliitudi? ; and. unlil be was wc-II kaovritt i«Jp«li*' 
Jowctl aomctimc-A app«ar«t) to ilist tiaturcs wbote contrait tolv 
ovin actOAlly rcfmhcd him moit. 

So far we have atteinpw-d roughly to d«»l i tiratf* Jmcttt 
igunlitica and cnpAcItics. Wr cannot but Tc^tci tbu he Ucb 
hU Ilfjuwi^l^ Bomrllittit U thr l>cit form iif l^ogmphy; UA 
in this instonctv it trouid bavr aup|>|j«d d Dio0t lotCEM^if 
pictQTi- of Virtnriai) nor-i^tv — a pf>nitant (o ibr GnnT|[nc iriJnL 
U is impoAsible within cur narrow limits to portmy ezb^oiii^ 
the man, the move men is, nnil ihe pi-r«onAgea. Itui mt ifas3 
ondeiiTour to avoid the defects of the book under rerlevp In 
Arfaogeroent is bjwl ; ihr chrcmirJr i>f each cbaplrr prefaces tbr 
appendftt! letters; and, more especially io th(f first volume^ sr 
are perpclUfilly rt^kud tu take \i\t the lUicjiil after interruptMCu. 
omiisionKr and repetitions. The BojiUttit moreover — sgWD'^ 
the first volume — is sometimes faulty and seldom dcellvni^ 
VVe do not ^tah to cavil ; wo nr* thojikful for iinall nereiivp 
butf without cenioriousness, the * Life' is laArtis^ic, AJw^jri Ei 
*"*qiienc<» and often in style ; at the bosf. the*p iwn rolsmrs V 
Ijot mimoirci it, servir. It would have hecn prcfcmhic to iui' 
compHeJ one of eonnrrti^d nnd critteat biojp-apijy, &noch«r •! 
thcT letters themselves. 

We propose TO combat this confusion <i( tnaterial hj * 
summaiT of Jowett's career, before grappling with his 0>\\*f 
luid tlniversiry acdvitin; we shall the<n ^lanci^ At tbeir lM>'iff 
oa the unncfldcmical ^otU-, and, after twicwiag oiw sp*™ 



Hfffamin J^wetU 



287 



of his perxtnaJ I'cnturcs. wi^ tliftlJ conclude vriih ftn tx- 

mltiAtlnn of whni ee^mt to u« hf« mo« imp^irtftnt jwit — bi« 

imt ami outlook, inornJ, intcllcciuftJ, nnt! rcli|fioiJa. 

n«ojiiiBiii Jovt-u vai born on ilii? I5t1i of April, ldl7| iii ittts 

Ub of CambmrHJ, — jrerbaps al Pcchlmm, whcNf hh fihthor, 

VAjf iDi)[riU)Tj, rc*i<)f^l for iom«^ iMUflirlrr'iblr' umc^ Hit 

roou b0lonf;>«d to whal Jr^vrett waa fonil of <U-«i;^-n-tlin^' "tht 

tddling cIkmim,* and LJi pnlemal f;it-iit-g(HJidr/<tlicr, llcnvpr 

oH^llof Lvoila, hcul tcriinCunbrrwcH Melbodi<t; bul oii*»of hU 

t-tjnclr« wat U^ifius Pn>fc«nrof Civil Law in tUo Uru*'cr*iiy 

fCambndgtf; anoch^r, IWtor of LiieU Dunbatn, in Xorfolk, 

«lbotUit prodiTllict hoTvctci, lU well as miuical tiutc« and a 

rvcnt 4l(>«in> (nv soll'-itnptcvraicni, teoni (o h*ve bppn rnirnnon 

ftll Uic bnuichrs of hit fatlxi^f's famllv^ who CimtinucUp by 

0IU inr4-rinnTriig<*, a Enn^iH^tion nitb their nncTstrJil Voik- 

thira. Jli» mother, liabclla Lnnic'icrnc, aprfiiii; from what i% 

BaJInl a 'su|*rrinr' cIxM. Her fatlier, wbo had Trtirc?d fram tbtt 

LAncojhirif ootton tnuLr, waa of « WcstrooroLaod p«di|;roe ; bor 

■Tfttt-unclc wna tb<^ He4.-l<iT of Blagiloii, i>M-t iMid Eranftlntot of 

rJntarcU, M<ai of Jr>w«tl's forboar* might have puied for 

'rolling atones,* htu] h noilxvi fifritirir i>arm-alrti?tsniidBoUdiu. 

rhcT Tcp«a:«dlyi7tabrLrkcdin [ittlcbusinetAc* wbicb fuUfd. Hit 

hihcXf* tor inst«ik(v, vrnt aL Cittt In hia faib«r'a film a« a furrier, 

ifmwardi, on bit own arcounl, a* a printer in Bolt Court; bj 

tymi trader and joumaliat; coniUtently rcUgioua and pbiJan- 

liropic; ttcrviarv fur n tJint? to th^ lai«< L/inl ShaTlctbLir)- in 

■u MUnuiitariiin woik ; fukiLltv, a verifier of tbe Paaima ; 

jwrpBCEially ftncriridn;; ■mall perinnn*'nt pj»H to smaller pvn- 

IUmoeU ftcbcoK't, and Ljiiibc^II iHTBiil<;ntl.v la the inf^oBla <>f 

nlim. |-[« Gcnaintv bi*ruii'riibrd onr Irjjikcy tt> bin son— ibr 

torn bo lorod, bui ncrcr Uiorouiibly understood — tb<f trait of, in 

tile vrrinU of onr book, 'working' mott rfTcrtiirvlx wrlien 

'labouring; on bcbalf of someone else/ Of bis chlldion, 

kri^ioHlIy H fauiilr <ii ninir, five bfin^^ dauglilvrVi nunc married, 

»ltly two, JowcEt liiniBcir and liis sielcr Kmily, survivLnl (bf^ir 

oU or tie tncridian r>f [jfi-. Twti of the brotUcrs died in 

wis, Cftdeti of the CompiLny, Jowclt's vigiUnt and aecret 

oa to all tJ*ltLudrcd Is not tbe k^nal of bis merits; U i^aa 

» who tUCOrod hU brothers, bo vrha tmntferred bJi pjtrnntK' 

bode from Bntb to Francir^ be irbo evoatuali^ cstfibliibc^ bia 

dowed moihor ai Torquay ; bo whi>if» munifif^rnci^ now first 

atvilcd, maititatncd tlicm in M ibeir ironbli^ 



llib.' (Loiter Iv t:tAi^l^ "U }»t tt\.\itt:i'ii ^-^^U^ U,^-.- '.-,^\., 



388 



JHenjamin JotcetL 



Unilcr iLo nuftplcci of l1i« Mcrcrr*' Corajtany, Joweti 
»nt in 16^9 t» St. Paul'* Scliool, t\^vo under Dr. Sle&th*a bftt4 
]i)Aikr»bip> From all accounu he ntuaC bAve been a rcij 
iiu<1ifl]]q, a very modesr, and n rilhcr loHurv bojr. Time <l>^ 
were undotibUnlty hard IW him. Owm^u> bU|iar«nt«'«trmileB« 
m«ftft«j h* l(xl^d in thtf Cilj Rimcl in pn^wfil etc rxjwn 
ioDj^ jourrurvs. ^ No day passes/ vrc find bim writtOf in l^i, 
• iu which I iloii'l fttul th« dpfi^il* uf tally educaijon. 1 n» 
never uu^ht bow to pluy al cards, or «^vcn nl biUiardg, flfid il 
Mdni Uio late in rt^pair the r.rror aavf. D» you Ibiitl/ be 
iroDically adds, ' I could learn to walu ? ' He looa faoeU«d U 
a gifixl aiid dc^'ant acUular, and wr ^Ain an odd peep at lua 
from U:c Tiviet' record of ' AppuiUion Day* ia 1^36, wfaen 
ll9 nnactft tbe part ol Bai:<:Uuft ui ArlatophaDca' ' Froftt* In 
ld3r> hf* had already wan tbt^ Kallini Schnlarahrp, btti m 
a^ain cramped by circuinitarcc}, and, bad it not been for At 
Tenf.wed ini^Tventlon of (be M«Tce»' Company, h^ inigU 
bave been onablc lo p> into rcaitknco- AhbouK^ mbrt 
nrnereen, hf> maiL bnvi* Intikeil mucb younger in bu * Tcoal 
jacket and turned-down collar* when bo came up lo iUli<l 
in urn. 

At Oxford Jowctt did not nl first make many fiiciMiU. Hi 
Has a reUcenl ipcluvf, coniciiipUtivet uf a ' pauiuiil ess tenacity'; 
but it should aJflo be bi^irnv in mind that, in tbo mit^ttoiyi 
ftludies, h(? found limi? to visit tbr i>oor. The m ttnffiiMUAmt 
]imlti>d hi* hoepitHlitiei to rhe teu-uble, and eVL>a th<«e vrir 
onlr accepted li> jivi^id tvoundin^ bit sriitilivc pr)de. HH 
early friendihip*, bowevcr, if few, wert sirong and tmportsar. 
AiDong lumiedialc con lorn poiarirs the uiosl sigoilicaul o&cccii 
ibai lit the lauT Lord IrJdpBlrlgb- Amon^ junior*, w« mtf 
einglti cut the late Kcv. W. Ko^cra, the present Arcbbisbtfp « 
Canirrbiiry, l-ord Hohhouw, l^rd Farrer, A, H, Clao^ 
and lalc^r, MnttbE^w Arnold; v\bi]e, out«td<^ Halljol, the !>>• 
Oran Cburcb nnil Frofrisitr Fromle, Mirk FiiEinm 4ml htU 
Ltngen, have the clotcvt rolalions lo lilin afterwardSi But il 
iiatewurtby tbat, if we eicept ItiigrrH and Or. Tiinple, U wi* 
with hi> seniors tbat be contracted bia closest atlacbmtfsU< 
Amon^ tutors, Wurd and Tail ; aiiioii^ uiidergradtUlOi 
Goulburn, Brodle, Eaeutt, Hugb Perarsou, Dr. Cirwnhill. to^ 
above all, bis * dearest fiit-'rid,' tUc Ute Dean Suolcy, are bis 
mnsc typical iniimatRs. Sianlpy's great gifts, hit enthaitsSBi 
loT Arnold, his <)ucst after a creed in faith itiste^ of tbc 
^onvers.^, hi* mnti«<ctioti uiib tbe best irorld outside, tiff* 
cittai a Ufclong inflitcnce on Jowctt. Uis ciUture tecapcnd 
Ji>wvtt*i learning; his gracTg JowHi's xeal ; bU ardour, J o«en*> 

tAtCBst<! ; 




Btiijatulu JoitvtL 



339 



:n»]tjr ; b» tact, Jowett** ocumi-n. Ho wMrtid ofT Jiwctl'a 
^H edgtff, iiJ JowciEl prrrh.ips <lr{incthnn^jl bit smooth onca. 
D tiro lo usociatiDti proved ihr Costnr and Pollui of iLe 
rrr Oifonl enHgtiieatn^nt — par nobile fratrttm. In rach 
Mttndtntf* thr «tuii(^ni toon came out of bis slidf, tlirmgli it 
t n<M before liii Otllr^ tutnrship In 1842 thmi he rniPTv^ 
ly ; he vhovTcd biinirif atuixlr. rrm tJispulAtioas, in aU* 
Euon ; h*T jnmrfl n ilHi^iting aorieiy cailwJ "The nprjMTe/ 
vakiDeoflhupf-nod, Lord Hubbouse describees J^vrcu'imiDd 
* tbe Kralir^E And inriM origiriAl \i\^ had comp fl^^n^is.' Hii 
a tttcceu WiLt the Hcrirord ^cholnrihip in 11(37. Tbo ^-xlra 
preic uf ;i ' ojatb ^ for this (]jslItii:Liun liail cjidf li«?n rp|idf*rrH 
tiible ibrouffh tbft Anon^mout liber*lity of firi*iinbilL TbJ* 
jd ibe iutiiulatjon of An undjin^ frit-iuUlir) brtivrnn iIktiii, 
mtt'« aflTiN'iirL); Boro of tEianki tu tii«tbf-n unkruivn bcncfacior 
itei with the following aingulAr pi>»t«cnpt : * Mn^ GuJ blt-n 
in for jrour kJndne^M to me! 1 never Ibougbt much about 
lipoa till a frv days before jour leltcr came, and it bu left 
I LnprMtticm twhirh, 1 iruat, I (hall n**vpr forgpT.' 
Iti AorembLT 183^, oftcr «i unaucce««rul Cftuclidtitare for 
V Mrel^nd/ tbts rwo jc-nn* scboTnr nf Hnlliul won tb<? almost 
ipieccdcnifrd honour of a fi^llowship \ ami hcrv, a^ain* wc 
kil bb cbametrr in bis iRtu^m, Hr Tud ^ainml it poftiiion, 
n bia tboDgbis weic more for d<^feaC«d rivuls than for bimaclf i 
I Collcgr, not he-, was tniiinpbAnt ; indr^oj ibis want of 
nhalioa would be irritating, did we not fee) that it sprang 
m a sense of duly, nut fruui an abiencc of naruilli, slill li^ai 
in anr p'^fvmitj- Hin indepcpdenoe loo soon asiprt^d 
elf, tboDj-b the young Fellow was the least (df-awcftii-c of 
»; w* tofi bim, some fpw your* nfEerwardi, quietly coo- 
dicling i)r. Jcnkyns in a College condaro on strijctarAl 
Kiltont, for ateblterturtr always faarinnted him. Meanwhile 
Jard wot in move-inent ; there was no dearth of warfare. 
■Iroveny ■ueiwedm) controversy, Politic-al L-uirEomy and 
fmaa philosophy be;*an to agitate the common -rooms. 
ictarianism tourbi'tl itio bftrlrrs ai onno of in^-upliyvirs, 
ologj, and ccelcsiaslicnl Uiflciplina. Tbe relntioni of 
iition !«> Stripltue^ uf SialL* to Churuh, of dogma to Mief^ 
3td tl)«nis^lv-(t« on fvtrry icriaus intvlligrnce. On tbo one 
id, Ilrgclioniim, Corntcivm, Benthamism; on tbe oilier, 
iKa BibAieal rritieitm, Tract No. 90 and its concomitants, 
>ETrgRtioQ end bigb-nnd*dry Oxford, litnmr^r before us in a 
^Idering ferment. Tlve 'nervou* frvor of intellrrtualiim ' 
clirf>ad ; Ihc * Llx<.-dui frtm HoundsiHlch' lind aUtk't] ; 
nmfaerv iberr was an awakening — % renaissance. Jowrfl, 
^K TitsUy 



• 



840 Bunjarriin Joirrit, 

?ltft)ly intciYStAJ, aft he wnt, in thrnr thr<v« of tb* Zfitftiil^ 
lEcpl his becu) t^ 

' I aomotioicis tiiinlf/ ho vaya in 18^6, ' tliat bat for nomo Diitu 
rrovidduoe I lalgTit Luvt^ become b rtqmoQ Oatliollc. I tuul nauM 
to Kwl throngli tliij Fatlien^ ; uml if! fnuTi^ l^nNOjiciEi thnfn, I aaihi 
b&o^:»« u Futwyite. It is TiL:it unlikHly that I miglit Iiata foimd il 
t>Lit boforo I had f^ono throaah ray ttu-U tl« vftciUioti «iifM, u>d m 
ntuiuUi^ ti> Oxford, vro found th^l Wftnl vm^ M^ii^l^ lo b« KMTiol! 
After ihifl tlie Tr)U<laTLiij im|iu]jriu aibitidod, iiid wfadla Ml&A i^ ■ 
l{<ok to Gunnan rhili>i(Oplij, othum tui&«d to Jcibctor ooppott ol 
c)iacj.pagiie ; thoy cullod Uiat fik.^iu,k; ouvTorltUy/ 

In 1842 Jowett w«* onNinod, 3tn<] vn,t appi>intcd ***■■*!*' 
tutor St Hatliol. In 18-14 he, witli Sianlrji', iiiHiJr a ptlrruup 
to Germany — the N«w J«TUta1ein of phiiotonbicol cnciciitt; 
he tnvt^lod wltli StAiilrv nad liit Bistrr ^gAin tn I&I5; iaJ 
was pr^swt with him* Pal^nvc, and Morior in P*ru ttfterth* 
^merttc of lJ^48. Ht'nccli>Twnrd the re«! Jowett, tbt JovtK 
thai we know nnil v^^nrrntr, stppq oin. A long ftticoenion rf 
eminent JUIIiol mca tu pupiU, or friendi, from Moricr. Gnst, 
Palgravi*, Smndford. Wnln>ini, Sellnr, nnd Hrjjry Sntth, » 
Cmnt-DuiT. PmI, fiowr;rt, Jcunrr, Kidley, Godlf*y, Otborw 
Morgan, T,ord Mnrlry, nnd E^nrd l.nnHlnwnp, »nfl ^vvniUAlIf 
to Aiqiiitht Mitncr, and Totnboe, tnllucja<rcd him and cam^ 
hii tnHuetice out inU* thr- w»]t\ — xUv far SnAurncc, be it 
vcmombrrad, of a ilnunch ChuTrhmnn. *1 roftlly believe^' bi 
wrttr* to StAnley in ISiG, *that ttcachery ui the c:!#r]gy ii 
jojalty to thif Church, Rnd that» if r«)ig;ir>n i» to be vitvd tt ifli 
it tnutt be tbmagh the laiiy and ilAtrsmf^nt ice, »nil not tbrovfl 
ihc der^y,' Whether we npre^ with tiim or dUftgrvo, tUs 
■Itiltcs the keyitolc of nil liU future rn^rgics. 'Throughout [^ 
coDfuiioa wblob followed on the coIIumc of Nfwmmuni,* 
AucTt« the author of oui firsl volume. *tt held £nnLj to 4f 
fiuriuil of Ihp *' prftntirnl idnfd "; ntaniling Jraloutly aloof boll 
from K-icntific materialism and from mere liicrarr and ntliftie 
«(-lf>eulture/ WV Hbnll revert afmwards l» bis ctnoriil isfl^ 
enn-, but we may note that, nt this jonctuir, h^ Bnt brgtf 
ii> TptturrT on Plato, — a fact wbicb. in Afr*»[rj»ri>ii Pidrcfr'i 
judrinunr, w» 'ilie trite fountUtion ol hU i^Ratnct* in thccjM 
of linlluil Hint and the College world.* 

While Joweil'i nscvndL*ncy was lliui dicvetopirifr, two dcaaiv 
clijcctft were cunstaiitly before hiin ; the* one t-AifcTuty idJ 
ColJ«ff« loform ; the olhor, the elacidation of Scnptojv. With 
re^nrd (o both, he for a long time, to quote Caityk, 'con* 
tume<l hti own Ricoke,' lining puqiotefi neither to act not to 
l^ubiiah ntitil he had matured bis ricvi; but durio;; tbe Uf 

fortia 



Ben/aniiji JowtlL 341 

be WM ftuocU(ci wlUt Stanley la refj^ulrinif aiad 
tuns the UmvortitT CommUtion, at wcW cli irt the frcin- 
iplabon of rtBtiytt on the tf^ucbinf »( St. Paul^ which 
lltlmatHy 1f>ok thnnr in hi* * Rnmnna/ itmiilinnvoukly pub- 
bbrd irith Stiu:Ic> i 'Ci>nnthiiia« ' in itihh. ^ T!jc g:rcJVl«si 
Tige wtthiti rinil ihe least without ' e|>iluin]its bii attitude 
twit lhc-fonc4rr piojoct; it nito indicntethUftttitude 1oward5 
f Uiti*r. Thomib, in bi» turn, Dran of the Collr^f, fir wm, 
bcfoT« any pablithed work, smpect of heCorodoxy; and, 
\j bjr coikx^qucncc cf ibrsc »u*picioi^>t hi; failed in 
the Maitprttiip oi Bailiol in ISiS. He wtt* dxcIlkImI 
t&e UnivcraUy pulpU; be was prrvL^aleJ from bcinjc a 
lu<Dib«rof eh<» H^brlomitdnl PoTincil in l^riTf ; cvcnftiUr«asl!(67 
he Wfti denied nn cxaniin<rnbjp in th<r new school of Theology. 
In tKe mrh' fiftlev, however, he her;\me a public exAmlnr^r 
mdcr th* Cnivcrnily rc^lntinnt to whi^h he h/iil bo mulfri^ly 
Dantribulnl ; hr lUiUted Lnnl ^Wmila^ in x\\i-. Honciurahir' 
Etfl In<!tn Company CominiiRJon ; nnd in 1^55 he was mode 
Bt^ius IWfcuor of Greek on the rrcfimmrtuJaCioa of LonE 
Ivn*ntOD. Then brftan the battli* of the valarv- For vwiTB 
Ic toUnl, practicaUy without rcraancTation. All that tbco* 
Vpal nnimoiity fouUl mntnve during trn loag y«iu« w&» 
prated into ci conflict cool'pwcdly anrtasonablp and ui)^encrou», 
liU Lord W«^burj'« nhorrivi' Hill in \\\** \\\tx\itv of Lonli and 
tU tolont*ry mhicription ot Jowf^tl'i Iricnda * — nl onctr hv 
Un fTftiefully wrlcduird and grarefutlj dcdincd — shnmcd hia 
vppooeBti iDto th<f ovontual conoeatioo of 1965^ 

'IIkiii m«ii ^ wr^Ji^ with &n ing^nioiiA ahitJ, 
Bmd Lho fttnuicht rule to their o^rn crxikul wilL' 

But input while he had heea officially reprimanded — had been 
^■■^^dkoolhoy degTsidation.' Hit enemies^ ill eonteni with 
HBBHaery of ('onTocntion, eiied him before the V icc-Cbau- 
r^QTr who rcqi]<-iloJ blin To lign the Aniclot. Mindful of faie 
Cfm Mt maKim, ■ Never fret, never fear, never cxplaif]/ he 
■nply uknl for ^ tk little ink' and txmipUeih We irannot 
ttnin frotv quotinj; hu own !iccount in a charmini; tetter to 
* ihi]d : il ia datcil Dcwinliei 26, 1655 :— 

'IttiU eoino R»d play »t noliliere reit siimmoi-, hut in thu ^iutor 
te I ttOil d(» loBone. A litilo motikoy of an old ^cntlcmoc, ^bo 
^Ws kitnaeJf in LJaek and has thrco |Hik«r» wall htforo hiiu, htut 
^ tea^Dg mo lati^lj, and T nhonM bo in a gnmt row if 1 lind not 




IMS. JovHI lltiu ehotanenxtimlJ V DicprvttVM htmaolf in n letter t 'tt dOM 
I U «ni lartMnnI with iLc dlenity c 



U «nl lartMnnI with iLc dlenlty cf a Luinna btliig to haia IWrimi^ 
■tuldij 



«ai^ 



^J 



ii2 Uepjamia Jawftt, 

VDoh good fricaila a» Hibmo, Pap^, nnd Toroic. Gocd^jt^Toiii 
dnr. Duu't for^t Undo Jowxilt.' 

Cftlm «nd undaunted, bi> pcncvcrcd, JocCunnj; nnd wnrkiajr*' 
hit St. P&ulf nt risaj* with Stanley' on xhv (ii}swh wUicIi ««n 
&(t<!Tward« lo Uavc culminntcfd in a * Lifo of CUrili/ ftt Plito, 
hU tifrlong theme?, nl ncudrtnlcnl itfuriii^ Bui for tlif? noon 
bccrtptintobii ib(*ll agnin, Kicopcdunng vncAtii>n, and lo Lii 
intimHU'v Aiid jiupiU, he brrami^ mnrc Trirn'rd than i:TrT ; \at 
tHAnncr al ihu time wai not wLolJy pleat j n ;; ; «tifT, ihoifi 
DCTcr bcjut; il ivaa not until nU>ut 1^1>7 iL&i Faituon cotuii 
^icUim, *N«w there?** AfTablHtj''; and he bp|t<ui tcrinoilj^ Ic 
pUn tboKT 'EsMj* ftud KoTtuw** wluct brought mutter* to a 
h<!ad nnd blmtelf into prominrnr'*, 

In 1>^5^ he edited m second edition of hi< commcnuir ta 
the Epiitle to the RoiriJLiii. Tti4* fint bnd ctiaTAinrd th« rofloir- 
ing pArif^ph ; — 

'But lh«r« »ro "idohi of tho lomrlo" u v«U m fdoU •! lb 
n^Krkvl'itWe. TI1C14 idtiLi cnnM^t ia Iihouitl lowonht}^ utd Ui^* 
tiKTia, which *r« ervtlftl into nrtioljjEi uf Faiths We ftrevilllngti 
Mioro in liltitic^o, but not the iuTontionn of nuiu. I'hc ooDtmrcriiuiri 
imtuially tlaakn Umt, m ua&iliug tho doctrine of aatUfMioP, •* 
UK^ciDBiJiif'ijt with truth mid luoriUit/, wd uq fl^tin^ not will 
hiin*clf, but with GojI; 

The aMi»nd aupi^raddi'd nnotbor, of whicb wir App«nd a inp 

'In the hcot of the fltrng^lc, lei us at lonst paoAO to imiipw 
jiolujittfLl di«piite« nn the^ ^lU appcikr a ytau i^o J»r«, three ^<C3 
L<4n(^o ; it rniij b« dmd UTid gmiu — -t'^^rljkiiilj' mun- Inil^ nteci Inn 11 
tbn hoar cf eontrovcray. For thfl truths ^b^ul whiefc »» 11* 
dU|JUtiaB concot pNrtOitio of the ptuioin^ ntir : Ibcj do not oksfp 
L-viiD will ili« grwtcr rovnlntloQA of humnc thin^, Thiaj >n u 
?t<:<ruity, And tho irriAge of tbum ou vuih in nut tlio muvaniist Oi A* 
aiuf&ce of tho watoTK, liut the deptbtt of tb« itileiit cea.' 

Witfc and beautiful »ord« ; jet thev provoked n vlorni of sen* 
jiiiin^ vrhicb nut even SLanl(ry*» broiLd-miiided review jn tk 
«Tiine** ftr»il«d to aW^j^ Tho ^blicauion o£ Jotrett'i traliir 
*Oii the InkrprelAtion of Scnptnre,' which concludi4l 6r 
* Eftwyt mnd Hvvi«-w<,' In 18G0, iddod fuel to the flAKi«. Hb 
Tetiei to Stanley '>f Aogmt lo, l^b^t inviting bis CKdlibnraltutti 
offvtt tbi^ l>eit np(>lojfy for the sthemi! of that puMJcMlion r— 

*T]jo persouB vho bavo alrcodv joiacd in the pUn uro VTiUoL 
R, ^'ilUAnitt uf Ejng'«. EVttison, (iraut, Tcmplo, UulJor, lT It U> 
tunOi nod mjaelf- The oljoct is to luy what ire thtnk ftaety vitkit 
tho limits of the Churoh cf Englnnd. A notioo viU W pn4xol tl*i 




Bertjivniri JotMlt^ 



iio fjiJD In mpoAftillo for any uoUoilb but liia own < , , Wu 
do rni wfiih to do anything fikh or trrilfttfng Lo i!io |tiiUlii) 
OF Uio Uaivonity, but wo ftt-» det^nauted cc't k> Hubn^tt to Ihia 
ftlMimiDAlilo djetom of toiTL>riflra- which preroate Ike stattanoat of 
ibtt ploinofit fact■^ and iniik(;a tm? tkuc^logj or thoLilogiciiI oiliioatlnir 
imponiblti.' 

lu ihc lHj[>k ititrlf Sunlf-j' <lid not co-opernti?. inaiiil}' becauic 
Ilo diupprtM'wt of A l^ftguti of wnt«r8 which might l>e init- 
GUNMUuri) into Jk cimipiiDcy, But the volume priHlucril a 
*»nKation>* The authorM vttre t«urited with ^ Gerinaniim ' t 
th<-ir JiaclainKi vl concrtt was JUbclicvcU ; the Bcrl» wii-a o|io« 
to tbu vague bm aJwnvs cff^ciive rcrronth of being ' un- 
t£agli«h.* No »(H>nrr vrcr« WiUoq and Williams suApcmlfHl bjr 
lh« IV,«it of Arv^hca in 1862 than n ^monilion' waa itsueil 
sxzunjt Jowctt from the Vice -Chancellor*! Court, on the sroand 
ihAt bis euay on ttie Atonrinrnt contnuHcteJ the AriJcW, 
whtlo that on Int^rprfrtatinn waa at vnrinncc with tho doctrines 
of the Chuith. Thr Aunuor liediiinl to tiLiminiiti JtiwHt, -inil 
th<> proiccLilio;! Jroppttd ort a point oi Jurisdiction ; but Jowott 
itood Ujallj' hy his coAiljuh>r», whose rpisr wm not finftll/ 
ddrrminod until l'"cbfuarv lSt>i, vthcn the Privy Council- 
ieiri*r»ifd lliL- judf^mr jit of Dr. LLinhtugtoii, which Staida/ ba<V 
inip««ch^ A* 'unfair, And thvrnfora inic^uitous.' So vaniahod* 
ibia * odd J of jpurposrlcu <lmt,' to be trncwnl almost untne* 
diat«lj^ bv tho Coltrnao imbroglio, in which Jowctt alio partiol- 
|i«l4^> MrAnwbile he piir«aL-v) the *cvcn tenor of hi* way,' 
thinking, writing, t<*flcbiag, h^Ipini^, reforming. In \Si\i* he- 
tiec»m« a preacher uf bia Colk-f^, and found in aermona & 
inah vvat for u<i*rulnp«< — PTpouiuling tlint ■ Truth iili-ailivcd> 
in life* which be considered thoir highest function, and 
iryltig by wtadoin, both worldly and othcr-woHdlyi to braco 
the fibre of youtb. In IdTL^, through the good otrKwa oi hi* 
friend ihr Inlc I^ini Sherhrooke (who piutiired Or. ScoltV 
lianalAlioa to a DeaucrvJ, lio at last attained to tho Mnator-' 
ahip, with all ju i>ppoMuntucs 30 wisely and widely utiljied by 
him ; in l^^^i he wili appointed V'ioe-Chanc^llor of the Uoiver> 
aity ; in 1892 he lufTi'red u |^U' monitory aci^orc froio which be 
ralliHl On Sundav, September 3, l^^S, be dinl^t With the 
jpecial activity of all thcae ycara w« proceed to deal. 



mrllcatoUlaEJllotbl^l ttuUthc iBiklfa^r wai coqilog to IntuMt 
hod BflwoJfltuJ iMirct "*G*nta" talk of thtia in cailvafi b» Ibdr 
t: ti«d bolp tkuml 
. fowHChiul Kjirnrhinl fnrtlicislalliillcaiof ttteatiira/E of llfp.na^ ttUrorbu* 
l0DnE« iimX la a \clU-ni( 11^8 hu hopct ttft afteoa ^ima Imiifnr vt lifo la cota- 
|d«tphu v\nk. 

Voh i»5-— iVfl. arc. 2 B Hi* 



* 




L 



244 B«ijamin Jouvtt. 



Hit \mi mrsiftgr W4K, 'f!ivr mr luvc la ibi* Coll*^'— llic 
CollfTgc that \i*i rcf;4fneratej, b<Tauii1ifl(t, and emnncipat^H 
Jlalliol ttM kr lilm wtft? »n(L chiM ; r>r lt«ilio! bi? ' tpr^nt tod 
WA« Kponi.' Of hU College UbouTB we must now pnmttiljr 
Ileal liK niucisrlr as puAAibli^. 

'SoiiLVtlLin^ in<ire/ urgc^I Jovvctt in a sermon of LS^^^ %Ujn 
■i[v<:rUng lo ihc Hghr ua^and mEnnitig^orilalliort pr«*emiTMict 
in Univcrtity hunour*, 'U required in * colI*(fi*, Unitf ^nJ 
[rioDiJlLIp ttnil loj'fJtv, public spirii luid intcllcctuCi] cocrpv, 
nnd ft high fiUmlurd ni chtLnu:iVT and mannvrc, — time ■«• ibtelr- 
nientt that maken ^'rrnt trx^icty/ Tbia idf^til of* a great MclHr^ 
hfl strove to <yimpnKft by itvery menn« and in nvery difrrtinn. 
From tht^ firal he aimed at inakin;; Bniliul more inolutive, and bi 
drAwin^ diIT<-rnig lunks nnil i:l4«tr» n>ward« ]i« imnliig'WhuAl, 
Not only <1id he imagme thitt the members vould giiin bi 
thiskinitly fu»iim of iHw^ualltlps^ bul a\%ti — for Junreu mum 
economist of opporinnitiot and of human natur*. iu of liflr 
ftiul Dioney— that a ira^itnn vrMtn of rair matenal would bt 
flporud. He tiedred indeed Ut inoculate th« world with Balll*^ 
4ad hi< {luUcy wst jicticliutiug nuil |Hrri[ateii(. A» caHy U 
\^l*- he presses on Stnnley with ati imporlunity whit^a hi 
.-kfierwnrda repented, h'n eai^erveM that the younff C4n(>n tS 
Canterbury would ncff'pt, during Hght<*r w«ck< of the Wtf, 
Ihc principrdihip oi a *■ lifiU attached to ll«llioI CoJte^, «itl 
iQlereurnmunioii of fecCuieK ; tuition tr» be fre<*^ Rnom KO^ 
&]»o free — the total expense to be rcduc<^l (by oommon mmh. 
&c.) to ihe Inwent pfiint, «ay TAf/. n }pnr'; hnx be had [o«iil 
til) the loundalion ol Balliol Hal) under Green in l>>6*s ttfi 
the inrorp.HAtioii of New [nn Jljdl fii iMT-**, for (be fnlfiluTiit 
of tbc project. In April IbdJ^ be wricca lo enlUt LiDg«n in 
n w;heiiie, which * 1 shall puraue loutb avnd oall/ for the 'for* 
mation of an naaoeiatioo to givo n eour»i> of ledurei io tbP 
Schools on all principal subjects connerted with onr |vrwa' 
PXAmmaiir>n»'; VtU it ivas not before about L^6T that the ^n^ 
alep WOK taken towaTils an iiiteicullcj^ate ayttein, or Iha 
diailn^ni«ht<<l old Bnllii'l ProEeiiori werr- hoacught %<t m»k* 
their vtAcc henrd tn the then new I lecture* room. Aa Itona 
in 1J%4!), br had prTHonnlty inperinr^ndHi every dMail Af it^ 
reconitrnction of * Cjr«ar'» Jfaildin^a*; he vras e^^uiJIy attev 
tive in 1^'l4 u* the rebiiilding of the front f|UEu]rAttgle b^ 
Watcrheuie, <ind, ai Mn&ter, lo the erection of the new bat 
ill 1873. Ill the same ivuy he? bad mooted to Cblify an 
FahncT, a$ early ai about l&5^« bis plan fur a College crtckeC 
RuAd ; but It Hus not until Lhe cloae <>( bis life iLnf ilie Balli<~> 
recreation-ground was a»uretl, So^ loo, bJi recoiumeiKlatioCi 

t 



to ibe L'aivemt^ Cuiuiuuslon uf IS50 empUuitc! Collcgi? 
m&nftgcmitnl ni iho AUppin^-ttono to an viltinuttt Uoi*«TSiiy 
-cxtcDMoD. 'Be a wLqIc, or join u vrhuln/ U cmbWoncd on tbc 
bftiin«r under which be fon^bi. 

To infoM frcftb lifc-bl(>od inlo the (Jollcgc, ivad thraa^'h tUc 

CoJI^gi^ tnui tli« L'nii'cnhy and tbc? country ac Inrgp, wu hit 

{ml. To ihit onit tbo Univrmty n^lorini, at tvbicb nc must 

iAiotUj gUncp, )jnUli!d gnldnn circatinR. FellowAbip^ werr< no 

JoDj{«r cIohhI, and tbt'ir rottricttont ol' rctidcace uitl tbc like 

ven.% til inauj' camtb, abulivLurti. Now and upen pnifeuorsbipft 

mro f<iand«d, Bntlinl brgan to cofontre the Univ^rtily from 

1661 onwaiidi. ATtcr JowL-tt^a prutccuiluii heCorc tbn Vicv- 

Cbaac^llnr, though ' inf^i^ than rvcr thrown bact; on BalUol, 

and revolved to miLbc itnlllnl i^rcal/ he encountered, dcHpite 

a weighty mikjoritv in \\\% (iw-tmi, t'oniiilerablf? uppMition from 

•oow 4)1 hi» eo]lc*i:ue» ; but in lbC5 the IcJlotvabip of Mr. C. P. 

Ubtirt ttrrrnifthcfned \xt% bunds ; vif thai in I ^68 be W!u able to 

write lo bi> motlierf *l b«v« no lon^r &ny trouble in eLrryiar 

tjut »v viewA, fiocu the Fc-llowa, u-ud I bcllovc tbdt «vc tbnll 

succeed In miking '^ ^ really f<reat place of cdticntjon.' Ttiat 

UicvceteriiunBi'iitailed beavv aaLTifict.'Jf on tlje i'V-l|[>iv» Uicmcelvet 

ta in«nirp»T, Vonr by venr auceessivi^ rpf*irnia Tajj^d Jiot oalv 

-tbeir cncn^ie*. but their rcAOUXces. They bail jct the example 

of iittern*] Uiiiv^nJty ext^inalon ; and when the time arrivcsd for 

M ftxtcroAl iLpplic&iion, their UhetAlity wai ftgsin to tbc fronL 

H'hile Ailmiliinic »tr-ingurs» t3u?j maintained the non-mtideni 

vid prlxe Ivllonihigu nhieh the r^ulE of the Coinnii(sioa of 

1^77 «lid \it murb ti> diinlftisL ; and all \\i\\ doiixig a loii^ 

period of Ajfric-alEunl depretuun which <Tippled the Collcn 

iimt-rolL La face of benefactions, like Miu Dnickenbury j, 

BftllioJ rpmaincvl mufjmu intrr opes inops — Aft poor in pocket 

a» sbc wiu rich in cntcrpriae. Jowctt threw the root* of 

Colt^^ ^Kpnntlon out and down, deep and far; ib»( bip thould 

bftv<? both propaj^Aied and protoiif^ thi» cheerful sclf-dt^nying 

ordtnAiiee is a iribule to ihe klaiidnrd which be upheld and 

ihm tpirit whicJi bi? comsiunicatod, Mornovor, no EL/lininiilra- 

niw drtai! wAft too imnll for bii Feviiioa : the (^olli^gc c^imimis- 

■ariAt, the CoUe^e buildingi, the College library, the Coikgfl 

pktttr^tilhe Collc^- garden, the cbftpcliejric« and byinnal, even 

lh« 0>ll<rgr ^ncf, were «nrcesfively Enhjer.f^l to hitt ■xYiXi'trpaT- 

fLoavvm tbeCflllesc »crinoQ> became a liriog factor; ererythizig 

that might nttrart cUati't tngfihrr^ rbeaprn the eipen<i^< of 

pouirer «todrn(ft nithout iiciiinfz them at a di>advanta|^e, render 

t«ition moTR in louL-b with pupils, reureadoo rcaionablr^ and 

^«pnV *k ccr^ cfiectfi&l» wa* attempted imd ihC^ucnvA. 

2 B 2 ^\w>^ 



: 



316 Smg^min J&ittu. 

Mo»t of liii C'>1Ieg« Ti^forms iv«r« interwoTfn with (hoi^ Utpi 
Umver»iljr n-forui* tvUich Lc ivftft fornnoM in oond^i^in^ atlJ 
jiromoting; and in mil of thrm wp di»(*rn n n-nilinMa ti^ 
Acck puinU of aj(rt*cm«nt ititli«f than of <li^rr«nc^, and 10 
prefer f4^ft«ibili(^ to revolutionary i^mravjiiritnt:*'. [Ii« m- 
bitioii had Aln-nya been * tc rotors tbt* Univprtitj to Uw 
imtiuti/ He rliliculeil At d Bi>lT-t:i3Ui iLal u * natiooal iK> 
ititutior ' should * oducnic^ KiOO, lwo<thircU of whom m 
tbc KOQs of country iccntlcxncn niul clergy men/ Tho^ 
parriaUy jestoua of ihe Df^iiation whirh Mr. H«ywood'i 
reioLnlion in tUi? Hou>c of Coniniona Und inaucnnttcd in 
1850j Ui* 4?mbmc«d iti oprtortuniTiri I'm tinrmonitinj^ Oiforit 
wilb pr^|-rc», nnd ni>cran»iii): pri>|>r(.-» through Oniveitjtj 
Atctctariont, Wc rt^rognlipd keenly ibat ' tht benefit* « 
fk Unirtraity tducatio« tftnnot br thought to ronaisl mrndf 
in ibf* nroiiirpnipnc of knowlnlgr, but in chn opponunilici 
nf jftciety nnd of forming fricruli; in ibort, in tbc eift- 
rirnLT i>f Life* gained by il and the «rjriH*<|uv[it ixnjiruT^ 
mcnt of ch»TACt4!r: with mnny, ColJc^^ is tLicir first muni 
of ininxlurflim U\ ihr world/ Al the sinir timr he na 
ni>l <ci f?ttrcuic as JVlr* Lowe; be wiihed ibe UnivCT»itia« W 
' bt(.»jii]t' a iciil link Letwcrr^ii Cbutuli aiiid SUtlc, insim] of 
representing the wont bnlf of the drrgy/ He trdft sironglrii 
fjirnuT uf renioTiti^ nX\ restrictions on fdlokVAbip^ iodudiflf 
thn clpricnl ; of a moderaie eit^msiOTi of 1h(* profi^ssorinir ; of lb? 
ntirpnilon of sinecure; of the Jimitntion of inillotiTe powm 
nn iJie part eilber of Congri?galioo or Convocatioa. 'Tlif 
drctnn r^snir true'; and when Uic Univmilios Act was psMt^ 
ia ]^^4, teiU brul alreadv hren nboUthe<l for ilff^cpi li^Iov dir 
Mastership of Arts- Thy Duk« of Cleveland's Cvinmi«9ion in 
IJ5TL-74 iter«ssitatpd n re-arljimlmnnt ; this liin<* more in 
regard to the organiiraiion of tcachinjif than le Ibe ninoTRlo'' 
tuiomalir*. ^ TJi^^ emUiwtneiit of lewur^b nod lh« n«eafrli sftr^ 
endowment' bocnme n ritchword with iho publitr. Mr. Lew' 
t«i ibt olher side droUred lUat 'cvciy fnitbinK tmnsfenrd frwii* 
the C:il)<'p^s i« the Univ^rsiiy would be div^rrud froio ib^ 
cncouia^t^mcnt of learning to the benefit of Uymen/ 1q 167^ 
a Cointnistion of srvt-n was constituted until 1830. Jov«U 
had scant •ynipAlL;' vcltb the pauperization of uoprodoctci* 
research," And nnturolly dcprnnated any Iruening of Ccllf 
influence; but be otrenuous)^ favoured the expenditure ol Ittf* 



* ■ TIioo tboald bt uo thj^o attoiapl to ouJoir nSMlOb u *ii febslMct tUR^i 
no lifiMwyBiOEiU limt uiigltt dcif^vmlo lota lAnMatM, t^ut (jt aaj pArtlouw 
piso* ei wrk an ik1aljiiiU# pft/iui>nt should b^ tmili-* )^Koc<aaa#&ilSlbns U lis 

OamcsfttOKj 



Benjamin JoieHt, 347 

«iiiis oa llic bujldiftg of now schools ttud offices, of a munf^uni 
of artbvolfigf , o( a ball and library for non-<:«>ltcstpitr ktuflcoU, 
ami nf Aililiiional feciuri*-irtom* r ' If ihi* Profei»or« hart lerlure- 
rooE&s in a common buiUlin^f it wouLi brin^ iHcm to^ctUcr; 
il W<M]I(1 brjii^ tlj4* iruclt-nis Logr-th<rr ; iL wiiuKl fnnblr ihe 
Pforcssort ii> *4)e tbcir |itjpili wUhDUt int4*rru|i(ii>n/ Cvon 
mofc strcRUoufJj <litj he advuLatc Unlvmity Rilrnhiiin to 
Isrg* li>«*&s by profeMonfaipi in ipeciat <ubj«rUr supplcMnentMl 
by*choUnhi|ii: Mf wv ukc no i>art m the niovcmciit, ii |»aMcs 
oat of onr hsodi ; the local rollers . . , inito^ad of bc^inic places 
of Ubtrral rducatioo . . . wiiJ hr ^'icluaivvly ccnBanl l<t tbr ocnls 
at buKmp«i;.' Aliovr aEl, li^ in«Ji<U'<l on pri2# f^llowfthips ai 
botb sn iiictntivr aad a means to a career. As It Curnctl oat, 
iht pfT«<'t 4if till* CommJKtioii iIJiJ not pn.iv*' an unniiiigateij 
boon. Tho Colleges bccnmc ovcrplcd^l to pcnKtoniT*, Aod 
ihc piiic fc-llourshjpi were cartailcd Colk-gi: competition 
^w suicidal, and the Icochers t^nUod to be inor« abtorbvcj in 
tbcnuelvcs than llicir pupili. In a private ineinorsnduni of 
I97& Jowett thus lumt up ther drtwbixcks : — 

' Thfr want of iho private tator i^ gr«Hlly f«1( nov. The only ^nj 
of doaog withont dim, which will bo <jf ony \mo to tho stadoat, t» for 
tits pubik tutor to bvcoiu'9 ft i>itvALo talor. T\wn ars fondsmsaUl 
t^Ton in k-trhlo^, ma tlit'}^ tin in m^ny olliur thui)-*, whioh am not 
Bcrc«iT«d, bcoftiisn i)to good ndiDiiLifltratinn of s bsd syntom often 
Uiudfl tis to its inlicroijt oriJa/ 

And thU rrcnIU in tn |>prhnps the gtmieii %rrv{ce wliii^b br 
nwlflrMl — Ih&t, nainolv, of hit lutf>riAl innu<»nco; for on hi* 
IctliOf work ^ith jvfr:rrLicc to l\w introduclton of the ]ndi«a 
Ctrl] S^n'jco ttudoTit^T on his jn^dual convenion to \\w cauw of 
Somerrille and Lwly Mur^'arct's llall,* on liti ^Icrlnr^s lU Vice* 
ChuBcrllov — too r**c*nE to br unfnirilUr, — on bisilciirp lo bring 
Army studi^nli to Oxford, on bis nttiludo towards .Mflnificdd 
("jtWrgt", on hi* oifi<ia! nHcomo of modj^rn Isngoftgr U'jLc-hprs, 
woharc DospAco Eo dncll. Ac the very threshold of bisCollc^ 
mtursbi|i, he displayed his cudtcd conceptlvti vt the tuLoriat 
ofliiGe. 

Me re^artlrd liuman nntUTe AS It* field : ' To bave formed the 
mSod of a ftioj^lc person ... is no inconsiduraMo reitilt of 4 
tifr/ TbP Ititor wus to be no wholesaler machine for the 
ivdsntJc tRsilrry of subjects; no mere haroinrier for Ihe rise 
sod fsll of Ibe Collnre wfotbcr. He stnnd* eot m 'euid«, 

* 1& t8mi4«ralu. ■TIitl«Ji«Vl-Vill4--»:i«»ndlb<'m^uf#ttoi(s«HiiitiilJcur»l» 
SI Qakrl lb « ^^Bicl ^%y. 1 nl^nv* lju[>; that \kcy niU noi ilnort Ki^ooTopliib- 
iM« fS*t vhmt ihv^ rHffiriitlfr mAH nltatn&wnt^ ... 1 am fllnld oT otvf- 
rfelsg uiij <>f dvaip3jiiig ifia*[ii*iij,' 





I 



34J3 Sep J a mi ri Jctcett, 

phItr>Br>phf*r, nnd frUnd,' who, while exacting the ballut-aidcdf 
accuracj and routini;, ipculcntc* ttxtdy more than l^ftnua^ 
impcirEi rallier ih^n ptviponniU, fUagnovi rhanri^r Iwni^ 
AcbolnrsUip ; Imn^Ktci nncicnl into modern ihau|cbl ; is more 
contidcrAlo Ihnn ronniilit-4.\ mid dliiYnii oftrn in a iDU'i 
'fauLta . . . till* must intOTDHtin^ ptLrt riboiit hint/ 

From tbn unmmpr vnmli«n of IHIH, whrn hi? rook Muf i« t» 
ObiiC, dAttf« that rcuicirkaW* t*ri«» of * rcadiaf^portiM^ (of 
mftre im\y of ihmking-jMnir-»i vrhidi auiatfd his tuinrtbipU 
nmch a dimnx of efficacy. Year by jear^ wheihi>T In ScotlisJ 
or, a« Utlrrly, at West Malvcin, it iru Lla Labil to JpnrW 
hii lil«TnTj' work (alvpav* I'lnlo, jn iiiorr advimct*<l ajir'' 'fbaej- 
diiks a1>o and Aii»totlc), oltcn trlipvrt) bi some special >tuii;i 
ai n«U HI by ihi? monnuln nnblet ht" \n\e(\ to wfll, »mjd t 
cbatmrJ circle of chosen dUdpIo, With thctc, nfi«r tbc dayV 
talk wai don*", hr would disc<ii» bcoki ami tbangr TImi*- 
ard ihviT tamlU^a^ — lon^ al'ic-r tlicy ha<j quitted O^tfonl, k 
rontinu^l to itrgr, FulvUr, ami lirfrii^mL Thry nnrd mncli U* 
him, and be much to tL«in. Palj^'avc i^ave bim a umc foJ 
ail; Murier for politics and fr/Zr-^ fellren : Co ibis fri^ndikip 
is traccAbI<* Jowflt'i jifTbctiormlc intin^acy wit^ ShaivC4pc«rF- 
1n ailnr-yrars ouiiidr friends of etninrJKV, like Mr SwinhaFWr 
would join bis Ardvn rettrem«»nL Sueh j^tb^Hnj^ nay U 
Hlyled bis ntincry gjirdcn of idrant of ndion, of cbuactrr. At 
hit pupils cnmo to the front, principally of profe«*iooal rir 
oflicial life. Jowett was aLlr tu spei^il succrc-r^iog pu|nls on tbnr 
way throoph th^ world — to iraiuplant sccdlingi, at it wew, rf 
his individuality in many soils. No man less than he re«peJ 
his own harvest or 'brought his theavec with him/ Atotwoi 
ha por4 friends so beautifully sanf; of Dt, Arnold : 

'Btit rLoa woiddxt not alono 
bti eavoilT ^ly fi^Uior I alono 
Cei}<|U<!T una tumo to thy ffM* 
saw lljon ttjmi^dxt, him\ MiW 
GavirFt ibo weftry thy hsuid/ 

Not were hts ctTortE oonfined to Ibe few. Moil UnUiotMM* 
wished JuweU to be lla-ir luiur, and hi? hitnaeU mvm^pi^ 
wboUy or partially, lo be so for at many as poiaibt«v Of hi 
own unremittini; appticaiicn, unstiating seU'cfTaccmrm, toj^ 
tactful watchfulness, ample tesiLmony is adduced, Tbet« i 
a]si> ft tort of coniensus that not the didactic ctcmrnl ba 
the tonic was rather onughL than seJxed. Wfi qiMK*, m tbi 
connection, from nn unpuhlisbcd letter of a ~ 

iwpjJ :— 

'I 



Bfitjamin Jcti^ctt. 



349 



*I lU&k ibitt Lo Ei:a11y, u a tccu^hor. ixi tho arJiadiry hoqe»o of tbc 
*gtd* VM not % BuccisBv Mhat Lv Jld (iLiid it wim imuu-'DK.*^ Lo tliJ 
hy CDnT«nAllnn. by [nrtrit^hf^. , . , *iWi I17 cHtkiam. . . . HU 
f«cliiTOi «ud hifl ftofiitti-'' t^AoliiDg g^D^^ralljr, whon 1 look bikrjk to 
Uicm, toem to ni& Ut h^To bc^ti almoat niKilcas lo mo. ftnd I tUnk 
lumiijr oUicrv bavQ tbc Kame feGlIug. AUu hie writiu^ nrfi Dot h 
^mt |i&Jt of htm/ 

From tb« latter lUlcmcat we muct venture to dUseoi. Jowdt'i 
tnaAlation &n<I edition of I'Uto uccupcfd olmoct fori/ yean 
t»f rdlirctifiii Ami af incrensing knowleOffe of ibe norltl- In 
l^ato hv diicovt-Trc) * the ir<?rro of nrnrly rvcrv idcn,"- — 'the 
w»1]-<pring of »Ur higher Tliou^flif*; hia n-rKltrnDft innitl« llip 
I^jAlofct)^> i^n KajrliAli cinssio, while the prefaces, e-«p<^rijilly 
tbo«tf tu lie Fba.-iJrui nnd m ihi? RcpubUc-, Imvc liAndlcd ihn 
complcxilj of moitern problcma with ihir •iiiiplicilv ol' ancieat 
inttiition. Thejr Save undtfLibtrdlv inlturEiced mnnj whnae 
piMitivnt moil enable thi*m ta tufluenre o1h«Ts; th«v bav« 
rt«oitrilci) Eh[>ught Willi Wt^ntJs la lun^-ua^ ufleii hcJinely (as hir 
one* cud, 'Be ir ncvnr so homely ')» even in iu if^^^ ^i^*! 
■ubtirt r ; thcjt li»vi- brned iis a brulg? bulWfYrj APtiquitjr ftDtl 
*roodrmitj/ iieiwpi>n an intellectual d^mocncy and s demo* 
eralic empire. >li» SrrTxiona, moieover, though bctl apnlicAbte 
to hU own pupilt, and by hiin»U •tigmatiied a* ^drsjointHl/* 
ircrc alwaya a wiar- cotiiittcniary on life, and oce&v joD&Uy, a* 
Mr. GUdftone bni i«lifie<l, ' rpoob- miking/ Jowett^ bowrver, 
II most hv conceded, vra* not a grent *choJar, sliU 1cm a great 
[pbpoaoplwr He was netllier one of thoM 



^ 



* r^eftrTiM phiU»log*>rfl wbn fhft*e 
A pBiDliug HylUbli; lUmiii^h tiui« Ltud Apao»,' 



ncronewbo ever anumed 10 evolve a aclieine or eipUnallon 
■^ Ofiffina. lie Iooke<l on mclaphvaii;* ivi a <:lcarinjf of the 
■tiud ; be eveo once biuuirtjt-d tbe purwUix ihat tliey sati aIiiiuiI 
^^ only brancb of «1iidy' which hat the power of inipirlng; 
"ItliijaiaaEn ' ; but lo bim (as indeed to moii of us] their value 
'*^ mainly gymnastic — a mcnna, not nn cntl.t Lojiic be 
-Brardefl as a ' dtxige/ never as a stlenee, not eren as ail art, 
'**t be rejoieed in an cxtraordinnry faculty for eoneiliatiog the 
^♦^ent with (be past, for rxlfflciiti|r with infinite pain». and 
*«»n with unspproaehed fejiclly, the peimvient wi'l the 

^ 'TTld Sbiili of all my ^n^ncM Ii that citny hit* wf craTe Ii>m,il)i1 Jump 

■^ OM Ut Lhtf vLh#r. juaUwI vf ■ sJajcl" ii|}r HdJ d^tcland/ 

{T Ee bduiti ^IvirWc tbit tljcj mo * tltoroujKhlj Iniiijcal t4 T^i^liy and Uk 




390 Bffjamin Jeu^nU, 

|>CTmcativo from books as from m^n ; and ifiiit a1«rajr« wllb I 
cbiutencd purpope, lUmpri] <m :i fityl? ^bich hju thoi beci 

* nppri>rih(4>(l ' hy iKp Intr Mr. Wahtr P*t^r : — ■ 

^ SucH fninu raotod ou bia gnut orij^ibiilitj av ft writer and tJuobt- 
He iwniud to Lavo Ukuu lUo itLcatmio uut mcnly of all cpntioiuu^KE 
of filE jMMAitili' oriiM, ftiitl Li3 bAvi^put Ui« lixmt rcduninoaU u& li&nuf 

H^ WHS nut cvf i:i>ijnt< wltliuiil ilrlrfttrUirt ; he vai roiuidrml 
at oEii* liuo *u dan({vvi>u« man/ at till time* A4 hovliU lo 
«nLhafcifi»inB- BliL ewo n^ftsonablc oicfiptioni were in varwu 
ftbbp<T» urired a;*ainBt hrm a^ tbicikcr and leachtfr; — tbe on*— 
urifL-il by Juwi?lt bi^aitiBl biuiBelf — iLul be CL^nilanllj * raised % 
bli*t«r' vfiihout healing it; that be inquirc^d n&d icC[dMi 
roAbcr thau nn»wctcil or aatijGcd : tht oiIilt. i^cjLialljr iciiaMr, 
thai, hv drawing all fi«h inio tbi> IIilIH^iI not, he- ^mat^il a 
cc^cn'f! of prj^*, and lometimcs so orcfta^kcd laJcntr^ jro«lhfc 
^«prci«tly '>r lhj> ' iTiiddling daftse*/ that tWy wi>r^ api c<> miv 
th<^ir vocAliDn or bc^ifK^mc <1i9Al>W l<kr ibc battli? of life. TU 
^iTit of rh(*ftt^ rbnrges iit partfy or>anfc1t<rl wjtb his masurfol 
4:i>(itti]crn-5cn»c an<i apoatltship of tbt obvioEi* ; li« was odje^ 
pr^tiiblr, and Aomeriini?s scem^fi unimprruivr ; yniing^ mni 
went ai*ay vorrowltil at sucb tnpn|;tc proonuncFiii^nt* u* 'Afi'f 
a\\t it i> rliitny a iiinilci «il' wurds,' nr ' Ni-v<rr ivaitr Eiaiv rxctpf 
for bonlth ^ ; partly it ia duo to hU conviction, at one* ChritliMi 
aud Scrctatic. that educatiuu cannot be ctniDmcd inlti tbc IxJoy 
' liLo morwii of food * ; partly it It attributable to lb^ umprf of 
mind wbich be avows In awe. of bis later ci)nfct»ionS| * I \it^^ 
wiib to ^tpiyftft my lliou^br* to the* tvorld, but bare nut tk 
pow<t- to do it, and shrink from tbo conflict." Witb repaid w 
ihe srtond, it Is intonit<itab(f* that, with th* high fttnndard and 
ibc hi^b pr<'SBurr wbicli obtainrd in BnlJiol, tb«Te wasa tCodcncT 
both Id ovj^r-nmbirinn and sHl'-sofltrirnry ; hat \t woal^ k 
unfair to last<<n thom on a teacher who mistrusted cxcitooifii't 
aougbt afirr bulantH", nboiniK^W-d prpt^nfllon and ' jirwfrt»i?> 
A 'prig' u, alter allf only the most tedious vari<iv of tU 

* superior petauu * ; most tiiiaU socirtica i-rrirt jKnlc^KiAU for ibcr 
bore«, but, a» a rule, failur*-* al<>n« eonttoui* to lx> borv< in ib^ 
world. ' Everyone/ wrote Disraelt, ' has a li^ht to bi; conceiKd 
until b<> it iiieressful '; vre may at any rale aaaert ttial v* 
make a mark is a loTcreigo cuie fox iojinatUK' otnnisci-re^ 
TLis il was iliAl ni>ide Joweir set auob store by manndrs* sEid 
honourable suc<:ess ; and thr* auccf as of BalHol Eii«a nul b« 

' 'llioelcfrf aiQU ^LufaM ao aisniitni itqualns od wnuiUi? Iodv, vbaM ttMl 
tf todt ualit* lilitk f[« m<ut jttusliujis \n \li*:y 

w«t^be4 



Jifajamin JmttL 



»H 



Wii^bMl In tli« aca1<^s a|-aiiiit the ' ilaunislitiirfts * wliicb luny M 
timet \i»rii rendered some nf ihem ndiculoui. 

TbcK^ Huwi nie merely (a« Jow«tt ance prcacbril at «notlior) 
' «i>erk« in lli'^ lEtin/ htir wr» Wl thni * Truth it prior u^ thi* mnn/ 
and tbat Jovrett himtcH would hare icscitlcd their aapprcsAiiriii ; 
wtiil** 1o linvf* blinked tiit^in wt-ie onlj to liavc yielded tftC4.iiBioii 
(o tboBO who, 

^rf lliuy Huil 
Some Alain <^r hlfimish in a dmtjih <'r rmte, 
KnC tfnfiving thnt Ih^ir f^r^lcst otc mo umall. 

And judge all Natiuu from Lt:t feet of ^liiy/ 

then, wn* Ihc man in hi* propi-r ipherc. How taay he 
llilldp ^^Litiidt^ LbuL ii|ibi'tr, Lu bavir inHuetiitJ the wuiltl al 
W^^e ? Th<-rc wai^ first of iitl, thn medium ol hit Univeraily 
frii^iids, oiiil of tbuc UnivcTsitv men whotr a|i]>ui[itujcDt to 
ofllci^ft »*• t«pi»at0dty refprred ,o him by high nuihorili», 
'^ unelliing of the bigger and bctlcr vievr wLkh is bt^s^'^^^'^ff ^^ 
■vale pra^'licnl life, of 'atliniiitn,' h fTAC^Able li> bU lift* anil 
«-Xsmple. WitU »od tliK^ujib Slnnlrj, ftgflio, he Um »ijmmnncd 
tbe CJitircb buck to it* fint priiiriplf-s and lo b ck^pt-r ret'i>;c- 
nUion oE nntionnl duties, Tbat Dr- Temple U now ArL-bbbbop 
nf C*ntorbury it In wimi* wmt*- Ji work of Jowrit So, too, hju 
been the clrArinjt of the nir in the relif:ioai world; htr could 
with LruTh addrvu ihete wurds ii> a tlergyinnn )□ 1888 i-— 

' Out pmhlninE nm riot kt jurn^mi. uk lTi»t< of tlitrty ur forty yunr* 
aico. TucD moi Uiought ihoy hji4 t<> roovivci u * rbveUtitiu from 
Qod Uiot wUich cotjIIictoJ >vil.h Uicir buiuw of ju«ti4>o. • ■ • Abc>ut 
iJima mural ijuebUuLiB wo ujuy uow bu i;tjrtiiiii jf wo wUI/ 

tliB friendibip witb the Utr JLord Shcrhrorikr hiut |jr>me fruit 
lit the causn oft-dof'i^tinn- Mjinj nf tiiH soriAi vii^^ettioni. tr>o, 
bjire taken actual sbAjir, ' All privnii: rlinriiy itiuti br required 
lo oonfonn xo rpriain rrguUcions," hp writrir, bcforif the ("hinrity 
Otg^aizalioti Society hnd been pioneered by & B&liiol muni 
■qJ in n letter to Lirk|,-«ii of Sp|i(i.'inber 1849, we light upon the 
•■b}oincd and frignificant citmett — 

' r«'))]o wiU find out nt hwt tl^^t Ihcro in nomcthing more valuahtu 
in Uic world ibfto bimian Hf(^ o-i they arc bcginiLiDg to End out tbut 
thora U Mimethiiii-; inciti? vnln&hlci tlnn tbi> ,ibKtni<.'i Mlu of fiu^oni 
on iLo SJftvery <^u««tii7U. IL vlnktut nut that oTru luigKt timkt:! tbroe 
dirimonJ} at pmotiocU i.mtHtKUL') wkjch huvo n Uiiriti^ L»n tho morola 
of tbo iNJUrmuuily : — (\j How f,u Tuftkr llio vi>r*t hfltter — prison 
di«efpUn(t, jrTTflTitIn onVndnrH, Ae. ; ^2j Hnw tn raiH' idl tip to n 
c«TttUD fair lovel cf ntorstlE and «ciiication,^U]o uJimation i^iiL^fttioTi, 
iho bnai&esfl of Sfly-Shuttlu worth rkud hia hcira or ikvBi^DuoA; 

(aj ilo* 



2&2 Benjamin J^\C€(t. 

(3) Uow Lu uL&k4» tlift 4l«ocnt int^illigciit momlnr of ■ooielx bbft 

ThU »■ snircly o forctUiloicnt of v<hAl U still demanded for out 
r4f^rrt»-r:ilir>rr Itiil hif iiiflutrrif.'v in tW worhf — i>ftm tnott 
proftoot »li(^n It^niil *u8poctiHi — i* Ur^«)v dofi tr> Lit friro^liKip 
with mi^n who iffrrt! nrithnr In Oxfnrcl nor »f it. II liifl pufuli 
iHwatno kU itwntiB, it m^y be avvrnHj also tliat bu lrim> 
l>i^vjnc Ikia pupDi. HiA ]Di«rcour*e with Tcnnjanii bvgvi b 
tb? yetir Lh5s. Hewn* oft^n and intimatuly with him; ibcr 
curnrApuiidtJ rr^alarl V, amli rveii after lli« ' MjHa of tbc KiD|,' 
Jow^ii, n« wna his woni, writfA spurring him to higher fli^hct 
In Tennvfion's later poems, pnrticuUHj' in *Tbp Ancient Sact,' 
ihere *re dhtct eirhlenc** ol Ji»wen'< ioflu<*i»ce, whik w^ know 
thM ihc ihcmc for An c^Arlicr one * wns dcfinilclj' proiD|Kcd bf 
him. H? uieil laughingly Ui say that Oalliul coulu do wKkin^ 
tilth a piwt: 'hr ivouUi brrak Jooac from us'; vc suspect b^ 
Wftithinkinifcif Mf.Swiiiburnr, And hrliwl other pc^l-frirocU.— 
Sir Henry 'layiort&nti Bruwnint*, wbom he pnxpd lor his fuft*, 
1its fervour, Uis kTiow]ril^r*,»tii] hit grAspof llfivf C>(.-<>r^e Eliot 
hr loved nnd reverencc^d ns * the most fimi^blt? nnd the mott 
se1f*cr(jntrulled, as well ils the mo«l ^irtn] womrui f hute cei 
known/ Tivi> such oppositos m Mr. Oodstoise — whom boit 
one time thought ^ too good to bir ttuibHl " — <atid the hur Lord 
Westbui}^) were al*o of his aoquaintanee, ds U'e'11 ai^ towards 
Tii<? dow-v of his life. Sir Geui^'e Ji^sbel, Li>rJ iiosehery. aih^ 
Mr, Balfour, Instances might cuity be multiplcd, but il vrosM 
hardly serve oor purptisc to give a Yisitin^'book of Jowetl'i 
hrilliant friends, H« wns conatAnEly widi^ning snd {Wpsnifig 
his range of interests, cind, when he had ripened some fcroi 
of uBpfuliiFss, h« WAS eArel'it] lo dl&seminare it in ihr praprr 
quiirlcr. One of lhc4C pre^ rant utterances it maj be well still 
to reuiemlier: 'The Aruiy is nneof tlie tivogrent public nrhooU 
of England.' 

His huspitality wels, nftr^r 1)^70, his gieut link with tlie outer 
1%'oilii ; be took iininciis^ pnins in the grxtuping of fjUMts, sn<l 
his iveck-end parlies vreri.' a re^l means \A eoiieiliAtiuii sD(3 
iDurainsLtitsn. We think that he modelled these dinners, wilH 
their wit and conrersation, on Sydney Smith's breakfasts »< 
Combd Florey. He wsi a ^reai ndmirer of Sy^tk^y SlIULl^ ftiK' 



* 'Tlit<trondHiftthM," 

f At oQi± tiuu- L« «rLi<l that of laoJ^Fn Kn^Uah pootSp Bnania^ *s« a * pImUt 
llftt,' 'IL ^[(vpuQi muuy tbiiiK* - - I"! l**^ i[ti«p«ii tb^m Iftta posl^ 
nccptleiiTLK Hkti- w iiii K>i ia l\\m . . . lailHtLHl In tha untrtd, ^\\f%itwm h^ 
nritlitjr e|iir tinr -IrarosiiT, tiuL fwiiil^lmuiatltx' 

osod 



J 



Jienjamia Jotntt, 393 

na^d Ui Coll iiorivi About him which had not fr>un<i iheir way 
ioto print ; aoc such oppr^rs in the w-cond T^ilumc. \Vc may 
br ^ictim^ for ca|ipjntf ii wUh another which «« r^cclv^l Ant 
hao<L brailb ont^ ni>lJC4'd facing blic at dinrtcr a handaixac 
lady becwM>D iwrt bUliojM: at dc«nrt a npif^iibour aiLnl him if 
hr hn<*«r whi> ahv was : * I'm not quite ccnain,* wa« th<* rcptj, 
* but 1 MiViv h^ nninr i» SuaHimnh ! ' Jowrtt alwavi chownl 
a qiiick percrptton of meti and mann^n. IVtacauUy did not to 
1854 Gouircy to lii[» hj his LOiiveraaEion a * high Idea of hia 
intellect.' 

* FTb atHkei fii\» rathor ok u &it olil fellon^ tctj hearty and Eimplfi, 
taf^axMllettt at n^crtologiic," mthaiU'^iatuciceroBXid geDoiac ploaaura 
ta bcttnng hiuactf lolk. In pomr of mind he U Very inferior to 
GladrtoiDP, but . > . V ith ut> ' iu£ ujd autc" ' 

Of Lord Bcacontficld * be wrote : — 

' If IHixy vctti iBittiDC en tijc i^pooiog <jf the boHottlcM pit, aod 
about to luup iuto il, be has evch plack and power of iaoo that 
BOlliisg ici hia lot'kB would «vrx ii)ili<?at4.' il.' 

It waa Indrrd by kindlin^ii and atuchencnt* that Jowctt'a 
iDflof^cR mdiami nbrnAcl, nnd It It on one of (heir ftpecisl 
iBftEui»labd«i« that nt- ahall tioatJy tin^r. Wc allude to thoM 
varlnl Ami ndaptirir Iruera of tjmpalhy, of f^uncpL, and of ex* 
boTtatJon which form a UleraluTc of their own> VV'o cnifsUt haw 
dwelt OD hisiituta|{e, whii-L he tcrmrd "ih* btti^ ol" happinrat^* 
ott hU reticenci>, hi« ^ot»ro»Ly, liia prompt rnouuclulDc-et { 
but ooiii< of tbeie qualitiea were to jvrculiar (u LiuieH*lf. At 
fir*t ftighi be Alinotl t4r«ui> to iotmclffr on the ailcnt moiiionia of 
cri«ea» al dcaihbcds anil tlic IJhe; but Jowett wa» not one tu 
pryorio'pttch gripf with prorrrba'; his solace wna alwavt 
binaaci •< well a* divine; he believed with Wordsworth thai 
*«M>Mdation'a tfHirri** deeper are than siirmw's d^epeit*; and 
be ftlvays invijfornicd and rcftcflbcd tboac wliom he noUy and 
Inlj cumfurled. ills general nttimJe lowariU berearemrm 
MMLj b# epitomiiE^Hl in lliese w<iril>: — 

* About tb(«a vrbo cliv gfcne vu muat think tot a long time to ooinOr 
and all that tboj did fmr u^ ani all that wo did for th«£U«-woid(l that 
it bad been more! All thai wu know of them is that they ar^ ^ih 
GoAf wbeia tia aball be in a few nii>rr ytnm . , . Wc mn^t pray aod 
bapt to Utq . . . iuot« above onrwlvw ujid the inorld, tnoro ontinily for 
awqra, ID higher tbuu^btn iLrM r^iiuga ... I believe, aa i know 
IbaA yVQ do, iu tb'^ ii.)di1i>-'Ti <.if lliin^ att uiulIi an c^er. tbuugh 
vaatdo to tun tbo ordinary phnuvology ahnut tbnaL' 

* JovnrV^ dvaniptiiA n[ Vitrmrli vlim \\f mf^t him at Wohnm ia IffTT: *Ke 
IbA cb bw 0v liapintlaii 4>f ■ trltlcr an<l h gmtl nioD In mp7 



« 




J 




Jttnjatinn JowHt 



Or once more : — 



' 'I'huy Are ^vith tlio imBu<iii in bbo buiidtf of G<^, and I •kkU 
bo mtli tLcm . . . 1 ilu uot cxpuct uylt to niotil llioin M^n* 
Taay nfToi^l ixiiufitrt ki ti^mic^ l>iil ilcjI (<■ ui«, tlmu^li I UhaI Is 
tliAt iTitli inn, nH iritli thnm, tl mjiy bn wnlL Tbor* U ti«t ft d 
wtiob I do dot tkink of Ihom aud vUb tbat 1 hul dobo awt 
tlioii). , . . I do net wonder tlmt lifo nliould cicora wr^try ta jod> 
li may In? no for jtututr Uuiu Lg uuuiu. iltit yuu kii^v tbj^t ibii 
not ftltvivj^a 1;i< »o; yoii hie ai yoiiiig mid 1iftT« «a ruany ixttdbi 
bofor« you — a hnpi^y iniii-i'ijx);^— atlcI i\uto «krc tl^inff* biglior 
t1tAt| if we ctLD loilize thorn ari'i ftltAin to them. What iroaU 
eiet^r baro wislitd fcir yiui ? Wliut woi/lcl yoil h*va irisbod fo 
in a lileo ouo? Not moro Ti1'?iliii?^, nr d^awdntiOTi, or crjin 
painful h«adnob(? : but gi-oiluuIEy, by tho htlp of imlurol ai«(LiiA, 1 
HO i}f nil tbiB and tbiok of bcr jit ■ v^rtby m^unor. I rooM 

himiiiiTul (tlicit dtmnge ntAn fo u'bom flho ivju co dcoplv attac 
fcctiti^ aho muat i9o nomcthiDg fur hurr^If, iibc read throng i 
Orock, ttc Hind lUid ^tl!^ OttjBPcy. 1 tbiiili tW motixrieni nd^ 
w^ll, if tLey utv tiiltilli^eiiL ptTsouH. lu («ku up burnt- ooUnly 
Htiiidy , . , llioy do not n' All t til gvt r^d of tJin iiA»t, <>r for^»t, ^ 
Jifo JotiU, 1hi> grontJr b<i|i>Tod sietcr or fiionji, bitt thoj in 
balance o.n^i Atoady lUciJi^Ahu*^ to Iiato roAt ivbicb mity «u 
bn«^oni4T (wrtm ftnd joy. Whdt wo nhotild dnnTrin !■ Jiut by nidta 
to Icccp alivQ u pnsBionato narrow, but tbnt ibi* dUt'i^liao of x 
tnfty pom into our miudfi cud Urea," 

And in & bcAatifu) letter uf 1691. to one wbnw youne tilM 
Uw TtAi dying: *h i« not to «nd, ctt*n in youib^ to unk ill 
irilo tbc gmvi'— may wo say, iiitta the Ajms oif God-* 

VW bnvi^ %fcn how he eilionri) 'IVnnyf^on to Mirnxit bui 
Ai Ulc B.J 1&80 hp- entreats Stanley to write n JtMy gnaA ^ 
on R-ligiou : ' Will ytju r^flf^ct up»u rhr whole inAtlerf 1 
yc9.n ag^o wc all eApei^tcd you lo bo fho rsoil distini^uished 
4unong us^ ;Lnd you mtut not (lianppumi us.' As Itile u 
he beseeches Lord Lingen not to dc«ert thv County Coo 
So Um ill ihc caic nf Lord SliCTbronkc, J. A. 8ymondif 
many oiber*; ho it alwnys lurning — and niott pervUAi 
luining^ — T^jIkU or tloubr* or vacilUlioii, Inlo wlutt be Uij 
fay* of a holiday, ' a Umling-oUcc before we go up tbc 
Jlijfht of itatrs,* To little children too he nf<»ie most ch 
^"S'j** ^^^K'''? thi*in, in ibr* midst of pinyful Allitcion^ to '^ 
cry, oc^'cr fenr,' 'l*o youth he would »ay, ' Bo ffny, 
rfrmwnber ro be jjrn*e nlwi ' ; and fo wntnt-n hn »i\vl< 
cipecjnlly powerful and pathetic, lie thui nddmaci a ti 
Indj wbo hftd con«u1ti?il liitn is to rmding and uocuniAlJt 



d 



S^pjamin Jotoett. $^$ 

All Unt nti Mt'i jM-ntcni t*MM Jo fur b juuii^r Eh (<i offer ii\m% 
ITM, of wlii^^b t1i(<y iTifty rtiooAo ^im ami mnVo il ILcir own, 
•XMUplo; 1 li&v^A (fi^at sympathy witk hu idr>iil or oxtra- 
r liii^ if ft |wr«ou U ci^uaI u> Il ; bat of cctitvo tLo utlicr 
nnnbm tif » fuTnliy aev geueroJly uiipiiseil, nnl uo one criii my 
vluftiktr tlto Ofipirftnt to it hut fitrcngtli enoagb to carry it rmt . . . 
^ VQ coruo bftflk to tUo ** tririol roariil," , . . n&d that m«iuta oiiontly 
Ihmkiug oicr nil tho gcio>l ^rljicti cui bo Ji>do in & tiurron «|iIjo('c 
uun^ TuutOK, wrvnrrlA, niLtiigfrH, jn^rlmirfi nmn^ig tLu pofir of 
1-oi:£oD, . . - ftnil w{> iiiAv ha imbitionq of ining xh\s with moKf good 
•aantwd more orij^ndiiy, and moro ffisoiaUty thau othorfin Nuvcr 
iret ril of tbo ifood if irits. but try lo g?t ri<I of tUo bod npiiiU, for 
Uujf «ra mukiiuHV, nnd do borut butti Ui 'tua^b siAt iLtiil othtirj:.^ 

AnJ i^n, in I881, in a more ■|>rjglitly v^Jn >— 

*I un delighted lo b«ikT th^t you liuvn hik^Ii fntonflA rnjoymnnt of 
^ Jhjoioo, O yonug Udy in thy yr>iiih, but kaow— 1 Bbuift fifii^b 
tbo Acatcnre, for I 3o not think il U ftpproTinAtiy— Qor tXxwW J 
flionliie abuul jtmr birtbiUy. but only wiah you joy of it, if iitclff J 
UiyoDa CBiii rfjmorj ftt gpltitig oldof. Tivunly-fli-o is n stiltMnu n&> io 
iTDiUff lodv, t« it Dcty Mo«t young ludiu? bugia lo sing, ■' An oi;, 
»Sab iluilO niarry too? " But I know that you are fiuicy ffiwr and 
itBpiMs tbcic xmxxnt utfjkirH. I du nut really mb« bow yon nun e^or b« 
l« horoiito of ft ikoTi>1. . . . Tt 14 r-liamikEig ti^ Tiitw writtoa sii uuiy 
'^ tbnt bUTC etwtbod nnd Jifto>l tb<i ncuI^ of forlorti poopl« tA 
Wad*irurtb diJ. Will yoa crcr ba a& antbor? . , . Our frioud 
■tpttn In mo tv uy nd «nfl coutfortloni. Ho bad 1)etter b« a good 
QiriMiAD (w I bopo that you ilto) tliiin in uieicnt Orook, ftv bo 
'tagiae* hiiiuMil£ , . - X tat* luuiJo jcrn my t^nf^moj^ df. fvi, 
»bicb,;c]i3 know, 00 ir«w man over l«ll8 lo uoolber* Will you m«k« 
Mj^un? Not &1tug4ft1it]ir fnun i^urlnMity, I Hboulrl Ijku ti> know il 
-•. Oar frieD<i*Lip woh to Insl for a yoar, you kaour, t^hkll vro 
*«%U]y fitter tbc t«nna of it .' '* I'ho frinailfihip may bo put ild otid to 
■Tcittor party od giTing tUrco montbA' ootioo. If it if brubuu ciiT, 
^t pud«B ftbull agrou msfor tu ii\H»\ illof muU oLhvr aU tbftdnje of 

To t wuroui of property tif wrnt«- in 1 8B6 : — 

■1 Uko to think of you gotnp about nmoog yonr don-ager- 
^nscrMKA, doing tbom rool ^00^ ; it in a vmy of life no eongiblu nnd 
^ipofiod ; yon irill oobT«it tho difltrict b«ttur tbnn all tho clvr^yuien/ 

To tnotber ;— 

* Hariag a gt^i bou«o ia roally n gfluai in tiw power wbiob it gtrm 
f;f ntftking a giHHl ua<- iif it, of gutlitrriuK ttiontla bbuul yoti. ami 
■MiinbliQg tin.* ouai>ty— igiKiHog the foiioA 'if town nii<t oouatry — 
Aod p*jrbup4 uutftj|;ii]f; a iittlo tbo coavontionkl UmitA of nooiotj. 
Tftti mul bn (t *iTi--ou iu tbo puLlico and juitify ibi oxi«(«uc«, . . . 
ibe rinU UM iv<'ll an to tbo pour, not Iubh bat 



• 



• 



356 Bej'J/trjiin Joirfti. 

of, bnt to hi.i tJn'Wg>it <tf.' 

Wp ^nnot lastly witliholtT a 6ii^ |iuftsBge lo a Uie Tefkr it 

' 1 «hould ]JikG to ar)o sonao Ifidy in & hiffli position vho boi piee 

lite beet ntul mo^t dittUn^mihltcc] twni uiid iroiotn of tXut liimi, raamglEr 
own life uiji lliikt uf otbure butb huppitT uid butUx, riebor in 
And ooiiTorMtiau unl in ki&dnoaii to otbonu . , • Kb<^ ban lo 
fint tHo nnrnmetftnctia Aui uliitnctoni knd benidiUkrj tund 
h^r nwn fnniiTy, to |>nw iht\n nuOi iTtdJTt^iinlly in Wr <kwii 
b«for« (i4*d, to rvim^imbfii that tlcir nn> iior tmtit. . . . Tbiii 1im t* bt 
Ui^^hcd up in bcr ctwa heart . , . but it la u» bo one of tbo wm 
lut-livcH of Ijftj bi bur. Tbi-u iborv iv tbo ^tbviniig poopU 
for vitiu And vuit^rttiiiuireiib, ptv^plo tA' Wto rigbt nort imEI fl 
ont> niKitber, with uv«iy ror^^od atcntion liiid ooGwid^ntloi^' 
lorgtittLti^ to flkow IpodnceA knd boi^iiUi^litr to tliOM inLii hmJ t: 
moeL . . < I WAut to ncc you c^no of tlic loftdora of looiolj In iLc ht0^ 

Who wikulcl not tvlib to bn*r b^i) tlu* innn fnt bu frlrml } 

It nrmains thru wii thoukl. boiv«<vvr ]ntul<^qUAt«h, PiinAStti 
liu iuitaI, inidK^clUril* nnd rtU^i^iu* ntm» nnd oullooi. In 
tbp*fr, tno kindred und^rcurn-nTs ^ro dUlingnUbciblc : iht oo^r 
a ptrriuaBi^n ibat iLc |ilnjn tliiCttlr* uf duty Inbpiout in eVfCT'- 
dity phrAirolfl^y ^te ru*cr«tary f<iaodftt!cn« fcir ibr- higher iUt z 
tbc other* thai cuu«citnc<?. intcilrcU and religion tac iaetmc- 
ablv inr^rwrivrn nntl riArt rrrij>rnrAl AdJii«fmF'ni ntvrl laugfWf. 
Tbuv momliEv 14, vo lo ipcik^ ibc body, religion i\te wdi 
ant\ bnib todl ;ind boilj^' rntr«E br* inti-IWitifilly irnJiHifl f* 
befi>mf' c»iitci(it» !»trfnU. 'Tlifiro is a hisiorv i>i ideas' 'T* 
ibifik ftcrif^UKly nnd livfr fur «>thf?ri is thr tni« ftn?m af rttl^m 
and lift' ' Every ontt jiiu«t do f^od acconlini; to btf own •ttW 

nnd I'bnrncter/ ' IViiplc Miant Ix^lirvrr rnmr »Ui»igly in & fr* 
inithi wbicb wc all iickn<>wJ«d;^i*. and tbcy xnatt npplTtbrti 
mote vigorouily to prai-lkal Itftr/ At the »anic licnr, ' (here b#* 
)d#nl lil<' whidi wc havo to place bcl<>r« us jntiniAMly conn«0>^ 
iFilb practice] lifF.' 'The moxi InslinK torm a{ pfa i Imopk* i* 
coininoD ai-nt^ Irlj^nlited, <.ir rnther ;t nivettnf^ of rornmort IMV 
afid uictApb^sici.' At tbc t/ijnf^ tirn<^, *l[urusniE* ititl^ 
rrlinon i< a irunmirfd, baK-rdumlrd curt of h^infif/ Ok* 
AE^m^ 'NatUTnl science hns bbil a grcAl cflVol on nuuikind* Ut** 
(hr idraR nf rtjen bnvt? bnd mm-h inorr*; tind ypt 'I* it wt 
obvioLiH tlmt as our poiVL*r oTtx nature incrciues, our ropfintt' 
bllify lownrdi itiht^r mfii iiKrea*^*? , . . TVi wp not tr\m— ! 
will not sny & notr fclj^ion, but a now apj^ltcation i^r r 

Cbri. ---^^ 




Bti^amin Jot^t 



357 



mity Ttmtt thitt ftt onct* eipunii with knowlcvl^ Attd 
1 knuwIoJjfC imo lUc tniriiual tpbui-t?, 'TLtrt? Ik a f&ltua 
ittUnit^ u thcrnr U » fallen mnn, nnit rann i% AlwAya fnlling;.' 
pinUon xniial be oittfniliril lu ull men whu tUc uhom 
imlrt.* *The pfrr«i>D«I Chr'm miglit become ib#" id«il 
itt, und thjB would rA»ily pivw into tbc uIca of ^oodnmt.* 
Mt not withoiii firnA44 ihac hU U«t ft«<rmcm in UVitmintt^r 
mj WAft prcn<:hcd on Hunyjtn nnil Splnc^n, ^W hi!tv<- thti^ 
■ht^ by ^ihffririff up thr In^mrtitit, f<> pc^int bii ciitiil 
ook. Bui Ihrre IB ft lonj-i^r pstsa|-c whost: conUnui^ 
bRtlTT illutimtr bii mrjtning : — 

^« Vftai/ to vrritM to a friond in 1K72» * to f<nrai on idou of a 
icnnitnu (not liko tho Millriiiniuui of iittorpi'olcvf of pn>phocy} 
ah ■hsll rc|ixuMDUt hi iit> tho w^jrkiu^ out i)f llir will of Oixl il|ioij 
h vid ihv juitbK wbiob luiul Ihitht^r. To rc«i!ivo thin «*□ muit 
I tha hotter niicd <if man, tL4» bigh'.-vt oout^^pti^riis «hioh wo ca& 
aof rilijbtcioiM&cw^ ftod holiaow atid Uic IiIeo; &uc1 mu bon- for in 
fut bialOTyof tbo world we cwj f^ml ruco^iLiuii cf iboiu, or 
loidM towiiriiiii fhom. Tn WHDft n»Lpi>oU tbU arrw tnoraJ wnrLI 
ttl«4iflbr«iit Dom tho hiffbout xaoifllit^ vh^oh wo havci at pr^wnt : 
idtllj' in the rohgioad impcJinitt^o attnchod Ui iho coitMqiLoiicot 
Hiiou*, null m tbu jHwiti^i' M wi-U UE> Eiiit'iLtivd ffiinlruwrt which 
ility will rcvjuEr^ Kff. wht^ther imt dtkirjfi guod in i^c;t i.'qtiivalcnt 
lUAg «vil- -Ncitiior lA It (i/iicru\]itLiri8 xvitb oOTO (>f boiiltb or vrlih 
l\orj ntiproroiDCUt. It iihitulii ir^iii ... by clu&rm^ away comt} 
mtb of uooQuity, tlio uHjjw iif livil ftiul tbi) likk\ whitil) t}in>w one 
in^jsmi into th« bandfl of the pri^xtc* 

ELuL thU the ' CUtt^u Det/ tbni 'ideal Cburrh ' whirb hfv 
nrbera Jetcrib^B a» mUo cnthodinicikt of M gooil and pci^ 
lum, ibc will AncI law of God cEiiLiii); in llu: mtnil only' 
iboTc tho ' aciual Church,^ which is ■ mudi wbai bnniftn 
inv is*?* lie BVTcm> to have pcrcnvcd tbjtt a luw utbt;r limn 
I of pliysica) ovoluiion affi?cti thL- «pirUual world — a tmtlj 
C^, if we rvtle<i;t. ib cvjdciil from tlje recent and rapiJ 

Lltilude 
say>, Mo strengthen tbat 
I of Bvui wbEcb TA\wn bim Aho\4* natiirp, not thai wbtcb 
ttliicB bim with nnturc/ So, too, of immortality : be points 
' tliat ' ibr hi^hcitt fvincppt n:nn fortnt af bmtelf !« n« 
cbed from tbo bodv.' And *>r UtJIitiiriAnUm Iik<■wi1f^ be 
[ted thai It ointtH the spiritual varcliim iind impulsr ; he 
tbc saine nboiit ComU<, iupi«rAild«d t(> thj^ * ^r^tcs(|(;ic 
LBirj * Iff bb Aj'sLeui. VVbile itt C«Lilytci on the oihf;r Lijuulp 

rMn lb* Mmiaii vrrA^li*"! ii> ^1^ l-iQtviiniJty piljilt in 1^77 — ^biob 
Itwkunr -''fii/'U-uiftViiMf-' 

he 



«d (it AIiTulim, And ihit i)r*rreptlon regiilati'd bift altii 
irds Darwinism. * Wt dcairr-,' he aavB, Mi> strengthen 



i 



S5fl Tirrtjamin Jcto&U, 

hn rrfnnrfl llir nnmr of n phi[flu>p1irr nt aU, 1i^raat«? * I rtan\ 
thiak be ever cicirlj thought out a cubjcct for bimsrlf; bk 
power of vxprosMou <iui(c ouUwn hn irti) int«'iii^(ic« and 
fionttantiv determiEi^I his opinion.' Tbii double bttiindt, 
o^aiiit Dmki?) btm aav uf VVord^wifiili that *hc Jccpeiti adI 
*irnpUt)4^fl tbe affec-tions, yel he ttami not Xo t«« that iJoaliin 
must n«n into * higbei world ^; whctcAs TcDDj^vnn *o>jKoni 
our [nind« in ihe bc-tt tntLnner to tbe new l(l«u of ibeniiV' 
IccntU ccntary/ His d«[j^ht in tbc huinoui of Dickeos vu 
bmghti^ned bj th4> bdirf that he ir^f a tnie 'mnrAlUi'-^ 
r«conci!or of clasHCs ; bU rcipccc for George ELot v&» dor to 
hrr 'ftflflriii' MpnlUm ; b]» nvcrunn In KuripiHm «» ifl' 
tcD»ilicd br a tfrelmc tbat ht iub«trvf?d tbe iower sad al 
fliallow c^iucitm. Anil rqtiAUy in bit jndgmv'nt of ttaicsmtci 
the tnnio mmflurn U obicrvabEc -. Ssir Robert Peel * orT^r «mu 
t() bavc glvi'ii tci lu the low uioraUlj' uf lbo)4f d*jr«*; Pamcli 
W3fl '<jltintnrffal(id nnr) ha<l lomo noblo thooKbts.' 

We amy ber here parJnncd for a ibort m^ET<e»ion (it U tht 
Utt) » to bit politjcnl vievra. Mr. Sw^inbuTDt* b» obrifinMd 
biin ' ibc Ual "i tbc old Wlii^' ; bul thU be ctrrUitilv v«i oA 
nn]e«i b prejudice for Political Economj nad n|;ftintl M*nEiiBi» 
talhy cjihauit tbcir Ctrnr^U; in chtly hft a LtLeriJ^ be ^xrdA 
lat4iT hflv ncttnowifnlgt^d ihni ba hc*longrd to no ooe ptftf. H^ 
honoured Lord Palmi-raton'i publioipiiitcd and 'rctpecuble' 
policy; and wIk*!! Lmd lira con afield rote supr*rior to intrifsr, 
and ^a«c ^reat cipreaiion to erent idcnt, be vftu bis wltniriif 
siippririrr; wiib vmnjui Hailkdiim, wilb ^nbbinrjv, nnil wttii 
crookeJneu * for conscirince' ink^/ be had no lympatby, Hii 
forerAAtft were often ilngularly Jtmtc Of tijc EiAMfR (jaMlioo 
in 1877 be wrote :■ — 

* 1 wuat to 400 tlio higher ciYiltzation ^^f Eoropa oomUning ipait 
the lower, > . < atid offi^ritij; MiuioLliiu^ Lke puturnal gDVanoDBtf tt 
Kgyft And th« EftBt. , . . Lnt tL^n there is A\xc\h a <Langer of Idlfv 
nwihy 1h<^ pcvcruiDtTQb whioh thoy Lnv« and nishelilaliug ooIr'tlM* 
This might he aviiidtd if the EuropocLn Powers fn^uld joiuUj likaBP 

And of the IrUh Quettion in 1885 : — 

* It ut wurtb wUilo for Iho Eugliab ficuplo b> pAj Uo nuIUotf * 

(3) aboliakjcutice, or Admit tbiit il«y are mcapaUeof cmfovdagV 

But lo Tentme. It is to be depKirpil (bat Jowett Hid fio< Uv>^ 
undcrtnkf: the ^reat work on hthica to which <>ranl acd otfafi* 
incited bin> ; it ii sllH Tnone to be deploreil ibuL b^ rimf-r f'luml 
the occasion for a book nhicb bo thu« ibadov* forth : * \Xm^ 

.1 



Btj^cmin Jcv^ftt, 



k he {KiHiblo to couibln*^ In & uiaim&I of pUxj, lelij^ious 
itrfoar vritli perfect »nu aad knowlo^lgc^ of iho world y In » 
word, to indite a ntn«te«nth*ccGturir 'Iraitatlo,* For lucb a 
AwipoftlllAn h<^ nat pVnom4'nft]U *<jiiip{VN:1. HU undi^iKnM 

I i<)cuiiiD, UW sclf'cHacx^mcnt, hii unAbftteu thirst After a * closer 
n^k with Goc)^^ (]i« grou'icig npprpciation of the vrantc of {ha 
davi hit si>kiD(J, Lcaltb> iDilght Jiilo iniiu Jind things, pxvt^^nt a 

' ranr mmbination. In such a rnaauat his true grpntnrss would 
have AppeorcHl — 'if greatnew is not to be conlined to tWce of 
wUI or gr«at imagmalive power.' HIa disccrrnm^nt that mucb 
more intotcitini; * tban babiu ' ii tb« cariouft ctTcct on ohftmctor 
wbicti mav be ptuUuc<?d bjr single ac^Ls, ^scemLiig la rnlK tUe 
RiJnd !o a higW l*vol or togivo i pow«r provlouitv unknown'; 
hii fccUiif; that conventional cjptimlim— ^ The good ia every* 
thinjE i> & meTe i'acani word, but tnaj' be made a gte.iC |K)\^L*r tn 
ihut wotid ' ; hit reoignitioti ihikt ' in itrangc waya great truths 
an taogbt': his Lehef ibat ttupidtij impnir* x'irtLie, wbtle 
inteUect helps ibe ivoftd dopite blemiabos on eonJuct, ivould 
all havf* fnund <*ipression hrrr : ami lirvnnd all lhe«r, ihal 
Hatonif^ mviticiitn — * under a murblt* tsttrior tbriDing with 
ipiriiiial ^nidtiozi' — wbich he hm su muuc^llj' iciiTpi^tal in 
hu preface to the ^ PhsvJrua '; — 

' Ry iny«tir<isrn wh inon.n, tiot tbn mt.nvagnnoo of nn ^rrfnf^ fAnnj^, 
\m% tao oonoi^ntrftticin of reik^on in feeling, the enthiipiaaUc lov^ ctt 
itt Rood, the tnic, the one^ the eonse of the inEiiity of knnirlo^lKo Dcd 
of tho marfcl fit the Luiuail fiuulties. When fcndiiLg apou »uch 
ibonghljfj the *' vritig of llic Boitl *' is roneivod and gumR Rtrengtfj ; iih» 
VI ruBOd above ^' Iho tasiiikrmi of oikrth " ixiL<t lL«ir <ij)iu^<»iifir waitiiis 

I'ia wondor to kcoiv, and workiijf; irilb rorni^tjcc to find otit, vrliat God 

fta IhU or iu auollior Miti mny rtiviul to hei/ 

How strange it seems, after the lubUmit}' of such % piuiagc,1o 

renise ihe lelf-abib^^mvnt of bis private no!e-bi>r»k«!^' Had 1 
hd any noble idral, better than success in life, 1 seem as if I 
'migbi hav« a«fiin«l lo ten] gTciitn«u*; or, *My life — a wabI<t 
'of VACuity and c||oti*tn.' But it Is the Mlt-Abasoment of 
atreD^hr not of w^^knest; be eould with tmtb aJAculair as be? 
'taj djifiS, * 1 bless God for mylil'c' — a complete liio: in the 
;£s(w of dRSpnnileni^y, doubt, and sWitcoiuIn^, a purpo^ifful, a 
fruitful, an aapiring and inspiring life. 

F^r nfttLing worthy proving cnn bn proTen, 
Nor yet dinproffon. Whoroforo be lliou wise : 
CI«ftTe cvor lo tho sonnior sido of doubt> 
And cling to bith btiyond tJio fonua of fftitl).* 



»L 1W-— iVtf, S70, 



2 C 



Alt? 



( 860 ) 

Abt, 1V»— L TPitf Bimrtf of Modtnt Fainting. By Rlcijrt 
MnihpTj Profr^flor nf Art-Hintory hi the? Univrrdlj rf 
Brc«lAu. [d Three Volamcs, LoaJoti, I8y6» 
2. La Vit Arli»tiqtir. Par Ciuatave G«lTroy- P*rU, l^SS- 

.3. iVlrir*( hTHT r^ri Mofitfmf. Vnr Aadvc Micbi^. Pim, 

4. Les Artiites Fran^atr, Pur Tboophile Stlvftftiiei ?m, 
1S78. 

5. VArt Modtrtif. Pot J, K. l!uy«man>v PariB, 1663- 

Pu-I>, 1^8. 

rriHE suprcmiCT of French Pirt in the pTcsrnt cnttuir ll» 
_L Itet-n ^neriLlly n^fngniit^l. Whi^n tht* [iit4.'rnnliociiu Jvr* 
of PiLinfin;; inM Al Iho ojtcnm^ of tfao Univvrtal ExfaibaOW 
hrltl in Pftriit, in lAhilt, the fori^ign nitttu ihrrr M—«blffl 
niiADinioutlj decnwcl the prrMratntioD of a mcdU of hoaotf I* 
lliP I'V-iirli mIuhv), 4« T.lic fomrio»t In t1i« wotKI. Thp maam^ 
of flpflntantfdus hnmjijrc bni Wi?n rr^pcntcd en fimiUr o«£«qooi 
At virnim, Munlili, nnil Aniwirrp. Darlnf^ thr IbU l«n iiun 
1h<<r« has K'l^n no OiinLifutiOD of itrtUtic nctivilj m Fiuu*. 
On ll>c coRlrArj', tbc aceuaL ttmr^unl ot Ail-^froducr, ajkd lie 
uit«rc»l fell in tbe subji^cc by «ll dcacei of locjctyr tc«n tv 
ivvrca» every yrar, Pani b tiUl iLr warld'a cmppriiuti oTut; 
ibo BinrUtTAm, (u it U often >nicl, ihnt curki in mr^ anil wood 
- of aU nAtionAliliev, StadcnU from all puti of the world Aod 
thrr^i (ft ftvftil ih^maelTf*^ of ihi* npportunlTiei nf initniedw 
which ax^ lo freely nH'cre<li nnd to rcccirc thr; tnunin; thf? 
nr*r*d. Nowlitrt* else Is nil ihtr subjrct of so much ditiraisocv 
-whether in cluba find pcfh,, or in jotxrnAls and rpTiei»« 
Nonhrre Hst? ntr rxhibilion* in frenurni n/id t>> nnni^mu- 
, Beaidt-K tho two adduaI Salons now hdd in the Chftmp* l^n^ 
1 And llir Cbitnip di.? Mntt, ihr Tndt^H'uduita or ImpmMODitfOt 
'the Symbolistvi, and other g7oup« of artisti hold arpan^ 
. ejEhibitiuni 111 YfinouK <jnaTten, and the works of indiviil^ 
, a^ii^tGrB a.re eonttnntly to he seen nt tha gftllorint of M. Dan£<S- 
.Htiel, M, Georges Petit, and other enterpriiiti^ dealers, «t^ 
T^nrler a renl s^rviof? to thr* cauie i>f Art by collecting tir 
life-work of dcftd iriAstcre, or inlxoducing: new mra to tlv 
public. 

The decoration of public htiiMInf^ is another branch cS ^ 
which flouriflhes. in n remarkable mnnnrr, nnder th^ RepabUc. 
In this direction, batti the Frvitch CfoTcmmcQl azvJ ^ 
MuntL'ipal Councils of the chitrf cJtiei have gtren nt >a 

CUiar> 



Modgrn French ArU Ml 

njunpir which we ihfMiId rirt w*-!! tr> ff>1Loiv. Bv ihrit **nt»f* 
pri*c An4 librmlity, cut only i\\c P:fcntLiL'oi), tlic iKHoI c]r Vill^, 
tlic* now Sorhonnr, :im) oihir public building in Parit, but the 
muMuina ol Aiitien$, of Roocn, Aod ol Lynzu, the TAwnhihtl of 
Pi>iii<-n» AnrI tliv PhIhIs Av Li>itg€bnmp nt MAriPillfrt. bavf* nil 
b«eii aiicrrted with n^ scrica i>r monumfrntn) paitilm^'S, vihich w«t 
I3U1 hvdly L-u lite til jiIntiT witlumt n fipiiw of rti\'\\ Hrrr, in 
lungland, wi> tiAv^ hiid gi^niti^ of thu lii;*EieBt order: to mention 
two DAinc* oat of many, vrr U^Vf? IjjuI (inHgc Fr<-i]«r[c WaUa 
aad AUrvd Steven*; but to whj^t public' uflc« have wc appliEfd 
tbeir unJouWJ l^leuta? ^fji^ichcstL^r latlei^d may pmudly 
point to Mculoi-Brown'i walUnainliiigt in bcr Townh&U, but, 
BBVC in tbia oii« iiuUnce, little or notbiDK ^as bfv;! accobi- 
pliBhrd, A< n nntinn, it It to ber febrei), wj> bure faiteil tif^npjly 
in this rc*pcrl. Vcl inct» public pfttronii|:r? of int i* of the 
high^u viiliie^ Aod would, ibere cnn Iw little clouht, proclure Tat 
better r^^nltt than nil ihr iroacy that by our prcscut system is 
y«!ATly sprnt nn .Srh^mU of Art, in ihr firit pUrp, i( bringn 
Ipreot art bctoTC Iho eyes of tbe people and bcTps to cdticale 
their xttxiv. In the svconcT, it gites ih« »irui aa eiH^otjn^eineut 
■nd a sympathy whic^b arc »OT«ly n«odod And ccLDnot Tiul to 
stimuUlr thrr pmilnciinn of fine work. 

Freikch pjtinters, on ttie 4>ther li^iDd, hare lound some oF their 
b**t patrons in IliigUnil and Si.tiiit»iiii. Tb«' fviiiU-r rxMbitions 
of the lut few yeirs bnve ihown u« bow rich our pri^itc col- 
lectioni arc in the works erf the Barhi^nii] school, nnd wc leoro 
with especial satisfaction ihat il full and rvprnientati vo oxhlbltion 
of French puntlni; is to be held next rear at the Guildhall. 
Mpinwhile, tli4>4i> who are e^i^r to ar^quire such knowlerlge of 
the iubj<wt .%» civn he c:"Jreti nt I lotnci cannot do better tbao 
stoilr Hr. Rjchnnl Muther's 'History of Modern Pniming,' 
whicii bna recently been translated into Lnglish. The IcarnM 
Prole«uir\ work dcflls, it is true, with Europrnn pniniing in cbe 
nineieentb century. His eye mngcs orer the whole civilised 
woHd ; buE the French section n^ttumllyoccupies the liir;;i*rhsir 
of tbo picture, and wo hare no besttation in saying that ibis 
purtiuii of his work is ibr ablcit nnd mont coinprrbf-nMvr sHrrry 
<4 the kind tbut hn^ yet appeared, Tlie dillkultiet <>1 deatinf; 
with so rait and cr^nnplicated a tlicmc huve bi.^u fi.ri ilic utosi 
past ciKcefsfally overcome ; ond if the writer ts too diffuse and 
lengthy in his descriptions, and here iind there apt to repeat 
himsrif, his work is on ihp whole singularW cirar, accurate, and 
impartial. The history of art in the nineteenth century » only 
a chapter in iho taTe of the gradual emnncr nation of rhe modem 
spirit. In painting as in other realms ol thought oiid action, 

2 c S we 



»6^ Modfm French Art. 

we tr&Ctf tb^ aam^ ttru^f-le tor Ub^rtj irhlcb bat been canUd m 
ID evtrry difpnrtuieuc ^f human lifr. Ftnt of all, fncdoia ot 
^xpri7ition h»<i ti> be wan. Tbe »ni«l had to isicrl hit rjpljl TD 
bjB Dwn |H>itiI uf vi«w ; ibe pr«jutl(C«a of jiihcitcrd tradiliun tiil 
to hp rJnarpd nway before llie new agv* c»iiM hnnd dnwn ■ rl«T 
And u^nificant imjigr^ of ilacif to poilcrit,T. Now, as wc took 
b»ok on the oourie ot an through rhU troublei) npriod, mutj 
thing* thftt were but dim[/ seen by ibn nct<>rt in the linoa 
iH^i^ome clvM lo m. We nre able to diilmj^uith tlie rvulutioD 
of ccrtim leodin;- idens^ jxnil lo undorsland ht^w mm ms diffilMll 
ill thrir -limi nnd ar.bti^vement ai Dplnrrnii jiiid Millet^ Couitnl 
and M&nt^t, wera all hnts in the snmfr chain. Wo »cc b^v Ml 
uiovi-ijti.'nl Wfut (lie lugical outcomtr <tt thr otbcr ; how chfl 
KomonticiaU broke the fctlcrt of the alnviah cJoflaiciafn in wtud 
ut wu boLind during ihc rarlj yean of tho century ; how tbcte 
ni«a in thfir tum had to give way to tb» Xnturallat*- The 
drumn of tbf: paat« which Delacroix hftd pointed in auch flowilt 
colour*, wa« repUct^d by aotunt event* and ooaiempoTary llff-, 
&nd iCAdi'mic Undscfipc vanithed brfoTC (hc/myjcr?? irtiime6i 
iho FontainrbWu masters, whose thronei Ui^t found theif fall 
development in the Impressionist icho^d^ We tcaliie how 6* 
vcientiftc apirii of the age penetraiml into (he realm of nrt, wid 
how problems of light and colour abtorhcd the Attention of 
painteti to the eiduiion nf all elie. And we aee how ihr 
tiiumph of realism in loin provoked reaction ; bow poetry ta^ 
imaifination onci: more cljumed a pliuv in piiinting, and dif 
rights of individual personality found eipret«ion in the ntw 
idealism And mystic teiidcncI(Ts of the djlng century. 

Liko the other great anlitic moroments of iho woviil, the 
rerlval of French paiuting followed m troubled and alormy p«Hail 
of national life. The convolaions of the Keixslution, tb« stirring 
times of the Empire, produced a burst of pntrioiir catbusiasD 
which lin^r^d long In the popular mind^ The tlnwi wcro 
great, and the heart of the nation was deeply stirred. Almost^ 
■11 thenio^t di«liTtgiii>ih<'d patnters of thenffp — Ingres, DelsuCtoiE 4 
CoTOt, Rousseau, Mtljet* Meissonicr, Courbel, Manet, and ftotar i 
such as Degas and Ptivis dc Chavannei^ who ar'* ttill living 
belong to that «vantfaL period, and were born bofoffi 193^ 
If vras a doik nmnient in the annals of art, WiDcket ■ 
mnnn's fallacies were accepted in cultured circles cUroutgb 
Hntope, According tw him, the study vif nature mewly »w i <-r 
to divoTt th« artiit from true beauty of form, and the imitatjo 
of the antique is the only path to grc«tocaa. Ereti Guctk 
whose genuine love of nature had earlr revealed iuelf 
' Wcrther/ in pages nhich icem to fortsliadow the hudacipa 

C 



Jl/fx/ern Frtnth Art, 26S 

Comc Mid RauuKAu, chftngifil hii trmti nftf r hit vi«Li t^ Romi^ 
oimI cImIqv^ Grook ut to be the onlr mcKlcl, kucI cIomiooI 
■ub}ccu iLc only tLouies ivorthj of mul&tiou fur llit? atuitpot 
who Mckft to attain perfection. And in Frrincr, whcrtf ih* 
anliqur st^rlrr had Ur^ii i^dupLf^d it) tlic da^i of ihc Gnuid 
Monarqur, xnd AncJ'^nl Ki>ine wai ihe pftttem held up b^foro 
ibc men of ibc Kcvolulinn nnd of ibc Eimpirr, cIaisicUri berjtme 
ft h>rt) and rigid l^nnnj. During lh«< firit (luart^r of lh# 
ccntDfj. the cold and pcdartEic %xy\^ of David ^ad Lis followcra 
held uDdividcd twny in French official cirr^ln, nnd no art wu 
nc>of-nii«d that nrat not EnudelEcd upon Itc arbltmty rule* l&td 
down bv acAdcmit: ci>nvention, * Al the Ecole des Bcanx-ArU/ 
wrote Thackv^rav, *nll U dtuticah Oreal^B puriucd by CTcry 
>ATit!tY of Fuiin, numbriB of wolf*3UiKio^ Homulusc*. Hctlori 
And Andromaches in a eomplicatton of pnriing eiJibritcei/ Th» 
mbjecu chosen bj- cmnpctiCora for the Prix de Kome — the blue 
riband nf ibe ichoolt — were alwayi clnfiital; and when, in 
14!3It Houimhu centered ibe 1(513 nnd palnlrd n r<i«ky l«nd>c«pe 
^ul mouptoin-tiream in Auvfir^rne, there wni h Inud outcry At 
lib* liuolcnee of the man in daring to represent ibi-H* rou|;h 
wslers tumbling over ihv iti>neA| without u* iru^rh aa a rlnflHicAl 
temple on their bunkt. Even Gro*, the painter of Nflpolcon't 
bttttlea, who was a realiat at heart, and Prud'hun, who Lad 
inberitetl something of Watteau'a tender ginoe and fcincVf wer* 
forced to folJow the prerailiD^ faibion, and pcunt Jle^onei and 
pagan mithi, or at lentt clothe living personag** and c»>nteni- 
por^ry cvcnti in heroic ^arb. But at length the momcni of 
delifemiioe came. 

In the Sftlon of 1 919 Gt-ricault eibibiCed his Raft of Aleduia, 
w picture iti the rafi Waring the fturvivora of a frigate which 
baid been wrecked, three year* before, on the coaat of AfriCA, 
'Tbcra WAi & general burvt of indignation al the audacity of the 
pftinier who had proiumed to eoniider thit incident from eon-* 
tesnpor&ry biat^iry a fit theme for ar:, and had actually repre- 
i^ncpd men am! wom^o of the present day in natural fttiiiiidf^c 
mMkd actioni. Hut the condemned picture waa hailed with 
JMOcUnuuion by Vk-lor Hugo and the oTher leaden of che nt^w 
RomantK achool tn titemtjre, who bad ritcn in proteat againat 
what Gcorf^c Sand called ' tbe eunuch Jim of clasaiclsni ' ; and after 
,lbe pa inter'* early death at the age of Ibirty-lwo, hi* work wa> 
farvaUiaJly p!A<ed in the Loutre. The banner which dropped 
Troro Gerie^uli** hxnd wa» taken up by hi* friend and comrade, 
£u(ene UFlacroix, whose Matsacre of Scio, exhibited in the 

Ion of 1.H24, marlta an icniportant epoch in Preach art, Tbe 
roang: «niat, iii*pfrrd hr the paMton^lc v*t»c at Vi^Tetu^ >»A. 



I 




Sfti Modmi Frtnrh Ari. 

chosen Ml rpjuodc frmn ihr Grrpk war n( i n^lrprml^^cr, anl 
rcprdcntcd jk trr^up oi buofn'y luid Uop«lcu lugitire* AtUfM 
Uy Turkisb suldinj witli nil llir wrutllli nf cxiloiir Antl }iinm M 
driLtJiAiK: fx^rtrman aI hU ccmimmd. TbU linw the Kcr«f 
ihir old AdiiK)] wcrc^ Lurl<jus, Giw t.'ii:Iaimed llial the Minicw 
of Sui^ wuft tbo mMsacro of puntini^, vkhil<» tl)«> ontict viA 
■riir AL'C^fd coAdrmncd ihi* Allvoikpt to ri*-pic»ci)t action a*J 
cmolion o« barbnrouc, and prophe^W tUat ihic would bv xht* rock 
ujJwtt wUtcU Iruc Ml — thai it to a&/, tbc grand ittlc — «uaU 
bv infallibly wrrckM. But th« moti brillianc intcllcctior du 
dfty nd11e<l roond the rouog mAtier. and the Mioiater of Fine 
Ati^ Count Foihln^ fonifitrd by th^iv auppori, ho»gUl i\M 
pic.turr. for the Stale. ' M, Uclncroix/ wnitc Tbnckcrar, *ta« 
pnKluL'rd a nLiuil>er t>r rude* nml biiTba^rout pirlurev, but Idptv if 
lh<T iibimp rtt ^niu< on tM of tbcm, th<r givat poAlicnl tOUmioD, 
wh]<:b iH ivortb all yuur (<X(<(:uUoi)/ 

Tbc atrUciDi; poraonaliiy of Delacroix, and tho j^ot iiifluinkw 
which Im hii> nmtcd aver Frx-ncXi afI during tlw Uurr bnVf aJ 
ihc cvnlury, cnuUe him to a plac« unong the foremost tnacten 
df bU nice- lie iras bum at Cliareiittin itt the tlone of tbc lait 
o<»nlurv, :knd onv day, wiit^n ai Lt child h« wat walking witb hii 
nunc by the lunatic naytuio of that ti>nnt a madmao stopped 
him, and vaid Iii wordi that mode a d<?ep itnpicaaioo upoo bu 
youtljful mind : 'Thac child will gtow up to be a faaioii* maa. 
Hit life will Iw very lahonoui and fixtremelr ngitmt«), and ht 
will always meet with opposition/ The prophecy waa faifilled 
to ihr Irlirr. Ni> onr evrr workpd with mor^ fi^verith a«d 
in^efiant ardour than tbji mastrr, who, in tbir wnnb oi ThfO- 
jkltilif 8i1vffstnf, bad * thi- lun in hu hciid and a ihundvrttm io 
tiiA bfthrt, and who in the course of forty ycara voundad Um cadt* 
^cuuui of human emotiuii-' A [Hiri ami philojM^plMrr by naUiR, 
Ddaeroix waa intJmauily »a>ocia(ed with G<<orf;« Sand atti 
many other lead;n^ ipirita of th<^ jgo, while hi» own letian aid 
r«e^nt]y-puhlitbed journals r«v«al bia wide knowledge of litcB*- 
ture and rrmArkabi<' powcra of tuind. The T^ifo of bu alt 
induded tulijecu frum Bible Biory, from claMi«»]-tttdui>al 
biftlory ; (^plaodca from the poema of Dantn and GoMh«B «f 
Sbatiiuprjirr^ and Ftyron ; nrf^nflB from OrJ^nu) life, Arftbltorv 
and Aiffcrian women. Bui whether the llcaili of MatiJk* 
Pallf^ro or ihe Kniry of llie Crusadprv intft Constsntinopk* mi 
bia theme, whether he painted a PietiL for aome parish chorc^ 
or rcpr«e:ited iJic Tiiumpb cif Ap^iUn on thn nailing of tii' 
ijnirrv, tli« «ubi«ct wai bandied in the waxo original i*^ 
dramatic iiinnner. Huhi^na wat iho god of hi* ndoratloBt udi 
like the great Flcrmisb matl^r, hn took ddight in ricfa colixr 

awi 



J 




t puuon anO niuv<rme(it. Bui, »s l!ic 

foretold, IE wn* hi« fxte iVougboat hit 

lt£e to ttir up tlic ftcrccst &Di[iia>iuc», * No work ol bt»,^ 

vril^t Thnii-, ' fniln) tn rail foTib denlVnin^ lii'iwb, cittses, nnrl 

mfuriMUnl o^QtriTcrs)'.' His cucmu^* bcapcd iniurioui cptthcU 

ipivn hiiB, ami tljrleil hiiii iLi- ruiirnvny iVtxn Cfiiir4?n1{>n. But 

t^uu^b all he fttoiKl tirni nh A ritt^k. ^Vhoa tJiJ> Dinrcior of Mno 

Arts objetleil tu tlip nmlfuity <>f bU Sfirriflnapalnf, h<r n^plimt 

Uiftt thitt i«iio]« world wuuld nut prevent kim Irom SL-cinj;; thin;;* 

lA Lifl ovrn v«j, IIU pictures nerv tiJiuixWU fii^in llie Salon, 

Add h« wa» cluvm to lupport himacif hy book-iliuaUDtioii. 

ruilunalelv UU iriccKi Tliiura cloud by him, aiul at liis lUggca- 

tion Orlactoix was cniplti^c<! to {j4>c!Of:ito ibp CliAuiWr of 

Depotifs, Aod oftcrnatils tbc Librnrj of the Luxembourg nod 

tb* GttUifig o{ » It.ill in tbo Louvre. It wan uol, hotvcviT. until 

tUrir-fiw ot kU works vrcic biougbt together in ibc lilxlubition 

of I06A ib&t ibe patnter'i true (feniuft wa^ mngnjceil, ftnd he 

iTfts at Icn^lb cJcctod % tnetDbct of ibo InatiUtc, n-hicb for forty 

^rnT« bail clninl it* doorK iipnn him. Th« frcscnn vrbich be? 

poioted in tbe cburch of St, SLiipioc during tbe la»t yehn ot bit 

iHe jbow no ugna nf ffiiUng pinviTS, u[id pnnr llint neitlier ft^ 

oov ill'beaJtb bnd been abli? to qacnch the fiTc of the mon'i ic>al, 

TbiT gtvai livril of Di-]uc[4jU »ji» Inifre** tbe aMol of David*s 

puplla, who bccoinoainombfirof tb<^ In«titut4r in IdSd, and Uved 

uU the aye of cigbtj-scTcn, boaourcd At tlir: Xriloi i>( Fri?ncb art 

■nd tba 1aj£ of thv old ClaiHiciili. WbiJ? be rxEuUed David oc 

0»e Grat of modern aitiaU and folluwttl bun Ici bia cult of ibe 

anliqD?, Itif^ct bad a profound admiration for the Cinntie-centa 

tDAsteo, above ail for Kophacl, whom ht- took for bi* model, 

and wboai!:' motjv^t h^i fn^qLifntljr borrowed. Aa IVIarroix 

iuautcd on colour, 10 in the cya of lagtt* drawinff was tbe 

wbtdfi of Art. 'Ah! la forme, la ftinne^ cVit tout!' wAi bii 

cry. And it it ihit fine draught man* liip which ba« xiiLdc bim 

ibn link bfrtwrc^n tbc obi sduio] and tbr nrw, ntifl roininnndi ibrt 

tupcct of BO tnodurn a tnoAlrr at D<:;;ai^ His fame tc day rcAts 

^^■Mj- 4>n Ehac ma<i(rrpiri:ir nf purr- iiui-^ * Ln Sjiiinn' palntrd 

^IH*n h« waj( atready •cvcnt^-cix vcafE of age, and on the 

W aOmiraljlB ciayun paiutlu^t of hht uo^il^xiijximries, wbicb betray 

' th» unoonacioEu ttrain of rvaJum lo bi* nfttore. Bat tbct Iatm 

(%aTaae« vbicb for man/ yc»n occupied ihc plncc of honour in 

tW Saloti Itfuve u« cold, mid make us wonder that ]>iciare« to 

Stable la conocptioti tnvl «o bard and iiioui>Loiiou4 in colour 

thoaJd ever have been preferred to Delaeroit's ^rent drnmns of 

QUDifta lifc< And jct, when we saiv logn^a' Murtyrdom of 

■ O, Sycnphorlcn, from the {'athndml of Amun, banging at<tr by 

I tide 



J 



M^ Modtrn French An. 

«i*!p wich bk rWaVt Batilp of Taillffhnutg in thi- Fikibttioi«( 
ItSHU, tKc oniratt bi?iwccn the trnrkt of tbc*? odoc Unev 
anlagonttla wa« tnticli len inailLril lliaii might liave bn 
9XpACt<fJ. Titnc )ias «oftcfi<r<t thn foifrci adH niodi5vd thr 
flirerencci iLal wcic fiirEn(?r!v so evident, a^il wo ifcrr lurprilti 
TO find ccrlAin {xiints of reB»[n bianco, common no donbt b 
^vorka of iIr' sumr pftiud, in Lhc-»« jpiclurct p&iolcil bj ^ 
cbief* of tbe contending ractionc. 

lo lUe midst of lh« tierce struggle Utac Oivldod Cbuticntt 
anit Romonticiiu, a third acbi^ol tnrAng up, wbkk, «tandint 
h*lf*wfty between thr two, becume known hy tbe term Jmit- 
tvilipi/, ^^ nicknfiiTio horrcwpfi from h »p<vrh mxdt^ by Loau 
Fhilippc ftnd applied to wrdiocrr work of every dcscrtptM 
The Ir^ndtn)! rr-pn^setiFMivei of thic irhool wen- Atv Sehtirr 
ftfid PauI DdoTOcbe. both of wbom mJopicd tlio conventioflftl 
%iy\t oS Ingres^ tinged wilhn dietp nnd ntrloilnuDdtioanniLnief^i 
whicU won tbo «u1frAge« of the middle clua and pnn-ed a ihorl 
4fki1 cjisy rnnd In populsTifj", rhrap twn -irTtBta enjoytJ a 
ile^e of renown during tbeir lifetime Ibat vrx* out nf ail pra- 
purlion to their merit, but posterity hut lev^prsed ibc renlkr, 
And a truor tiandard of criliei«m ho* condemned tho«e dt- 
fjcienciei <if tnsle and colour which ejierci^ed ao iMncdid as 
inlliifnce on contemporary art. 

Meanwhile, A grenlBucceM attended lUeelTorla oftbeRocaantic 
mntien in Another direeiion, Orcnmiit and IVIneroix b>d 
opened the East and founded the school of French Orientali*t« 
in whirh ^Ta^Thar. and From^nf&n w^r^ (o aiiatn such hiffb 
'lisiinctinn. J~Jeneefar1h Allien and Mot»Cco became for lac 
Romnntir iclLmd whnt Italy h:id been for ilie Clastic paintCTX 
and the followers of ]>f<1acr»Jx foiin<l a coni^enial cEif-me io ibr 
gtowing ilctf^s nnd rich htirx of Kaitern Tands, Rnt thfre wu 
<tne claM of lubjeet which HomanticiBta and ClbsticisU ti.\ik$ 
agreed to banish. Tljoir cje» wcrp diifted hi (Ijeir own tonat^ 
diaie Birrruundtngs, and the actual life of the day never arfOie*! 
to ihcm worthy of a place id art, DelnciciJi bimtctf, boM 
innovator aa be ws>, eonfetsed that ^H bja avrnpathiea were wjlb 
the past and that the present was hateful to htiu» while W 
fr-nnkly dedared realism to be ihe antipodet of an. The giii> 
battle of the age was fought in another field, and tl U the g^ 
of the FoninvnebWu Tnndarape-pninters that by lluir main 
are was brought bnck fsce to face with nature. 

1(1 thc< spring of 1824, tbe jear in wbir-b Delacroix*! Manartr 
of Scio appeared at the Salon, Constables liny Wain, and » 
few other Undactapea by [)oning;[on nnd Copley Firlding, «» 
exhibited in Puns. Thoia pictures, closely studied iiom 

ntivi^ 



niCoTf, and iliicctly upptiKcI to ihr Ei